A Small Molecule ?2 Integrin Agonist Improves Chronic Kidney Allograft Survival by Reducing Leukocyte Recruitment and Accompanying Vasculopathy.
ABSTRACT: Kidney allograft rejection is associated with infiltration of inflammatory CD11b+ leukocytes. A CD11b agonist leukadherin-1 (LA1) increases leukocyte adhesion, preventing their transmigration and tissue recruitment in vivo. Here, we test the extent to which LA1-mediated activation of CD11b/CD18 enhances kidney allograft survival in a mouse model of fully MHC-mismatched orthotopic kidney transplantation, where C57BL/6J (H-2(b)) recipients received kidney allografts from Balb/c mice (H-2(d)). Isograft control recipients received a kidney from a littermate. Control isograft and allograft recipients were treated daily with cyclosporine (CsA) for 2?weeks, while the test group received CsA therapy and daily LA1 injections during week 1 and alternate days during weeks 2-8. LA1 treatment reduced interstitial leukocyte infiltration in the allograft, reduced neointimal hyperplasia and glomerular damage, and prolonged graft survival from 48.5% (CsA only) to 100% (CsA and LA1) on day 60. Serum creatinine levels showed significantly improved kidney function in LA1-treated mice compared to CsA-treated allograft controls [0.52?±?0.18?mg/dL vs 0.24?±?0.07?mg/dL (n?=?5), respectively]. Furthermore, combination therapy reduced macrophage infiltration and increased the frequency of FoxP3?+ Tregs in the allograft. These findings indicate a crucial role for CD11b/CD18 in the control of leukocyte migration to the transplanted kidney and identify integrin agonist LA1 as a novel potential therapeutic agent for kidney transplantation.
Project description:Integrin CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte migration and immune functions. Leukadherin-1 (LA1) is a small molecule agonist that enhances CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion to its ligand ICAM-1. Here, we used single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the biophysical mechanism by which LA1-activated CD11b/CD18 mediates leukocyte adhesion. Between the two distinct populations of CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 complex that participate in cell adhesion, the cytoskeleton(CSK)-anchored elastic elements and the membrane tethers, we found that LA1 enhanced binding of CD11b/CD18 on K562 cells to ICAM-1 via the formation of long membrane tethers, whereas Mn(2+) additionally increased ICAM-1 binding via CSK-anchored bonds. LA1 activated wild-type and LFA1(-/-) neutrophils also showed longer detachment distances and time from ICAM-1-coated atomic force microscopy tips, but significantly lower detachment force, as compared to the Mn(2+)-activated cells, confirming that LA1 primarily increased membrane-tether bonds to enhance CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 binding, whereas Mn(2+) induced additional CSK-anchored bond formation. The results suggest that the two types of agonists differentially activate integrins and couple them to the cellular machinery, providing what we feel are new insights into signal mechanotransduction by such agents.
Project description:Although short-term outcomes in kidney transplantation have improved dramatically, long-term survival remains a major challenge. A key component of long-term, chronic allograft injury in solid organ transplants is arteriosclerosis characterized by vascular neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation. Establishing a model of this disorder would provide a unique tool not only to identify mechanisms of disease but also to test potential therapeutics for late graft injury. To this end, we utilized a mouse orthotopic renal transplant model in which C57BL/6J (H-2b) recipients were given either a kidney allograft from a completely mismatched Balb/cJ mouse (H-2d) or an isograft from a littermate. A unilateral nephrectomy was performed at the time of transplant followed by a contralateral nephrectomy on post-transplant day 7. Recipients were treated with daily cyclosporine subcutaneously for 14 days and then studied 8 and 12 weeks post transplantation. Renal function was significantly worse in allograft compared with isograft recipients. Moreover, the allografts had significantly more advanced tubulointerstitial fibrosis and profound vascular disease characterized by perivascular leukocytic infiltration and neointimal hyperplasia affecting the intrarenal blood vessels. Thus, we describe a feasible and reproducible murine model of intrarenal transplant arteriosclerosis that is useful to study allograft vasculopathy.
Project description:The integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1), which is a heterodimer of the ?(M) (CD11b) and ?(2) (CD18) subunits, is critical for leukocyte adhesion and migration and for immune functions. Blocking integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion, although beneficial in experimental models, has had limited success in treating inflammatory diseases in humans. Here, we used an alternative strategy of inhibiting leukocyte recruitment by activating CD11b/CD18 with small-molecule agonists, which we term leukadherins. These compounds increased the extent of CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion of transfected cells and of primary human and mouse neutrophils, which resulted in decreased chemotaxis and transendothelial migration. Leukadherins also decreased leukocyte recruitment and reduced arterial narrowing after injury in rats. Moreover, compared to a known integrin antagonist, leukadherins better preserved kidney function in a mouse model of experimental nephritis. Leukadherins inhibited leukocyte recruitment by increasing leukocyte adhesion to the inflamed endothelium, which was reversed with a blocking antibody. Thus, we propose that pharmacological activation of CD11b/CD18 offers an alternative therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.
Project description:ß2 integrin receptors consist of an alpha subunit (CD11a-CD11d) and CD18 as the common beta subunit, and are differentially expressed by leukocytes. ß2 integrins are required for cell-cell interaction, transendothelial migration, uptake of opsonized pathogens, and cell signaling processes. Functional loss of CD18-termed leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1)-results in an immunocompromised state characterized by frequent occurrence of severe infections. In immunosuppressed individuals Aspergillus fumigatus is a frequent cause of invasive pulmonary fungal infection, and often occurs in patients suffering from LAD1. Here, we asked for the importance of CD11b/CD18 also termed MAC-1 which is required for phagocytosis of opsonized A. fumigatus conidia by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) for control of pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. We show that CD11b-/- mice infected with A. fumigatus were unaffected in long term survival, similar to wild type (WT) mice. However, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed 1 day after infection revealed a higher lung infiltration of PMN in case of infected CD11b-/- mice than observed for WT mice. BAL derived from infected CD11b-/- mice also contained a higher amount of leukocyte-attracting CCL5 chemokine, but lower amounts of proinflammatory innate cytokines. In accordance, lung tissue of A. fumigatus infected CD11b-/- mice was characterized by lower cellular inflammation, and a higher fungal burden. In agreement, CD11b-/-PMN exerted lower phagocytic activity on serum-opsonized A. fumigatus conidia than WT PMN in vitro. Our study shows that MAC-1 is required for effective clearance of A. fumigatus by infiltrating PMN, and the establishment of an inflammatory microenvironment in infected lung. Enhanced infiltration of CD11b-/- PMN may serve to compensate impaired PMN function.
Project description:Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is rapidly produced by damaged nephron epithelia and is one of the most promising new markers of renal injury, delayed graft function and acute allograft rejection (AR); however, the functional importance of Lcn2 in renal transplantation is largely unknown. To understand the role of Lcn2 in renal AR, kidneys from Balb/c mice were transplanted into C57Bl/6 mice and vice versa and analyzed for morphological and physiological outcomes of AR at posttransplantation days 3, 5, and 7. The allografts showed a steady increase in intensity of interstitial infiltration, tubulitis and periarterial aggregation of lymphocytes associated with a substantial elevation in serum levels of creatinine, urea and Lcn2. Perioperative administration of recombinant Lcn2:siderophore:Fe complex (rLcn2) to recipients resulted in functional and morphological amelioration of the allograft at day 7 almost as efficiently as daily immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). No significant differences were observed in various donor-recipient combinations (C57Bl/6 wild-type and Lcn2(-/-) , Balb/c donors and recipients). Histochemical analyses of the allografts showed reduced cell death in recipients treated with rLcn2 or CsA. These results demonstrate that Lcn2 plays an important role in reducing the extent of kidney AR and indicate the therapeutic potential of Lcn2 in transplantation.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are suggested to be immune modulators because of their therapeutic potential in transplantation. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of autologous MSCs for preventing graft rejection after allogeneic rat islet transplantation. We assessed the ability of MSCs to elicit an antiproliferative response in alloreactive lymphocytes and tested the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs in allogeneic islet transplantation. In islet allotransplantation, injection of autologous MSCs or a subtherapeutic dose of cyclosporine A (CsA; 5 mg/kg) alone did not prolong allograft survival. However, graft survival was attained for >100 d in 33% of autologous MSC-plus-CsA-treated recipients, indicating that graft acceptance was achieved in a subgroup of allograft recipients. Splenocytes from autologous MSC-plus-CsA-treated rats exhibited a reduced mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)-proliferative response to donor stimulators and increased interleukin (IL)-10 release. Interestingly, after excluding host CD11b(+) cells, splenic T cells from autologous MSC-plus-CsA-treated rats did not produce IL-10 or did not inhibit proliferative responses under the same conditions. The use of autologous MSC-plus-CsA downregulated immune responses, inducing donor-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inducing antiinflammatory cytokine production, especially that of IL-10, during the early posttransplantation period. T-regulatory cells made a contribution at a later phase. In conclusion, the combined use of autologous MSCs and low-dose CsA exerted a synergistic immunosuppressive effect in an islet allograft model, suggesting a role for autologous MSCs as an immune modulator.
Project description:Studies using Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats identified specific quantitative trait loci that predispose animals to hypertension-associated albuminuria and kidney injury. We explored the hypothesis that kidney-specific expression of the transcription factor Ets-1, located within one of these loci on chromosome 8, mediates glomerular injury in SS hypertension. During the first week on a high-salt diet, SS rats and SS rats with only one functioning Ets-1 gene (ES rats) demonstrated similar increases in BP. However, serum creatinine concentration, albuminuria, and glomerular expression of ETS-1 and two ETS-1 targets, MCP-1 and MMP2, did not increase as substantially in ES rats as in SS rats. Mean BP subsequently increased further in SS rats and remained higher than that of ES rats for the rest of the study. After 4 weeks of high-salt intake, ES rats still showed a lower mean serum creatinine concentration and less albuminuria, as well as less histologic evidence of glomerular injury and kidney fibrosis, than SS rats did. To investigate the specific contribution of renal Ets-1, we transplanted kidneys from ES or SS rats into salt-resistant SS-Chr 13BN/McwiCrl (SS-13BN) rats. Within 10 days on a high-salt diet, BP increased similarly in ES and SS allograft recipients, becoming significantly higher than the BP of control isograft recipients. However, mean serum creatinine concentration and albuminuria remained lower in ES allograft recipients than in SS allograft recipients at 2 weeks, and ES allografts showed less glomerular injury and interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, reduced renal expression of ETS-1 prevented hypertension-associated kidney injury in SS rats.
Project description:Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high-throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique.
Project description:The myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) adapter protein is an important mediator of kidney allograft rejection, yet the precise role of MyD88 signaling in directing the host immune response toward the development of kidney allograft rejection remains unclear. Using a stringent mouse model of allogeneic kidney transplantation, we demonstrated that acute allograft rejection occurred equally in MyD88-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and MyD88(-/-) recipients. However, MyD88 deficiency resulted in spontaneous diminution of graft infiltrating effector cells, including CD11b(-)Gr-1(+) cells and activated CD8 T cells, as well as subsequent restoration of near-normal renal graft function, leading to long-term kidney allograft acceptance. Compared with T cells from WT recipients, T cells from MyD88(-/-) recipients failed to mount a robust recall response upon donor antigen restimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures ex vivo. Notably, exogenous IL-6 restored the proliferation rate of T cells, particularly CD8 T cells, from MyD88(-/-) recipients to the proliferation rate of cells from WT recipients. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) T cells exhibited diminished expression of chemokine receptors, specifically CCR4 and CXCR3, and the impaired ability to accumulate in the kidney allografts despite an otherwise MyD88-sufficient environment. These results provide a mechanism linking the lack of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in T cells to the effective control of the rejection response that results in spontaneous resolution of acute rejection and long-term graft protection.
Project description:Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI. Moreover, prophylactic inactivation of CD11b/CD18, using the orthosteric CD11b/CD18 inhibitor mAb107, improves microvascular perfusion and histopathology, reduces intrarenal pro-inflammatory mediators and salvages kidney function long term. These studies reveal an important early role of CD11b+ leukocytes in post-ischaemic kidney fibrosis and failure, and suggest a potential early therapeutic intervention to mitigate progression of ischaemic AKI to CKD in humans.