Development of a complete human anti-human transferrin receptor C antibody as a novel marker of oral dysplasia and oral cancer.
ABSTRACT: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Up to 20% of oral dysplasia cases have been suggested to undergo malignant transformation to OSCC; however, there are no methods to predict OSCC development. In this study, to identify the genes associated with oral dysplasia progression, we performed genomic copy number analyses of genomic DNA samples isolated from primary oral dysplasia and OSCC via the microdissection method and found elevated expression of transferrin receptor C (TfR1/TFRC) with genomic amplification in oral dysplasia and OSCC. The expression rate of TFRC in OSCC was significantly higher than that in dysplasia, suggesting that OSCC disease progression might be related to TFRC expression. Additionally, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo impacts of a newly established anti-human TFRC monoclonal antibody, which was isolated from a human cDNA library using the phage-display method, on cell proliferation and survival. The anti-TFRC antibody blocked the interaction between transferrin and TFRC and consequently inhibited iron uptake, leading to the iron deprivation-mediated suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the anti-TFRC antibody efficiently inhibited tumor growth in a murine xenograft OSCC model. Therefore, we suggest our developed complete human anti-human TFRC antibody as a useful, novel treatment for oral dysplasia and OSCC.
Project description:The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process requiring the accumulation of genetic alterations. Oral carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process involving numerous genetic changes that affect the activity of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other classes of disease-related genes.Therefore, to identify the responsive genes for progression of oral dysplasia or OSCC, we here performed CGH analysis to DNA from oral dysplasia and OSCC by microdissection Copy number analysis of Affymetrix 250K SNP arrays was performed for 8 oral dysplasia samples, 8 oral squamous cell carcinoma samples, using microdissection
Project description:OSCC is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. To identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of invasive OSCC, we compared the gene expressions of OSCC, oral dysplasia, and normal oral tissue from patients without oral cancer or preneoplastic oral lesions (controls). Results provided models of gene expression to distinguish OSCC from controls. RNA from 167 OSCC, 17 dysplasia and 45 normal oral tissues were extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays. The differentially expressed genes were identified using GenePlus software and the validation was done using RT-PCR, using independent internal and external datasets.
Project description:OSCC is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. To identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of invasive OSCC, we compared the gene expressions of OSCC, oral dysplasia, and normal oral tissue from patients without oral cancer or preneoplastic oral lesions (controls). Results provided models of gene expression to distinguish OSCC from controls. Overall design: RNA from 167 OSCC, 17 dysplasia and 45 normal oral tissues were extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix U133 2.0 Plus GeneChip arrays. The differentially expressed genes were identified using GenePlus software and the validation was done using RT-PCR, using independent internal and external datasets.
Project description:Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current organotypic models of dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lack the complexity that mimics in vivo tissue. Here we describe a three-dimensional in vitro model of the oral epithelium that replicates tumour progression from dysplasia to an invasive phenotype.<h4>Methods</h4>The OSCC cell lines were seeded as a cell suspension (D20, Cal27) or as multicellular tumour spheroids (FaDu) with oral fibroblasts on to a de-epidermised acellular dermis to generate tissue-engineered models and compared with patient biopsies.<h4>Results</h4>The D20 and Cal27 cells generated a model of epithelial dysplasia. Overtime Cal27 cells traversed the basement membrane and invaded the connective tissue to reproduce features of early invasive OSCC. When seeded onto a model of the normal oral mucosa, FaDu spheroids produced a histological picture mimicking carcinoma in situ with severe cellular atypia juxtaposed to normal epithelium.<h4>Conclusion</h4>It is possible to culture in vitro models with the morphological appearance and histological characteristics of dysplasia and tumour cell invasion seen in vivo using native dermis. Such models could facilitate study of the molecular processes involved in malignant transformation, invasion and tumour growth as well as in vitro testing of new treatments, diagnostic tests and drug delivery systems for OSCC.
Project description:Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common premalignancy in the oral cavity and can progress to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor implicated in multiple cancer types including OSCC. To assess the role of SMAD4 in oral leukoplakia malignant transformation, the authors investigated SMAD4 expression patterns in OL and OSCC using a highly specific antibody and correlated the patterns with the risk of malignant transformation oral leukoplakia. Immunohistochemistry and a quantitative imaging system were used to measure SMAD4 expression in OL from 88 OL patients, including 22 who later went through malignant transformation, and their OSCC counterpart. Forty-three (48.9%) of the 88 OL patients had strong SMAD4 expression. SMAD4 expression had no significant correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. Interestingly, 17 (39.5%) of the 43 OL lesions with strong SMAD4 expression went through malignant transformation whereas only 5 (11.1%) of the 45 OL lesions with weak SMAD4 expression did so (p?=?0.002). The SMAD4 expression in OL was much higher than that in their OSCC counterpart. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia (p?=?0.007) is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. In the multivariate analysis, both SMAD4 expression and grade of dysplasia were identified as independent factors for OL malignant transformation risk (p?=?0.013 and 0.021, respectively). It was concluded that high SMAD4 expression may be indicative of an early carcinogenic process in OL and serve as an independent biomarker in assessing malignant transformation risk in patients with OL, and the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a life-threatening disease. It could be preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). It was confirmed that chronic inflammation can promote carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a crucial role in this process. The aim of the study was to evaluate interleukin-1alpha (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in tissue specimens and saliva of patients with OSCC and OPMDs. METHODS:Cytokines were evaluated in 60 tissue specimens of pathological lesions (OSCCs or OPMDs) and in 7 controls (normal oral mucosa, NOM) by immunohistochemistry and in saliva of 45 patients with OSCC or OPMDs and 9 controls (healthy volunteers) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS:Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher expression of IL-8 in OSCC specimens and TNF-? in OSCCs and OPMDs with dysplasia as compared to NOM. Moreover, expression of TNF-? was significantly higher in oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus without dysplasia, whereas expression of IL-8 only in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia in comparison with NOM. Salivary concentrations of all evaluated cytokines were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in controls. Moreover, levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in saliva of patients with OPMDs with dysplasia as compared to controls and in OSCC patients as compared to patients with dysplastic lesions. There was also significant increase in salivary concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in patients with OSCC as compared to patients with OPMDs without dysplasia. CONCLUSION:The study confirmed that proinflammatory, NF-kappaB dependent cytokines are involved in pathogenesis of OPMDs and OSCC. The most important biomarker of malignant transformation process within oral mucosa among all assessed cytokines seems to be IL-8. Further studies on a larger sample size are needed to corroborate these results.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent cancer with poor prognosis. Most OSCC progresses via a non-malignant stage called dysplasia. Effective treatment of dysplasia prior to potential malignant transformation is an unmet clinical need. To identify markers of early disease, we performed RNA sequencing of 19 matched HPV negative patient trios: normal oral mucosa, dysplasia and associated OSCC. We performed differential gene expression, principal component and correlated gene network analysis using these data. We found differences in the immune cell signatures present at different disease stages and were able to distinguish early events in pathogenesis, such as upregulation of many HOX genes, from later events, such as down-regulation of adherens junctions. We herein highlight novel coding and non-coding candidates for involvement in oral dysplasia development and malignant transformation, and speculate on how our findings may guide further translational research into the treatment of oral dysplasia.
Project description:Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = -0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC.
Project description:Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), a microtubule-associated protein, has emerged as a critical regulator of proliferation and apoptosis, acting predominantly in numerous tumors. However, its function in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. To establish the roles of PRC1 in OSCC, 95 oral clinical samples (54 OSCC, 24 oral leukoplakia [OLK], and 17 normal oral mucosa) and seven oral cell lines (6 OSCC and 1 normal oral cell lines) were analyzed using a series of molecular and genomic assays both in vivo and in vitro were conducted in this study. Herein, we provide evidence demonstrating that expression of PRC1 closely correlates with the degree of epithelial dysplasia in OLK (n?=?24) (p?<?0.001), and the poor differentiation, large tumor volume, lymph node metastasis, and high-clinical stage in OSCC (n?=?54) (p?<?0.05), illustrating that PRC1 has a promotive influence on tumor progression in OSCC. Simultaneously, we observed that PRC1 knockdown in OSCC cell lines caused G2/M phase arrest (p?<?0.05), inhibited cell proliferation in vitro (p?<?0.05) and tumor growth in vivo (p?<?0.001). Furthermore, the effects of PRC1 on the regulation of proliferation and cell cycle transition in OSCC samples were mediated by p53. The p53/PRC1/EGFR signaling pathway was found to be implicated in the tumor progression of OSCC. Based on our data, we demonstrate that PRC1 is a key factor in regulating proliferation and the cell cycle, pointing to the potential benefits of PRC1-targeted therapies for OSCC.