Intramolecular N-glycan/polypeptide interactions observed at multiple N-glycan remodeling steps through [(13)C,(15)N]-N-acetylglucosamine labeling of immunoglobulin G1.
ABSTRACT: Asparagine-linked (N) glycosylation is a common eukaryotic protein modification that affects protein folding, function, and stability through intramolecular interactions between N-glycan and polypeptide residues. Attempts to characterize the structure-activity relationship of each N-glycan are hindered by inherent properties of the glycoprotein, including glycan conformational and compositional heterogeneity. These limitations can be addressed by using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques following enzymatic glycan remodeling to simultaneously generate homogeneous glycoforms. However, widely applicable methods do not yet exist. To address this technological gap, immature glycoforms of the immunoglobulin G1 fragment crystallizable (Fc) were isolated in a homogeneous state and enzymatically remodeled with [(13)C,(15)N]-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). UDP-[(13)C,(15)N]GlcNAc was synthesized enzymatically in a one-pot reaction from [(13)C]glucose and [(15)N-amido]glutamine. Modifying Fc with recombinantly expressed glycosyltransferases (Gnt1 and Gnt2) and UDP-[(13)C,(15)N]GlcNAc resulted in complete glycoform conversion as judged by mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectra of the Gnt1 product, containing a single [(13)C,(15)N]GlcNAc residue on each N-glycan, showed that the N-glycan is stabilized through interactions with polypeptide residues. Similar spectra of homogeneous glycoforms, halted at different points along the N-glycan remodeling pathway, revealed the presence of an increased level of interaction between the N-glycan and polypeptide at each step, including mannose trimming, as the N-glycan was converted to a complex-type, biantennary form. Thus, conformational restriction increases as Fc N-glycan maturation proceeds. Gnt1 and Gnt2 catalyze fundamental reactions in the synthesis of every glycoprotein with a complex-type N-glycan; thus, the strategies presented herein can be applied to a broad range of glycoprotein studies.
Project description:Structurally well-defined IgG-Fc glycoforms are highly demanded for understanding the effects of glycosylation on an antibody's effector functions. We report in this paper chemoenzymatic synthesis and Fc? receptor binding of an array of homogeneous IgG-Fc glycoforms. The chemoenzymatic approach consists of the chemical synthesis of defined N-glycan oxazolines as donor substrates, the expression of the Fc domain in a CHO cell line in the presence of an ?-mannosidase inhibitor kifunensine, and an endoglycosidase-catalyzed glycosylation of the deglycosylated Fc domain (GlcNAc-Fc homodimer) with the synthetic glycan oxazolines. The enzyme from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) was found to be remarkably efficient to take various modified N-glycan core oxazolines, including the bisecting sugar-containing derivatives, for Fc glycosylation remodeling, resulting in the formation of the corresponding homogeneous Fc glycoforms. Nevertheless, neither Endo-A nor the Mucor hiemalis endoglycosidase mutants (EndoM-N175A and EndoM-N175Q) were able to transfer full-length complex-type N-glycan to the Fc domain, implicating the limitations of these two enzymes in Fc glycosylation remodeling. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies with the synthetic IgG-Fc glycoforms unambiguously proved that the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc moiety could significantly enhance the binding of Fc to Fc?RIIIa, the activating Fc? receptor, independent of Fc core-fucosylation. Interestingly, the Fc glycoforms carrying an unusual bisecting sugar moiety such as a mannose or a LacNAc moiety also demonstrated enhanced affinity to Fc?RIIIa. On the orther hand, the presence of a bisecting GlcNAc or core-fucosylation had little effect on the affinity of Fc to the inhibitory Fc? receptor, Fc?RIIb. Our experimental data also showed that the ?-linked mannose residues in the pentasaccharide Man3GlcNAc2 core was essential to maintain a high affinity of Fc to both Fc?RIIIa and Fc?RIIb. The synthetic homogeneous Fc glycoforms thus provide a useful tool for elucidating how a fine Fc N-glycan structure precisely affects the function of the Fc domain.
Project description:CD52 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycopeptide antigen found on sperm cells and human lymphocytes. Recent structural studies indicate that sperm-associated CD52 antigen carries both a complex type N-glycan and an O-glycan on the polypeptide backbone. To facilitate functional and immunological studies of distinct CD52 glycoforms, we report in this paper the first chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous CD52 glycoforms carrying both N- and O-glycans. The synthetic strategy consists of two key steps: monosaccharide primers GlcNAc and GalNAc were first installed at the pre-determined N- and O-glycosylation sites by a facile solid-phase peptide synthesis, and then the N- and O-glycans were extended by respective enzymatic glycosylations. It was found that the endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation allowed efficient attachment of an intact N-glycan in a single step at the N-glycosylation site, while the recombinant human T-synthase could independently extend the O-linked GalNAc to form the core 1 O-glycan. This chemoenzymatic approach is highly convergent and permits easy construction of various homogeneous CD52 glycoforms from a common polypeptide precursor. In addition, the introduction of a latent thiol group in the form of protected cysteamine at the C-terminus of the CD52 glycoforms will enable site-specific conjugation to a carrier protein to provide immunogens for generating CD52 glycoform-specific antibodies for functional studies.
Project description:The presence and precise structures of the glycans attached at the Fc domain of monoclonal antibodies play an important role in determining antibodies' effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement activation, and anti-inflammatory activity. This paper describes a novel approach for glycoengineering of human IgG1-Fc that combines high-yield expression of human IgG1-Fc in yeast and subsequent in vitro enzymatic glycosylation, using the endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation as the key reaction. Human IgG1-Fc was first overproduced in Pichia pastoris. Then the heterogeneous yeast glycans were removed by Endo-H treatment to give the GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc as a homodimer. Finally, selected homogeneous glycans were attached to the GlcNAc-primer in the IgG1-Fc through an endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation, using sugar oxazolines as the donor substrates. It was found that the enzymatic transglycosylation was efficient with native GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc homodimer without the need to denature the protein, and the reaction could proceed to completion to give homogeneous glycoforms of IgG1-Fc when an excess of oligosaccharide oxazolines was used as the donor substrates. The binding of the synthetic IgG1-Fc glycoforms to the FcgammaIIIa receptor was also investigated. This novel glycoengineering approach should be useful for providing various homogeneous, natural or synthetic glycoforms of IgG1-Fc for structure-function relationship studies, and for future clinical applications.
Project description:Human immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the most extensively glycosylated antibody isotype so glycans attached to the seven N-glycosites (NGS) in its Fab and Fc domains may modulate its functions. However, targeted modification of glycans in multiply glycosylated proteins remains a challenge. Here, we applied an in vivo approach that allows the manipulation of IgE N-glycans, using a trastuzumab equivalent IgE (HER2-IgE) as a model. Taking advantage of plant inherent features, i.e., synthesis of largely homogeneous complex N-glycans and susceptibility to glycan engineering, we generated targeted glycoforms of HER2-IgE largely resembling those found in serum IgE. Plant-derived HER2-IgE exhibited N-glycans terminating with GlcNAc, galactose or sialic acid, lacking, or carrying core fucose and xylose. We were able to not only modulate the five NGSs naturally decorated with complex N-glycans, but to also induce targeted glycosylation at the usually unoccupied NGS6, thus increasing the overall glycosylation content of HER2-IgE. Recombinant human cell-derived HER2-IgE exhibited large N-glycan heterogeneity. All HER2-IgE variants demonstrated glycosylation-independent binding to the target antigen and the high affinity receptor Fc?RI, and subsequent similar capacity to trigger mast cell degranulation. In contrast, binding to the low affinity receptor CD23 (Fc?RII) was modulated by the glycan profile, with increased binding to IgE variants with glycans terminating with GlcNAc residues. Here we offer an efficient in planta approach to generate defined glycoforms on multiply glycosylated IgE, allowing the precise exploration of glycosylation-dependent activities.
Project description:A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of chaperone-assisted protein quality control is often hampered by the lack of well-defined homogeneous glycoprotein probes. We describe here a highly convergent chemoenzymatic synthesis of the monoglucosylated glycoforms of bovine ribonuclease (RNase) as specific ligands of lectin-like chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) that are known to recognize the monoglucosylated high-mannose oligosaccharide component of glycoproteins in protein folding. The synthesis of a selectively modified glycoform Gal(1)Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-RNase was accomplished by chemical synthesis of a large N-glycan oxazoline and its subsequent enzymatic ligation to GlcNAc-RNase under the catalysis of a glycosynthase. Selective removal of the terminal galactose by a ?-galactosidase gave the Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-RNase glycoform in excellent yield. CD spectroscopic analysis and RNA-hydrolyzing assay indicated that the synthetic RNase glycoforms maintained essentially the same global conformations and were fully active as the natural bovine ribonuclease B. SPR binding studies revealed that the Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-RNase had high affinity to lectin CRT, while the synthetic Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-RNase glycoform and natural RNase B did not show CRT-binding activity. These results confirmed the essential role of the glucose moiety in the chaperone molecular recognition. Interestingly, the galactose-masked glycoform Gal(1)Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-RNase also showed significant affinity to lectin CRT, suggesting that a galactose ?-1,4-linked to the key glucose moiety does not significantly block the lectin binding. These synthetic homogeneous glycoprotein probes should be valuable for a detailed mechanistic study on how molecular chaperones work in concert to distinguish between misfolded and folded glycoproteins in the protein quality control cycle.
Project description:We investigated N-glycan processing of immunoglobulin G1 using the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CxMab), which has a glycosite in the Fab domain in addition to the conserved Fc glycosylation, as a reporter. Three GlcNAc (Gn) terminating bi-antennary glycoforms of CxMab differing in core fucosylation (?1,3- and ?1,6-linkage) were generated in a plant-based expression platform. These GnGn, GnGnF(3), and GnGnF(6) CxMab variants were subjected in vivo to further processing toward sialylation and GlcNAc diversification (bisected and branching structures). Mass spectrometry-based glycan analyses revealed efficient processing of Fab glycans toward envisaged structures. By contrast, Fc glycan processing largely depend on the presence of core fucose. A particularly strong support of glycan processing in the presence of plant-specific core ?1,3-fucose was observed. Consistently, molecular modeling suggests changes in the interactions of the Fc carbohydrate chain depending on the presence of core fucose, possibly changing the accessibility. Here, we provide data that reveal molecular mechanisms of glycan processing of IgG antibodies, which may have implications for the generation of glycan-engineered therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacies.
Project description:We have used hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry to characterize local backbone flexibility of 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris, 2 of which were prepared using subsequent in vitro enzymatic treatments. Progressively decreasing the size of the N-linked N297 oligosaccharide from high mannose (Man8-Man12), to Man5, to GlcNAc, to nonglycosylated N297Q resulted in progressive increases in backbone flexibility. Comparison of these results with recently published physicochemical stability and Fc? receptor binding data with the same set of glycoproteins provide improved insights into correlations between glycan structure and these pharmaceutical properties. Flexibility significantly increased upon glycan truncation in 2 potential aggregation-prone regions. In addition, a correlation was established between increased local backbone flexibility and increased deamidation at asparagine 315. Interestingly, the opposite trend was observed for oxidation of tryptophan 277 where faster oxidation correlated with decreased local backbone flexibility. Finally, a trend of increasing C'E glycopeptide loop flexibility with decreasing glycan size was observed that correlates with their Fc?RIIIa receptor binding properties. These well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms serve as a useful model system to identify physicochemical stability and local backbone flexibility data sets potentially discriminating between various IgG glycoforms for potential applicability to future comparability or biosimilarity assessments.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIF? prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts.
Project description:Glycosylation of the Fc region of IgG has a profound impact on the safety and clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. While the biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide attached to Asn297 of the Fc is essential for antibody effector functions, fucose and outer-arm sugars attached to the core heptasaccharide that generate structural heterogeneity (glycoforms) exhibit unique biological activities. Hence, efficient and quantitative glycan analysis techniques have been increasingly important for the development and quality control of therapeutic antibodies, and glycan profiles of the Fc are recognized as critical quality attributes. In the past decade our understanding of the influence of glycosylation on the structure/function of IgG-Fc has grown rapidly through X-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance studies, which provides possibilities for the design of novel antibody therapeutics. Furthermore, the chemoenzymatic glycoengineering approach using endoglycosidase-based glycosynthases may facilitate the development of homogeneous IgG glycoforms with desirable functionality as next-generation therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the Fc glycans are fertile ground for the improvement of the safety, functionality, and efficacy of therapeutic IgG antibodies in the era of precision medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A variety of N-glycans attached to protein are known to involve in many important biological functions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi localized enzymes are responsible to this template-independent glycan synthesis resulting glycoforms at each asparagine residues. The regulation mechanism such glycan synthesis remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate the relationship between glycan structure and protein conformation, we analyzed a glycoprotein of Drosophila melanogaster, chaoptin (Chp), which is localized in photoreceptor cells and is bound to the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Detailed analysis based on mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 N-glycosylation sites and the composition of the glycoform at each site. The synthetic pathway of glycans was speculated from the observed glycan structures and the composition at each N-glycosylation site, where the presence of novel routes were suggested. The distribution of glycoforms on a Chp polypeptide suggested that various processing enzymes act on the exterior of Chp in the Golgi apparatus, although virtually no enzyme can gain access to the interior of the horseshoe-shaped scaffold, hence explaining the presence of longer glycans within the interior. Furthermore, analysis of Chp from a mutant (RNAi against dolichyl-phosphate alpha-d-mannosyltransferase), which affects N-glycan synthesis in the ER, revealed that truncated glycan structures were processed. As a result, the distribution of glycoforms was affected for the high-mannose-type glycans only, whereas other types of glycans remained similar to those observed in the control and wild-type. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that glycan processing depends largely on the backbone structure of the parent polypeptide. The information we obtained can be applied to other members of the LRR family of proteins.