Two classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies within a single lineage directed to the high-mannose patch of HIV envelope.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED:The high-mannose patch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) during natural infection relatively frequently, and consequently, this region has become a major target of vaccine design. However, it has also become clear that antibody recognition of the region is complex due, at least in part, to variability in neighboring loops and glycans critical to the epitopes. bnAbs against this region have some shared features and some distinguishing features that are crucial to understand in order to design optimal immunogens that can induce different classes of bnAbs against this region. Here, we compare two branches of a single antibody lineage, in which all members recognize the high-mannose patch. One branch (prototype bnAb PGT128) has a 6-amino-acid insertion in CDRH2 that is crucial for broad neutralization. Antibodies in this branch appear to favor a glycan site at N332 on gp120, and somatic hypermutation is required to accommodate the neighboring V1 loop glycans and glycan heterogeneity. The other branch (prototype bnAb PGT130) lacks the CDRH2 insertion. Antibodies in this branch are noticeably effective at neutralizing viruses with an alternate N334 glycan site but are less able to accommodate glycan heterogeneity. We identify a new somatic variant within this branch that is predominantly dependent on N334. The crystal structure of PGT130 offers insight into differences from PGT128. We conclude that different immunogens may be required to elicit bnAbs that have the optimal characteristics of the two branches of the lineage described. IMPORTANCE:Development of an HIV vaccine is of vital importance for prevention of new infections, and it is thought that elicitation of HIV bnAbs will be an important component of an effective vaccine. Increasingly, bnAbs that bind to the cluster of high-mannose glycans on the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120, are being highlighted as important templates for vaccine design. In particular, bnAbs from IAVI donor 36 (PGT125 to PGT131) have been shown to be extremely broad and potent. Combination of these bnAbs enhanced neutralization breadth considerably, suggesting that an optimal immunogen should elicit several antibodies from this family. Here we study the evolution of this antibody family to inform immunogen design. We identify two classes of bnAbs that differ in their recognition of the high-mannose patch and show that different immunogens may be required to elicit these different classes.
Project description:The N332 high-mannose glycan on the HIV-1 gp120 V3-loop is the target of many bNAbs. About 17% HIV isolates carry the N332 to N334 mutation, but the antibody recognition of the N334 N-glycan and its immunogenicity are not well characterized. Here we report the chemoenzymatic synthesis, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of the V3 N334 glycopeptides from HIV-1 A244 gp120, a key component in the partially successful Thai clinical trials. We found that synthetic V3 glycopeptide carrying a N334 high-mannose glycan could be recognized by bNAb PGT128 and PGT126 but not by 10-1074. Rabbit immunization with the synthetic three-component A244 glycopeptide immunogen elicited substantial glycan-dependent antibodies with broad reactivity to various HIV-1 gp120/gp140 carrying N332 or N334 glycosylation sites. These results indicated that the N334 site is vulnerable and the A244 V3 glycopeptide represents a valuable immunogen for further HIV-1 vaccine studies.
Project description:Up to ?20% of HIV-infected individuals eventually develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), and many of these antibodies (?40%) target a region of dense high-mannose glycosylation on gp120 of the HIV envelope protein, known as the "high-mannose patch" (HMP). Thus, there have been numerous attempts to develop glycoconjugate vaccine immunogens that structurally mimic the HMP and might elicit bnAbs targeting this conserved neutralization epitope. Herein, we report on the immunogenicity of glycopeptides, designed by in vitro selection, that bind tightly to anti-HMP antibody 2G12. By analyzing the fine carbohydrate specificity of rabbit antibodies elicited by these immunogens, we found that they differ from some natural human bnAbs, such as 2G12 and PGT128, in that they bind primarily to the core structures within the glycan, rather than to the Man?1 ? 2Man termini (2G12) or to the whole glycan (PGT128). Antibody specificity for the glycan core may result from extensive serum mannosidase trimming of the immunogen in the vaccinated animals. This finding has broad implications for vaccine design aiming to target glycan-dependent HIV neutralizing antibodies.
Project description:A class of new glycan-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies represented by PGT121, 10-1074, and PGT128 has recently been discovered that targets specific N-glycans and the peptide region around the V3 domain. However, the glycan specificity and fine epitopes of these bNAbs remain to be further defined. We report here a systematic chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous V3 glycopeptides derived from the HIV-1 JR-FL strain carrying defined N-glycans at N332, N301, and N295 sites. Antibody binding studies revealed that both the nature and site of glycosylation in the context of the V3 domain were critical for high-affinity binding. It was found that antibody PGT128 exhibited specificity for high-mannose N-glycan with glycosylation site promiscuity, PGT121 showed binding specificity for glycopeptide carrying a sialylated N-glycan at N301 site, and 10-1074 was specific for glycopeptide carrying a high-mannose N-glycan at N332 site. The synthesis and binding studies permit a detailed assessment of the glycan specificity and the requirement of peptide in the context of antibody-antigen recognition. The identified glycopeptides can be used as potential templates for HIV vaccine design.
Project description:The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125-130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Project description:The HIV-1 envelope gp160 glycoprotein (Env) is a trimer of gp120 and gp41 heterodimers that mediates cell entry and is the primary target of the humoral immune response. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 have revealed multiple epitopes or sites of vulnerability, but mapping of most of these sites is incomplete owing to a paucity of structural information on the full epitope in the context of the Env trimer. Here, a crystal structure of the soluble BG505 SOSIP gp140 trimer at 4.6 Å resolution with the bNAbs 8ANC195 and PGT128 reveals additional interactions in comparison to previous antibody-gp120 structures. For 8ANC195, in addition to previously documented interactions with gp120, a substantial interface with gp41 is now elucidated that includes extensive interactions with the N637 glycan. Surprisingly, removal of the N637 glycan did not impact 8ANC195 affinity, suggesting that the antibody has evolved to accommodate this glycan without loss of binding energy. PGT128 indirectly affects the N262 glycan by a domino effect, in which PGT128 binds to the N301 glycan, which in turn interacts with and repositions the N262 glycan, thereby illustrating the important role of neighboring glycans on epitope conformation and stability. Comparisons with other Env trimer and gp120 structures support an induced conformation for glycan N262, suggesting that the glycan shield is allosterically modified upon PGT128 binding. These complete epitopes of two broadly neutralizing antibodies on the Env trimer can now be exploited for HIV-1 vaccine design.
Project description:The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is extensively modified with host-derived N-linked glycans. The high density of glycosylation on the viral spike limits enzymatic processing, resulting in numerous underprocessed oligomannose-type glycans. This extensive glycosylation not only shields conserved regions of the protein from the immune system but also acts as a target for anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). In response to the host immune system, the HIV glycan shield is constantly evolving through mutations affecting both the positions and numbers of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGSs). Here, using longitudinal Env sequences from a clade C-infected individual (CAP256), we measured the impact of the shifting glycan shield during HIV infection on the abundance of oligomannose-type glycans. By analyzing the intrinsic mannose patch from a panel of recombinant CAP256 gp120s displaying high protein sequence variability and changes in PNGS number and positioning, we show that the intrinsic mannose patch persists throughout the course of HIV infection and correlates with the number of PNGSs. This effect of the glycan density on the processing state was also supported by the analysis of a cross-clade panel of recombinant gp120 glycoproteins. Together, these observations underscore the importance of glycan clustering for the generation of carbohydrate epitopes for anti-HIV bnAbs. The persistence of the intrinsic mannose patch over the course of HIV infection further highlights this epitope as an important target for HIV vaccine strategies.<h4>Importance</h4>Development of an HIV vaccine is critical for control of the HIV pandemic, and elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is likely to be a key component of a successful vaccine response. The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is covered in an array of host-derived N-linked glycans often referred to as the glycan shield. This glycan shield is a target for many of the recently isolated anti-HIV bnAbs and is therefore under constant pressure from the host immune system, leading to changes in both glycan site frequency and location. This study aimed to determine whether these genetic changes impacted the eventual processing of glycans on the HIV Env and the susceptibility of the virus to neutralization. We show that despite this variation in glycan site positioning and frequency over the course of HIV infection, the mannose patch is a conserved feature throughout, making it a stable target for HIV vaccine design.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Much of the efforts to develop a vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have focused on the design of recombinant mimics of the viral attachment glycoprotein (Env). The leading immunogens exhibit native-like antigenic properties and are being investigated for their ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Understanding the relative abundance of glycans at particular glycosylation sites on these immunogens is important as most bNAbs have evolved to recognize or evade the dense coat of glycans that masks much of the protein surface. Understanding the glycan structures on candidate immunogens enables triaging between native-like conformations and immunogens lacking key structural features as steric constraints limit glycan processing. The sensitivity of the processing state of a particular glycan to its structural environment has led to the need for quantitative glycan profiling and site-specific analysis to probe the structural integrity of immunogens. Areas covered: We review analytical methodologies for HIV immunogen evaluation and discuss how these studies have led to a greater understanding of the structural constraints that control the glycosylation state of the HIV attachment and fusion spike. Expert commentary: Total composition and site-specific glycosylation profiling are emerging as standard methods in the evaluation of Env-based immunogen candidates.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) that target the high-mannose patch centered around the glycan at position 332 on HIV Env are promising vaccine leads and therapeutic candidates because they effectively protect against mucosal SHIV challenge and strongly suppress SHIV viremia in established infection in macaque models. However, these antibodies demonstrate varying degrees of dependency on the N332 glycan site, and the origins of their neutralization breadth are not always obvious. By measuring neutralization on an extended range of glycan site viral variants, we found that some bnmAbs can use alternate N-linked glycans in the absence of the N332 glycan site and therefore neutralize a substantial number of viruses lacking the site. Furthermore, many of the antibodies can neutralize viruses in which the N332 glycan site is shifted to the 334 position. Finally, we found that a combination of three antibody families that target the high-mannose patch can lead to 99% neutralization coverage of a large panel of viruses containing the N332/N334 glycan site and up to 66% coverage for viruses that lack the N332/N334 glycan site. The results indicate that a diverse response against the high-mannose patch may provide near-equivalent coverage as a combination of bnmAbs targeting multiple epitopes. Additionally, the ability of some bnmAbs to use other N-linked glycan sites can help counter neutralization escape mediated by shifting of glycosylation sites. Overall, this work highlights the importance of promiscuous glycan binding properties in bnmAbs to the high-mannose patch for optimal antiviral activity in either protective or therapeutic modalities.
Project description:The gp120/gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is highly glycosylated, with up to 50% of its mass consisting of N-linked glycans. This dense carbohydrate coat has emerged as a promising vaccine target, with its glycans acting as epitopes for a number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Characterizing the glycan structures present on native HIV-1 Env is thus a critical goal for the design of Env immunogens. In this study, we used a complementary, multistep approach involving ion mobility mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to comprehensively characterize the glycan structures present on HIV-1 gp120 produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The capacity of different expression systems, including pseudoviral particles and recombinant cell surface trimers, to reproduce native-like glycosylation was then assessed. A population of oligomannose glycans on gp120 was reproduced across all expression systems, supporting this as an intrinsic property of Env that can be targeted for vaccine design. In contrast, Env produced in HEK 293T cells failed to accurately reproduce the highly processed complex-type glycan structures observed on PBMC-derived gp120, and in particular the precise linkage of sialic acid residues that cap these glycans. Finally, we show that unlike for gp120, the glycans decorating gp41 are mostly complex-type sugars, consistent with the glycan specificity of bnAbs that target this region. These findings provide insights into the glycosylation of native and recombinant HIV-1 Env and can be used to inform strategies for immunogen design and preparation.Development of an HIV vaccine is desperately needed to control new infections, and elicitation of HIV bnAbs will likely be an important component of an effective vaccine. Increasingly, HIV bnAbs are being identified that bind to the N-linked glycans coating the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, highlighting them as important targets for vaccine design. It is therefore important to characterize the glycan structures present on native, virion-associated gp120 and gp41 for development of vaccines that accurately mimic native-Env glycosylation. In this study, we used a number of analytical techniques to precisely study the structures of both the oligomannose and complex-type glycans present on native Env to provide a reference for determining the ability of potential HIV immunogens to accurately replicate the glycosylation pattern on these native structures.
Project description:HIV-1 vaccine design is informed by structural studies elucidating mechanisms by which broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize and/or accommodate N-glycans on the trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env). Variability in high-mannose and complex-type Env glycoforms leads to heterogeneity that usually precludes visualization of the native glycan shield. We present 3.5-Å- and 3.9-Å-resolution crystal structures of the HIV-1 Env trimer with fully processed and native glycosylation, revealing a glycan shield of high-mannose and complex-type N-glycans, which we used to define complete epitopes of two bNAbs. Env trimer was complexed with 10-1074 (against the V3-loop) and IOMA, a new CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody. Although IOMA derives from VH1-2*02, the germline gene of CD4bs-targeting VRC01-class bNAbs, its light chain lacks the short CDRL3 that defines VRC01-class bNAbs. Thus IOMA resembles 8ANC131-class/VH1-46-derived CD4bs bNAbs, which have normal-length CDRL3s. The existence of bNAbs that combine features of VRC01-class and 8ANC131-class antibodies has implications for immunization strategies targeting VRC01-like bNAbs.