Development and validation of an rDNA operon based primer walking strategy applicable to de novo bacterial genome finishing.
ABSTRACT: Advances in sequencing technology have drastically increased the depth and feasibility of bacterial genome sequencing. However, little information is available that details the specific techniques and procedures employed during genome sequencing despite the large numbers of published genomes. Shotgun approaches employed by second-generation sequencing platforms has necessitated the development of robust bioinformatics tools for in silico assembly, and complete assembly is limited by the presence of repetitive DNA sequences and multi-copy operons. Typically, re-sequencing with multiple platforms and laborious, targeted Sanger sequencing are employed to finish a draft bacterial genome. Here we describe a novel strategy based on the identification and targeted sequencing of repetitive rDNA operons to expedite bacterial genome assembly and finishing. Our strategy was validated by finishing the genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa strain CR1, a bacterium with potential in sustainable agriculture and bio-based processes. An analysis of the 38 contigs contained in the P. polymyxa strain CR1 draft genome revealed 12 repetitive rDNA operons with varied intragenic and flanking regions of variable length, unanimously located at contig boundaries and within contig gaps. These highly similar but not identical rDNA operons were experimentally verified and sequenced simultaneously with multiple, specially designed primer sets. This approach also identified and corrected significant sequence rearrangement generated during the initial in silico assembly of sequencing reads. Our approach reduces the required effort associated with blind primer walking for contig assembly, increasing both the speed and feasibility of genome finishing. Our study further reinforces the notion that repetitive DNA elements are major limiting factors for genome finishing. Moreover, we provided a step-by-step workflow for genome finishing, which may guide future bacterial genome finishing projects.
Project description:Most next-generation sequencing platforms permit acquisition of high-throughput DNA sequences, but the relatively short read length limits their use in genome assembly or finishing. Illumina has recently released a technology called Synthetic Long-Read Sequencing that can produce reads of unusual length, i.e., predominately around 10 Kb. However, a systematic assessment of their use in genome finishing and assembly is still lacking. We evaluate the promise and deficiency of the long reads in these aspects using isogenic C. elegans genome with no gap. First, the reads are highly accurate and capable of recovering most types of repetitive sequences. However, the presence of tandem repetitive sequences prevents pre-assembly of long reads in the relevant genomic region. Second, the reads are able to reliably detect missing but not extra sequences in the C. elegans genome. Third, the reads of smaller size are more capable of recovering repetitive sequences than those of bigger size. Fourth, at least 40 Kbp missing genomic sequences are recovered in the C. elegans genome using the long reads. Finally, an N50 contig size of at least 86 Kbp can be achieved with 24 × reads but with substantial mis-assembly errors, highlighting a need for novel assembly algorithm for the long reads.
Project description:Woodpeckers are found in nearly every part of the world and have been important for studies of biogeography, phylogeography, and macroecology. Woodpecker hybrid zones are often studied to understand the dynamics of introgression between bird species. Notably, woodpeckers are gaining attention for their enriched levels of transposable elements (TEs) relative to most other birds. This enrichment of TEs may have substantial effects on molecular evolution. However, comparative studies of woodpecker genomes are hindered by the fact that no high-contiguity genome exists for any woodpecker species. Using hybrid assembly methods combining long-read Oxford Nanopore and short-read Illumina sequencing data, we generated a highly contiguous genome assembly for the Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons). The final assembly is 1.31 Gb and comprises 441 contigs plus a full mitochondrial genome. Half of the assembly is represented by 28 contigs (contig L50), each of these contigs is at least 16 Mb in size (contig N50). High recovery (92.6%) of bird-specific BUSCO genes suggests our assembly is both relatively complete and relatively accurate. Over a quarter (25.8%) of the genome consists of repetitive elements, with 287 Mb (21.9%) of those elements assignable to the CR1 superfamily of transposable elements, the highest proportion of CR1 repeats reported for any bird genome to date. Our assembly should improve comparative studies of molecular evolution and genomics in woodpeckers and allies. Additionally, the sequencing and bioinformatic resources used to generate this assembly were relatively low-cost and should provide a direction for development of high-quality genomes for studies of animal biodiversity.
Project description:Here we report the complete genome sequence of the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa CR1 (accession no. CP006941), which consists of one circular chromosome of 6,024,666 bp with 5,283 coding sequences (CDS), 87 tRNAs, and 12 rRNA operons. Data presented will allow for further insights into the mechanisms underpinning agriculturally and industrially relevant processes.
Project description:This study characterized regions of DNA which remained unassembled by either PacBio and Illumina sequencing technologies for seven bacterial genomes. Two genomes were manually finished using bioinformatics and PCR/Sanger sequencing approaches and regions not assembled by automated software were analyzed. Gaps present within Illumina assemblies mostly correspond to repetitive DNA regions such as multiple rRNA operon sequences. PacBio gap sequences were evaluated for several properties such as GC content, read coverage, gap length, ability to form strong secondary structures, and corresponding annotations. Our hypothesis that strong secondary DNA structures blocked DNA polymerases and contributed to gap sequences was not accepted. PacBio assemblies had few limitations overall and gaps were explained as cumulative effect of lower than average sequence coverage and repetitive sequences at contig termini. An important aspect of the present study is the compilation of biological features that interfered with assembly and included active transposons, multiple plasmid sequences, phage DNA integration, and large sequence duplication. Our targeted genome finishing approach and systematic evaluation of the unassembled DNA will be useful for others looking to close, finish, and polish microbial genome sequences.
Project description:MOTIVATION: To assess the potential of different types of sequence data combined with de novo and hybrid assembly approaches to improve existing draft genome sequences. RESULTS: Illumina, 454 and PacBio sequencing technologies were used to generate de novo and hybrid genome assemblies for four different bacteria, which were assessed for quality using summary statistics (e.g. number of contigs, N50) and in silico evaluation tools. Differences in predictions of multiple copies of rDNA operons for each respective bacterium were evaluated by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and then the validated results were applied as an additional criterion to rank assemblies. In general, assemblies using longer PacBio reads were better able to resolve repetitive regions. In this study, the combination of Illumina and PacBio sequence data assembled through the ALLPATHS-LG algorithm gave the best summary statistics and most accurate rDNA operon number predictions. This study will aid others looking to improve existing draft genome assemblies. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: All assembly tools except CLC Genomics Workbench are freely available under GNU General Public License. CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Paired-tag sequencing approaches are commonly used for the analysis of genome structure. However, mammalian genomes have a complex organization with a variety of repetitive elements that complicate comprehensive genome-wide analyses.Here, we systematically assessed the utility of paired-end and mate-pair (MP) next-generation sequencing libraries with insert sizes ranging from 170 bp to 25 kb, for genome coverage and for improving scaffolding of a mammalian genome (Rattus norvegicus). Despite a lower library complexity, large insert MP libraries (20 or 25 kb) provided very high physical genome coverage and were found to efficiently span repeat elements in the genome. Medium-sized (5, 8 or 15 kb) MP libraries were much more efficient for genome structure analysis than the more commonly used shorter insert paired-end and 3 kb MP libraries. Furthermore, the combination of medium- and large insert libraries resulted in a 3-fold increase in N50 in scaffolding processes. Finally, we show that our data can be used to evaluate and improve contig order and orientation in the current rat reference genome assembly.We conclude that applying combinations of mate-pair libraries with insert sizes that match the distributions of repetitive elements improves contig scaffolding and can contribute to the finishing of draft genomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The availability of diverse second- and third-generation sequencing technologies enables the rapid determination of the sequences of bacterial genomes. However, identifying the sequencing technology most suitable for producing a finished genome with multiple chromosomes remains a challenge. We evaluated the abilities of the following three second-generation sequencers: Roche 454 GS Junior (GS Jr), Life Technologies Ion PGM (Ion PGM), and Illumina MiSeq (MiSeq) and a third-generation sequencer, the Pacific Biosciences RS sequencer (PacBio), by sequencing and assembling the genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which consists of a 5-Mb genome comprising two circular chromosomes. RESULTS: We sequenced the genome of V. parahaemolyticus with GS Jr, Ion PGM, MiSeq, and PacBio and performed de novo assembly with several genome assemblers. Although GS Jr generated the longest mean read length of 418 bp among the second-generation sequencers, the maximum contig length of the best assembly from GS Jr was 165 kbp, and the number of contigs was 309. Single runs of Ion PGM and MiSeq produced data of considerably greater sequencing coverage, 279× and 1,927×, respectively. The optimized result for Ion PGM contained 61 contigs assembled from reads of 77× coverage, and the longest contig was 895 kbp in size. Those for MiSeq were 34 contigs, 58×?coverage, and 733 kbp, respectively. These results suggest that higher coverage depth is unnecessary for a better assembly result. We observed that multiple rRNA coding regions were fragmented in the assemblies from the second-generation sequencers, whereas PacBio generated two exceptionally long contigs of 3,288,561 and 1,875,537 bps, each of which was from a single chromosome, with 73× coverage and mean read length 3,119 bp, allowing us to determine the absolute positions of all rRNA operons. CONCLUSIONS: PacBio outperformed the other sequencers in terms of the length of contigs and reconstructed the greatest portion of the genome, achieving a genome assembly of "finished grade" because of its long reads. It showed the potential to assemble more complex genomes with multiple chromosomes containing more repetitive sequences.
Project description:As part of our Asian seabass genome project, we are generating an inventory of repeat elements in the genome and transcriptome. The karyotype showed a diploid number of 2n = 24 chromosomes with a variable number of B-chromosomes. The transcriptome and genome of Asian seabass were searched for repetitive elements with experimental and bioinformatics tools. Six different types of repeats constituting 8-14% of the genome were characterized. Repetitive elements were clustered in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all chromosomes, but some of them were preferentially accumulated in pretelomeric and pericentromeric regions of several chromosomes pairs and have chromosomes specific arrangement. From the dispersed class of fish-specific non-LTR retrotransposon elements Rex1 and MAUI-like repeats were analyzed. They were wide-spread both in the genome and transcriptome, accumulated on the pericentromeric and peritelomeric areas of all chromosomes. Every analyzed repeat was represented in the Asian seabass transcriptome, some showed differential expression between the gonads. The other group of repeats analyzed belongs to the rRNA multigene family. FISH signal for 5S rDNA was located on a single pair of chromosomes, whereas that for 18S rDNA was found on two pairs. A BAC-derived contig containing rDNA was sequenced and assembled into a scaffold containing incomplete fragments of 18S rDNA. Their assembly and chromosomal position revealed that this part of Asian seabass genome is extremely rich in repeats containing evolutionarily conserved and novel sequences. In summary, transcriptome assemblies and cDNA data are suitable for the identification of repetitive DNA from unknown genomes and for comparative investigation of conserved elements between teleosts and other vertebrates.
Project description:Cot-based cloning and sequencing (CBCS) is a powerful tool for isolating and characterizing the various repetitive components of any genome, combining the established principles of DNA reassociation kinetics with high-throughput sequencing. CBCS was used to generate sequence libraries representing the high, middle, and low-copy fractions of the chicken genome. Sequencing high-copy DNA of chicken to about 2.7 x coverage of its estimated sequence complexity led to the initial identification of several new repeat families, which were then used for a survey of the newly released first draft of the complete chicken genome. The analysis provided insight into the diversity and biology of known repeat structures such as CR1 and CNM, for which only limited sequence data had previously been available. Cot sequence data also resulted in the identification of four novel repeats (Birddawg, Hitchcock, Kronos, and Soprano), two new subfamilies of CR1 repeats, and many elements absent from the chicken genome assembly. Multiple autonomous elements were found for a novel Mariner-like transposon, Galluhop, in addition to nonautonomous deletion derivatives. Phylogenetic analysis of the high-copy repeats CR1, Galluhop, and Birddawg provided insight into two distinct genome dispersion strategies. This study also exemplifies the power of the CBCS method to create representative databases for the repetitive fractions of genomes for which only limited sequence data is available.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristanus) is native to South Asia and is the national bird of India. Here we present a draft genome sequence of the male blue peacock using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore technology (ONT). RESULTS:ONT sequencing gave ?2.3-fold sequencing coverage, whereas Illumina generated 150-base pair paired-end sequence data at 284.6-fold coverage from 5 libraries. Subsequently, we generated a 0.915-gigabase pair de novo assembly of the peacock genome with a scaffold N50 of 0.23 megabase pairs (Mb). We predict that the peacock genome contains 23,153 protein-coding genes and 75.3 Mb (7.33%) of repetitive sequences. CONCLUSIONS:We report a high-quality assembly of the peacock genome using a hybrid approach of sequences generated by both Illumina and ONT. The long-read chemistry generated by ONT was useful for addressing challenges related to de novo assembly, particularly at regions containing repetitive sequences spanning longer than the read length, and which could not be resolved with only short-read-based assembly. Contig assembly of Illumina short reads gave an N50 of 1,639 bases, whereas with ONT, the N50 increased by >9-fold to 14,749 bases. The initial contig assembly based on Illumina sequencing reads alone gave 685,241 contigs. Further scaffolding on assembled contigs using both Illumina and ONT sequencing reads resulted in a final assembly of 15,025 super-scaffolds, with an N50 of ?0.23 Mb. Ninety-five percent of proteins predicted by homology matched with those in a public repository, verifying the completeness of our assembly. Like other phylogenetic studies of avian conserved genes, we found P. cristatus to be most closely related to Gallus gallus, followed by Meleagris gallopavo and Anas platyrhynchos. Compared with the recently published peacock genome assembly, the current, superior, hybrid assembly has greater sequencing depth, fewer non-ATGC sequences, and fewer scaffolds.