Substrate-induced changes in domain interaction of vacuolar H?-pyrophosphatase.
ABSTRACT: Single molecule atomic force microscopy (smAFM) was employed to unfold transmembrane domain interactions of a unique vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Vigna radiata. H(+)-Pyrophosphatase is a membrane-embedded homodimeric protein containing a single type of polypeptide and links PPi hydrolysis to proton translocation. Each subunit consists of 16 transmembrane domains with both ends facing the lumen side. In this investigation, H(+)-pyrophosphatase was reconstituted into the lipid bilayer in the same orientation for efficient fishing out of the membrane by smAFM. The reconstituted H(+)-pyrophosphatase in the lipid bilayer showed an authentically dimeric structure, and the size of each monomer was ?4 nm in length, ?2 nm in width, and ?1 nm in protrusion height. Upon extracting the H(+)-pyrophosphatase out of the membrane, force-distance curves containing 10 peaks were obtained and assigned to distinct domains. In the presence of pyrophosphate, phosphate, and imidodiphosphate, the numbers of interaction curves were altered to 7, 8, and 10, respectively, concomitantly with significant modification in force strength. The substrate-binding residues were further replaced to verify these domain changes upon substrate binding. A working model is accordingly proposed to show the interactions between transmembrane domains of H(+)-pyrophosphatase in the presence and absence of substrate and its analog.
Project description:Homodimeric proton-translocating pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase; EC 188.8.131.52) is indispensable for many organisms in maintaining organellar pH homeostasis. This unique proton pump couples the hydrolysis of PPi to proton translocation across the membrane. H(+)-PPase consists of 14-16 relatively hydrophobic transmembrane domains presumably for proton translocation and hydrophilic loops primarily embedding a catalytic site. Several highly conserved polar residues located at or near the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase are essential for proton pumping activity. In this investigation single molecule FRET was employed to dissect the action at the pathway entrance in homodimeric Clostridium tetani H(+)-PPase upon ligand binding. The presence of the substrate analog, imidodiphosphate mediated two sites at the pathway entrance moving toward each other. Moreover, single molecule FRET analyses after the mutation at the first proton-carrying residue (Arg-169) demonstrated that conformational changes at the entrance are conceivably essential for the initial step of H(+)-PPase proton translocation. A working model is accordingly proposed to illustrate the squeeze at the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase upon substrate binding.
Project description:During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca(2+)-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ?6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins.
Project description:Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes with purified lipid-anchored Nyv1p as the only protein. When these proteoliposomes were incubated with those bearing cognate Q-SNAREs, there was trans-SNARE complex assembly but, in accord with prior studies of the neuronal SNAREs, little lipid mixing. However, the addition of physiological fusion accessory proteins (HOPS, Sec17p, and Sec18p) allows lipid-anchored Nyv1p to support fusion, suggesting that trans-SNARE complex function is not limited to force transduction across the bilayers through the transmembrane domains.
Project description:A vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (EC 184.108.40.206) that catalyses PP(i) hydrolysis and the electrogenic translocation of protons from the cytosol to the vacuole lumen, was purified from etiolated hypocotyls of mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L.). Group-specific modification was used to identify a carboxylic residue involved in the inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. Carbodi-imides, such as N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide, and Woodward's reagent K caused a progressive decline in the enzymic activity of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of labelling of the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase by [(14)C]DCCD determined that DCCD modifies one carboxylic residue per subunit of the enzyme. Protection studies suggest that the DCCD-reactive carboxylic residue resides at or near the substrate-binding site. Furthermore, peptide mapping analysis reveals that Asp(283), located in the putative loop V of a tentative topological model of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase on the cytosolic side, was labelled by radioactive [(14)C]DCCD. Cytosolic loop V contains both DCCD-sensitive Asp(283) and a conserved motif sequence, rendering it a candidate for the catalytic site of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. A topological picture of the active domain of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase is tentatively proposed.
Project description:In this work the two interconvertible forms of inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) of Streptococcus faecalis were shown to differ in kinetics. The highly active form of the enzyme was more sensitive to the changes in the Mg2+ concentration, and thus also more sensitive to the inhibition caused by ATP, which competes with PPi for the chelation of Mg2+ ions. We have previously described a kinetic model for the less-active form of S. faecalis inorganic pyrophosphatase [Lahti & Jokinen (1985) Biochemistry 24, 3526-3530]. The kinetic model of the highly active enzyme form is proposed to be a modification of the model of the less-active form in which enzyme activation by free Mg2+ is necessary for the reaction to occur. In this model the enzyme exists in two states, referred to as R- and T-states. In the absence of ligands the enzyme is in the T-state. R-state, i.e. the catalytically active state, exists only in the presence of free Mg2+. Mg1PPi2- is the primary substrate, and free pyrophosphate is a weak inhibitor that cannot serve as a substrate for the highly active form of S. faecalis inorganic pyrophosphatase. This model closely resembles that previously presented for yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux pump important in multidrug resistance of cancer cells and in determining drug pharmacokinetics. Pgp is a prototype ATP-binding cassette transporter with two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP. Conformational changes at the NBDs (the Pgp engines) lead to changes across Pgp transmembrane domains that result in substrate translocation. According to current alternating access models (substrate-binding pocket accessible only to one side of the membrane at a time), binding of ATP promotes NBD dimerization, resulting in external accessibility of the drug-binding site (outward-facing, closed NBD conformation), and ATP hydrolysis leads to dissociation of the NBDs with the subsequent return of the accessibility of the binding site to the cytoplasmic side (inward-facing, open NBD conformation). However, previous work has not investigated these events under near-physiological conditions in a lipid bilayer and in the presence of transport substrate. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to measure the distances between the two Pgp NBDs. Pgp was labeled with LRET probes, reconstituted in lipid nanodiscs, and the distance between the NBDs was measured at 37 °C. In the presence of verapamil, a substrate that activates ATP hydrolysis, the NBDs of Pgp reconstituted in nanodiscs were never far apart during the hydrolysis cycle, and we never observed the NBD-NBD distances of tens of Å that have previously been reported. However, we found two main conformations that coexist in a dynamic equilibrium under all conditions studied. Our observations highlight the importance of performing studies of efflux pumps under near-physiological conditions, in a lipid bilayer, at 37 °C, and during substrate-stimulated hydrolysis.
Project description:Membrane proteins act as a central interface between the extracellular environment and the intracellular response and as such represent one of the most important classes of drug targets. The characterization of the molecular properties of integral membrane proteins, such as topology and interdomain interaction, is key to a fundamental understanding of their function. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force spectroscopy have the intrinsic capabilities of investigating these properties in a near-native setting. However, atomic force spectroscopy of membrane proteins is traditionally carried out in a crystalline setup. Alternatively, model membrane systems, such as tethered bilayer membranes, have been developed for surface-dependent techniques. While these setups can provide a more native environment, data analysis may be complicated by the normally found statistical orientation of the reconstituted protein in the model membrane. We have developed a model membrane system that enables the study of membrane proteins in a defined orientation by single-molecule force spectroscopy. Our approach is demonstrated using cell-free expressed bacteriorhodopsin coupled to a quartz glass surface in a defined orientation through a protein anchor and reconstituted inside an artificial membrane system. This approach offers an effective way to study membrane proteins in a planar lipid bilayer. It can be easily transferred to all membrane proteins that possess a suitable tag and can be reconstituted into a lipid bilayer. In this respect, we anticipate that this technique may contribute important information on structure, topology, and intra- and intermolecular interactions of other seven-transmembrane helical receptors.
Project description:Bacterial ATP binding cassette (ABC) exporters fulfill a wide variety of transmembrane transport roles and are homologous to the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. Recent X-ray structures of the exporters MsbA and Sav1866 have begun to describe the conformational changes that accompany the ABC transport cycle. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of MsbA reconstituted into a lipid bilayer. Using ATPase inhibitors, we captured three nucleotide transition states of the transporter that were subsequently reconstituted into helical arrays. The enzyme-substrate complex (trapped by ADP-aluminum fluoride or AMPPNP) crystallized in a different helical lattice than the enzyme-product complex (trapped by ADP-vanadate). Approximately 20A resolution maps were calculated for each state and revealed MsbA to be a dimer with a large channel between the membrane spanning domains, similar to the outward facing crystal structures of MsbA and Sav1866. This suggests that while there are likely structural differences between the nucleotide transition states, membrane embedded MsbA remains in an outward facing conformation while nucleotide is bound.
Project description:MUC1 and other membrane-associated mucins harbor long, up to 1 ?m, extended highly glycosylated mucin domains and sea urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin (SEA) domains situated on their extracellular parts. These mucins line luminal tracts and organs, and are anchored to the apical cell membrane by a transmembrane domain. The SEA domain is highly conserved and undergoes a molecular strain-dependent autocatalytic cleavage during folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, a process required for apical plasma membrane expression. To date, no specific function has been designated for the SEA domain. Here, we constructed a recombinant protein consisting of three SEA domains in tandem and used force spectroscopy to assess the dissociation force required to unfold individual, folded SEA domains. Force-distance curves revealed three peaks, each representing unfolding of a single SEA domain. Fitting the observed unfolding events to a worm-like chain model yielded an average contour length of 32 nm per SEA domain. Analysis of forces applied on the recombinant protein revealed an average unfolding force of 168 pN for each SEA domain at a loading rate of 25 nN·s(-1). Thus, the SEA domain may act as a breaking point that can dissociate before the plasma membrane is breached when mechanical forces are applied to cell surfaces.
Project description:Inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase; EC 18.104.22.168) was purified from pig scapula cartilage by fractionation with N-cetylpyridinium chloride and (NH4)2SO4, followed by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Enzyme preparations of high purity were obtained, with specific activities (100-400 units/mg) higher than those previously described for mammalian pyrophosphatases. The enzyme activity could be separated into several subfractions on ion-exchange columns.