Postoperative chemoradiotherapy vs. preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced (operable) gastric cancer: clarifying the role and technique of radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Worldwide, almost one million new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed in 2012, making it the fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. The current tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system represents a consensus between the East and the West, and will serve as a strong foundation upon which to build future evidence. In this review article, we first discuss the definition and optimal surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer, followed by the general principles when considering a pre vs. postoperative radiotherapy (RT) strategy. We then provide a synthesis of the existing randomized trial evidence in an attempt clarify the role of pre and postoperative RT in the management of locally advanced gastric cancer.A Medline search 1966-Jun 2014 was undertaken. Randomized trials including patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (using established definitions), comparing RT [with or without chemotherapy (CT)], with surgery alone or other treatment modalities were included. Systematic reviews and evidence based practice guidelines that include this body of primary studies were preferentially discussed. Medline, Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrial.gov, Guidelines Clearinghouse were searched.Sixteen randomized trials, three systematic reviews and one practice guideline were included as the evidence base. In this group of studies, two reports compared postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with surgery alone. Driven predominantly by INT0116, they established the role of postoperative CRT to provide a survival benefit in a patient group that underwent surgery with predominantly D0-1 dissections. Preoperative RT (four studies) showed promise for survival benefit but the risks of bias in these trials were high. Postoperative CRT compared with CT alone (eight trials) showed no survival benefit with the addition of radiation although some evidence of activity can be observed with improved local regional control.Technical expertise to enable the delivery of high quality RT to complex target volumes as is required in gastric cancer, and surgical standards to ensure the delivery of high quality surgery, have matured in recent years. Six trials with large sample sizes are currently ongoing to better define the role of preoperative CRT (two studies) and postoperative CRT (four studies), when used in conjunction with high quality surgery and RT, and contemporary CT regimens. The moderate likelihood of locoregional recurrences and the favorable therapeutic ratio with using RT preoperatively in other settings, provide optimism that preoperative CRT would have a pivotal role to play in locally advanced gastric cancer. Active accrual into ongoing trials is strongly encouraged.
Project description:Purpose:Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) used to be recommended as a standard of care for locally advanced gastric cancer, this suggestion has been strongly challenged recently. However, clear evidence regarding the optimization of radiotherapy is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of preoperative CRT versus that of postoperative CRT for resectable or potentially resectable gastric cancer. Methods:From January 2005 to December 2017, patients with clinical stage III/IVa (i.e., T3-4aN+M0 or T4bNxM0) locally advanced gastric cancer were retrospectively identified. Survival after preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT was assessed by unadjusted, propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weight (IPTW) analyses. Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses were performed, and toxicity and patterns of failure were also investigated. Results:The median follow-up time was 32.5 months. A total of 82 and 463 patients were enrolled in the preoperative and postoperative CRT groups, respectively. After propensity score matching, preoperative CRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared with postoperative CRT (3-year OS: 72.6 vs. 54.4%, log-rank p = 0.0021; 3-year DFS: 61.7 vs. 44.7%, log-rank p = 0.002). The unadjusted and IPTW analyses yielded consistent results. A complete pathologic response was achieved in 13.4% of the preoperative CRT group. Although the incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse effects and surgical complications were similar between the two groups, significantly fewer patients experienced treatment interruptions or dose reductions due to toxic effects in the preoperative CRT setting than in the postoperative CRT setting (3.7 vs. 10.6%, p = 0.049). Conclusions:Compared with postoperative CRT, preoperative CRT was associated with improved OS and DFS, superior treatment compliance and comparable surgical complications for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Our findings provide important evidence for the optimal combination modalities of surgery and CRT in the absence of randomized clinical data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prognosis of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma is still dismal. There are no standard treatment strategies for these patients. Multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach is a good choice for making a high-quality decision. Generally, MDT will recommend these patients to receive preoperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiation based on all kinds of treatment guidelines. However, the preferred preoperative treatment is still not established. In order to solve this problem, we carry out this randomized phase III trial of comparing preoperative chemoradiation with preoperative chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. METHODS:Eligible patients with locally advanced gastric cancer or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma are randomized to receive preoperative chemoradiation or preoperative chemotherapy, followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. In the preoperative chemoradiation arm (Pre-CRT), patients receive two cycles of S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX), chemoradiation, then followed by surgery and three more cycles of SOX chemotherapy. In the preoperative chemotherapy arm (Pre-CT), patients receive three cycles of SOX, following surgery three more cycles of SOX are given. The primary endpoint of this trial is to verify that preoperative chemoradiation could significantly improve the 3-year disease free survival (DFS) of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma compared to preoperative chemotherapy. DISCUSSION:The results from this trial will provide important information about whether preoperative chemoradiation could improve survival compared to preoperative chemotherapy among patients with locally advanced gastric cancer or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03013010. First posted January 6, 2017.
Project description:Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care.
Project description:Purpose:To identify the potential therapeutic role of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced (stage II and stage III) gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC). Materials and methods:Patients with locally advanced gastric SRC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database between 2004 and 2012 were included in our study. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional models were performed, and survival curves were generated to evaluate the prognostic effect of postoperative RT and surgery alone on SRC patients. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to avoid selection bias among the study cohorts. Results:We found that patients with postoperative RT had better probability of survival compared with those who did not receive RT (overall survival [OS], P<0.001; cancer-specific survival [CSS], P<0.001). After PSM, analysis of both overall and CSS showed that patients who underwent postoperative RT had better prognosis than those receiving surgery alone in the matched cohort (OS, P=0.00079; CSS, P=0.0036). Multivariate Cox proportional model indicated that postoperative RT had better effect on prognosis compared with surgery alone with respect to both overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.716; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.590-0.87; P=0.001) and CSS (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.570-0.890; P=0.003). Conclusions:Postoperative RT had better prognosis compared with surgery alone for both overall and CSS for patients with locally advanced gastric SRC.
Project description:Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy. There are some controversies of the role, target volumes and dose of radiotherapy (RT) in the literature over decades. The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities, and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer. The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) trial, intergroup trial (INT 0116) enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone. Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT. The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) used a lower RT dose of 41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result. Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists. Pre-operative and post-operative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control. Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia, but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT. The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation. On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include: ZTOG1201 trial (a phase II trial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT) and QUINTETT (a phase III trial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis). These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.
Project description:The standard treatment for locally advanced gastric cancer differs across the world. In western countries, perioperative chemotherapy or postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy are the preferred treatment options, whereas in Asia, D2 gastrectomy followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is standard. In Japan, adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 is the standard treatment for pStage II gastric cancer, whereas adjuvant chemotherapy with a doublet regimen is preferred for pStage III gastric cancer. The efficacy of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy using S-1 plus cisplatin, has been investigated in selected patients with expected poor survival outcomes. To expand the indications for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a clinical trial investigating the efficacy of preoperative S-1 plus oxaliplatin in patients with cStage III (cT3-4N1-3) gastric cancer (JCOG1509) is ongoing in Japan. The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to cytotoxic chemotherapy also seems promising and is being investigated in international randomized clinical trials. Although we have to await the final results of these studies, preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a promising treatment strategy and likely to become standard treatment for locally advanced gastric cancer in Japan.
Project description:The efficacy and safety of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for advanced esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma are still in question, and the prognosis of these patients is poor.We systematically searched electronic databases from January 1990 to July 2014. The primary outcome was overall survival. The secondary outcomes were a R0 resection rate, positive rate of lymph node metastasis, postoperative recurrence rate, pathological complete response (pCR) rate and perioperative mortality. Overall survival was measured with a hazard ratio (HR), while other secondary outcomes were measured with an odds ratio (OR).Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 1085 patients were searched and, of these, 869 had adenocarcinoma. Patients receiving preoperative CRT had a longer overall survival (HR 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.88), higher likelihood of R0 resection and greater chance of pCR, while they had a lower likelihood of lymph node metastasis and postoperative recurrence. The difference of perioperative mortality was non-significant. In addition, the result of the comparison between preoperative CRT and preoperative chemotherapy (CT) in two RCTs was non-significant.Patients with resectable esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma can gain a survival advantage from preoperative CRT. However, limited to the number of RCTs, the effect of adding radiotherapy to preoperative CT separately is still uncertain and more high-quality prospective trials are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric carcinoma, a highly common malignant tumor, is treated mainly by surgery. Meanwhile, radiotherapy is attracting increased attention as a crucial locoregional therapy. However, the application of radiotherapy in gastric carcinoma is still limited and radiation standards remain debatable. MAIN BODY:The use of preoperative radiotherapy for treating gastroesophageal junction cancer has advanced. However, additional phase III clinical trials are needed to further verify the therapeutic value of preoperative radiotherapy for gastric cancer. Patients with D1 or D1 plus lymphadenectomy can benefit from postoperative radiotherapy obviously, and postoperative radiotherapy may be effective for patients with D2 lymphadenectomy with a high N stage. The target volume delineation of preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy should be based on clinical experience and the characteristics of lymphatic drainage. CONCLUSIONS:With the advancement of radiotherapy technology, preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy are becoming increasingly accepted as important auxiliary treatments for gastric cancer.
Project description:Patients with locally advanced gastric cancer benefit from combined pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, although fewer than 50% could receive postoperative chemotherapy. We examined the value of purely preoperative chemotherapy in a phase III trial with strict preoperative staging and surgical resection guidelines.Patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction (AEG II and III) were randomly assigned to preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery or to surgery alone. To detect with 80% power an improvement in median survival from 17 months with surgery alone to 24 months with neoadjuvant, 282 events were required.This trial was stopped for poor accrual after 144 patients were randomly assigned (72:72); 52.8% patients had tumors located in the proximal third of the stomach, including AEG type II and III. The International Union Against Cancer R0 resection rate was 81.9% after neoadjuvant chemotherapy as compared with 66.7% with surgery alone (P = .036). The surgery-only group had more lymph node metastases than the neoadjuvant group (76.5% v 61.4%; P = .018). Postoperative complications were more frequent in the neoadjuvant arm (27.1% v 16.2%; P = .09). After a median follow-up of 4.4 years and 67 deaths, a survival benefit could not be shown (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.35; P = .466).This trial showed a significantly increased R0 resection rate but failed to demonstrate a survival benefit. Possible explanations are low statistical power, a high rate of proximal gastric cancer including AEG and/or a better outcome than expected after radical surgery alone due to the high quality of surgery with resections of regional lymph nodes outside the perigastic area (celiac trunc, hepatic ligament, lymph node at a. lienalis; D2).
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the efficacy and safety of Transcatheter rectal arterial chemoembolization with oxaliplatin and S-1 concurrent chemoradiotherapy as neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS:This s a prospective, monocentric, non-randomized clinical study, a total of 95 patients were enrolled and assigned to two groups: an investigational group (n?=?50) receiving transcatheter rectal arterial chemoembolization (TRACE) with oxaliplatin and preoperative radiotherapy plus S-1 concurrent chemotherapy (NATRACE-CRT), followed by surgery, a control group (n?=?45) receiving standard fluorouracil-based combined modality treatment, consisting of preoperative radiotherapy plus capecitabine based chemotherapy (NA-CRT), followed by surgery. The primary endpoint was postoperative pathological regression rate which evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG) according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) standard, and the secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and toxicity, as well as surgical complications, and postoperative tumor downstaging. RESULTS:Compared with NA-CRT group (17.78% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.2-29.4)), the TRG0 was 30% (95% CI 16.8-43.2) in the NATRACE-CRT group (P?=?0.231). The TRG0?+?1 rate was 60% (95% CI: 45.9-74.1) and 33.33% (95% CI: 19-47.7) in NATRACE-CRT group and NA-CRT group, respectively (P?=?0.013). The ORR of the NATRACE-CRT group was 84% and that of the NA-CRT group was 66.67% (p?=?0.058). Incidence of preoperative toxic side effects and surgical complications was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION:TRACE with oxaliplatin plus concurrent S-1 chemoradiotherapy as a neoadjuvant therapy provided better pathological remission rate versus standard treatment with a similar safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03601156.