Subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum: report of case treated with endoscopic rhinoplasty.
ABSTRACT: Introduction Hemangiomas are vascular malformations, with slow blood flow, that can occur in any part on the body. They are more common in women and, predominantly, are isolated lesions. The malformation does not spontaneously regress. Subcutaneous hemangioma is a rare variant with an aggressive growth pattern that sometimes recurs after excision. Objective Case report of a subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum treated with endoscopic rhinoplasty. Case Report A 27-year-old woman had a fibroelastic tumor mass in the midline of the nasal dorsum, which was pulsatile; she had obstruction and nasal congestion with associated rhinorrhea, with evolution and worsening over the previous 2 years. Computed tomography showed a tumor demarcated in the nasal dorsum without evidence of intracranial communication. Endoscopic rhinoplasty with septoplasty and associated paranasal sinus sinusectomy was performed without arteriography embolization, sclerotherapy, or laser. Pathologic diagnosis showed cavernous hemangioma. Postoperative follow-up shows no recurrence at 3 years. Discussion This case presented with atypical features, thus making the diagnosis a challenge. Imaging studies were required to confirm the vascular nature of the tumor. Excisional biopsy is the procedure of choice for pathologic examination. Subcutaneous hemangiomas never involute and always need treatment. The surgical approach is exceptional because there was no preoperative diagnosis. In addition, the closed technique provided best aesthetic results in this case. Conclusion Endoscopic rhinoplasty is suitable for nasal dorsum tumor resection and has superior aesthetic result to open techniques.
Project description:Hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor during childhood. However, cases of giant hemangiomas determining deformities in the craniofacial region are not reported frequently. Craniofacial giant hemangiomas are challenging for surgeons since they cause aesthetic and/or functional problems and may be associated with important complications such as ulcerations, infections and bleedings. The present report is aimed at describing a rare case of craniofacial asymmetry in a 30-year-old patient, secondary to an extensive mass whose growth deformed the scalp in the frontal-parietal-temporal region. The lesion was completely surgically removed with good aesthetic results, and the anatomopathological examination revealed that it was a cavernous hemangioma.
Project description:The aesthetic nasal proportions have played a significant role in rhinoplasty practice. On the other hand, psychological variables also play a crucial role in rhinoplasty. It is of paramount importance for facial plastic surgeons to consider both sides to achieve a more satisfactory outcome. The present study aimed to compare aesthetic nasal proportions between primary rhinoplasty candidates and a demographically matched control group to determine whether patients having rhinoplasty have different aesthetic nasal proportions compared with healthy adults who are not interested in rhinoplasty. Sixty patients having rhinoplasty were selected consecutively from a surgical clinic. A control group ( n = 60) with the same demographic characteristics was selected. Photographs were taken using a digital camera on a fixed zoom setting. All images were captured at a distance of 1.5 m. Frontal and right lateral views were used to compare nasolabial angle, nasofrontal angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, intercanthal distance, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio. Independent t tests were used for comparisons. Independent t tests verified that nasofrontal angle, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio were significantly different between the two groups ( p < 0.01). Effect sizes ranged between 0.11 and 0.69. Aesthetic proportions were not significantly different in four factors. Nasolabial angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, and intercanthal distance were not different ( p > 0.05). Four major aesthetic nasal proportions were statistically similar in a group of patients having rhinoplasty and a control group with no interest in rhinoplasty. Surprisingly, the patients having rhinoplasty showed a mean width-to-length ratio closer to aesthetic ideal. Therefore, applying for rhinoplasty may have strong psychological reasons (e.g., body dysmorphic symptoms) compared with realistic aesthetic appraisals.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hemangioma is a benign tumor made up of blood vessels and typically occurs as a slightly elevated purplish or reddish area of skin. Hemangioma is mostly found superficially; subcutaneous hemangioma in the nasal dorsum is rare. CASE PRESENTATION:In West Nusa Tenggara Regional Hospital, the authors found two cases of subcutaneous hemangioma in patients of very different ages. The first patient was a 2-year-old Sasak girl, and the other was a 40-year-old Sasak man. The pediatric patient was treated with an elliptical approach, whereas the adult patient was treated with lateral rhinotomy extended by an elliptical approach to remove the hemangioma and ligate the feeding arteries. After surgery, the adult patient was followed up for 5?months, whereas the pediatric patient was followed up for 3?months. The results for both patients were good, with minimal scar formation. CONCLUSION:Despite the limitations of technology and human resources in a remote area of Indonesia, the surgical approach used in these cases produced good outcomes for both patients.
Project description:A cavernous hemangioma, well-known as vascular malformation, is present at birth, grows proportionately with the child, and does not undergo regression. Although a cavernous hemangioma has well-defined histopathological characteristics, its origin and formation remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the cellular heterogeneity of cavernous hemangioma using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). The main contribution of the present study is the discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that cause cavernous hemangioma formation and may be abnormally or incompletely differentiated from epiblast stem cells. EGFR inhibitors are the potential drugs to treat cavernous hemangiomas. Other new findings include the responsive ACKR1 positive endothelial cell (ACKR1+EC) and BTNL9 positive endothelial cell (BTNL9+EC) and the BTNL9-caused checkpoint blockade enhanced by the CXCL12-CXCR4 signalling. The activated CD8+T and NK cells may highly express CCL5 for their infiltration in cavernous hemangiomas, independent on the tumor cell-derived CCL5-IFNG-CXCL9 pathway. The plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) function for anti-tumour as CD8+T cells in cavernous hemangiomas. The oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and scavenger receptors (SRs) may play an important role in the immune responses in the tumour microenvironment of cavernous hemangiomas. Notably, we propose that oxLDL induces the oxLDL-OLR1-NLRP3 pathway in M1-like macrophages via the over-expression of OLR1, whereas oxLDL induces the oxLDL-SRs-C1q pathway in M2-like macrophages via the over-expression of many SRs (LILRB5, etc) except OLR1. The highly expressed EREG in M1-like macrophages and the highly expressed EGFR in MSCs may cause MSC proliferation and the tumour progression. The present study revealed the origin of cavernous hemangiomas and reported the marker genes, cell types and molecular mechanisms, which are associated with the origin, formation, progression, diagnosis or therapy of cavernous hemangiomas. Our discoveries facilitate the development of gold standards for molecular diagnosis and effective drugs for treatment, and enrich the fundamental knowledge in the research field of immune, cancer and even cell biology. Overall design: The lesion was obtained as tumour tissue from a 6-year-old patient diagnosed with cavernous hemangioma. Using tissue in the center of the lesion, scRNA-seq libraries (10x Genomics, USA) were constructed and sequenced to produce ~163 Gbp of raw data. After data cleaning and quality control, a total of 10,784 cells and 22,023 genes were identified to produce a 22,010×10,784 matrix and an 13×10,784 matrix, representing the expression levels of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cavernous hemangioma are the most common benign lesions of the orbit. Their surgical resection is still challenging and several surgical approaches have been proposed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with a cavernous hemangioma of the orbital apex, which was diagnosed incidentally. The hemangioma was extraconal and involved mainly the medial orbital apex; it also extended to the pterygoid fossa, to the middle fossa, to the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. The surgical resection was performed by a pure endoscopic transphenoidal, transmaxillary, transethmoidal approach, achieving a total removal. The patient had a transient and incomplete paresis of the VI cranial nerve on the left side and did not experience other postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic endonasal approach proved successful in the management of this case and it should be considered in the surgical management of extraconal orbital apex lesions with medial or inferior extension.
Project description:Even a mild degree of postoperative deviation of the nasal dorsum and/or columella from the midsagittal plane could be enough to displease a patient. Postoperative judgment of the nasal dorsum and the columellar positioning on the midsagittal plane is somewhat of a subjective decision determined by the surgeons' naked eye. Most innovations tend to evolve from necessities. The risk and reality of misjudging the positioning for both the nasal dorsum and/or the columella led me to develop a device for the objective measurement of the midsagittal axis of the nose. I have called it the rhinoplasty setsquare device. This device is made from 316 quality stainless chrome. It is completely sterilizable. It consists of 4 main parts. During the finishing touches of the operation, the correct placement of the rhinoplasty setsquare device will provide the surgeon with an objective decision that will help make the positioning of the nasal dorsum and the columella more precise. When I conducted my research on literature and device catalogs for possible devices designed for measurement in rhinoplasty operations, I ran into devices such as the Castroviejo caliper, calibrated lateral crus stabilizer, Joseph measuring rod, and Thorpe Marchac caliper. All of them are unique in their function and design. However, as far as I could see, there is no device similar in form and function to my rhinoplasty setsquare device. I have been using this device for 8 months for all my rhinoplasty patients. I am more confident now in my postoperative results due to its objective measurement of the midsagittal line.
Project description:Current augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasties use auto logous tissue grafts or synthetic bioinert materials to repair nasal trauma or attain an aesthetic shape. Autologous grafts are associated with donor-site trauma and morbidity. Synthetic materials are widely used but often yield an unnatural appearance and are prone to infection or dislocation. There is an acute clinical need for the generation of native tissues to serve as rhinoplasty grafts without the undesirable features that are associated with autologous grafts or current synthetic materials.Bioactive scaffolds were developed that not only recruited cells in the nasal dorsum in vivo, but also induced chondrogenesis of the recruited cells. Bilayered scaffolds were fabricated with alginate-containing gelatin microspheres encapsulating cytokines atop a porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) base. Microspheres were fabricated to contain recombinant human transforming growth factor-?3 at doses of 200, 500, or 1000 ng, with phosphate-buffered saline-loaded microspheres used as a control. A rat model of augmentation rhinoplasty was created by implanting scaffolds atop the native nasal cartilage surface that was scored to induce cell migration. Tissue formation and chondrogenesis in the scaffolds were evaluated by image analysis and histologic staining with hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, Verhoeff elastic-van Geison, and aggrecan immunohistochemistry.Sustained release of increasing doses of transforming growth factor-?3 for up to the tested 10 weeks promoted orthotopic cartilage-like tissue formation in a dose-dependent manner.These findings represent the first attempt to engineer cartilage tissue by cell homing for rhinoplasty, and could potentially serve as an alternative material for augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasty.
Project description:Introduction:Intramedullary lesions and tumors are generally accessed by a posterior approach. However, if the lesion is located on the ventral side of the spinal cord, a posterior resection with myelotomy poses technical difficulties. We report two cases of complete resection of a cervical ventral intramedullary cavernous hemangioma using an anterior approach. Case Report:Two cases of intramedullary cavernous hemangioma located on the ventral side of the spinal cord were successfully treated by total resection with anterior cervical corpectomy followed by anterior spinal fusion with an autologous bone strut from the iliac crest. In both cases, the postoperative course was uneventful, and there was no neurological deficit. Bony fusion was achieved, and there was no recurrence or complication during a follow-up period of at least two years. Conclusions:Here, we describe an anterior approach for total resection of cavernous hemangiomas on the ventral side of the cervical spinal cord. Outcomes were stable two years after the operations. Although the method should be assessed with more patients and a longer follow-up time, this anterior approach may be useful for the radical resection of a vascular malformation or tumor.
Project description:Primary neoplasms of the small intestine are relatively rare in all age groups, accounting for about 5 % of all gastrointestinal tumors 1. Cavernous hemangiomas of the small intestine are also rare, can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively 2. We present a patient who presented with melena and iron deficiency anemia, for whom wireless capsule endoscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy facilitated the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma.