Crystal structure of an arginase-like protein from Trypanosoma brucei that evolved without a binuclear manganese cluster.
ABSTRACT: The X-ray crystal structure of an arginase-like protein from the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, designated TbARG, is reported at 1.80 and 2.38 Å resolution in its reduced and oxidized forms, respectively. The oxidized form of TbARG is a disulfide-linked hexamer that retains the overall architecture of a dimer of trimers in the reduced form. Intriguingly, TbARG does not contain metal ions in its putative active site, and amino acid sequence comparisons indicate that all but one of the residues required for coordination to the catalytically obligatory binuclear manganese cluster in other arginases are substituted here with residues incapable of metal ion coordination. Therefore, the structure of TbARG is the first of a member of the arginase/deacetylase superfamily that is not a metalloprotein. Although we show that metal binding activity is easily reconstituted in TbARG by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed in X-ray crystal structures, it is curious that this protein and its parasitic orthologues evolved away from metal binding function. Knockout of the TbARG gene from the genome demonstrated that its function is not essential to cultured bloodstream-form T. brucei, and metabolomics analysis confirmed that the enzyme has no role in the conversion of l-arginine to l-ornithine in these cells. While the molecular function of TbARG remains enigmatic, the fact that the T. brucei genome encodes only this protein and not a functional arginase indicates that the parasite must import l-ornithine from its host to provide a source of substrate for ornithine decarboxylase in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, an active target for the development of antiparasitic drugs.
Project description:Arginine acts as a precursor of polyamines in plants in two known pathways, agmatine and ornithine routes. It is decarboxylated to agmatine by arginine decarboxylase, and then transformed to putrescine by the consecutive action of agmatine iminohydrolase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase. Alternatively, it can be hydrolyzed to ornithine by arginase and then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase to putrescine. Some plants lack a functional ornithine pathway, but all have one or two arginases that can have dual cellular localization, in mitochondria and plastids. It was recently shown that arginases from Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean act also as agmatinases, thus they can produce putrescine directly from agmatine. Therefore, arginase (together with arginine decarboxylase) can complement putrescine production in plastids, providing a third polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that arginases, highly conserved in the plant kingdom, create the only group of enzymes recognized in the family of ureohydrolases in plants. Arginases are metalloenzymes with binuclear manganese cluster in the active site. In this work, two arginases from A. thaliana and Medicago truncatula are structurally characterized and their binding properties are discussed. Crystal structures with bound ornithine show that plant hexameric arginases engage a long loop from the neighboring subunit to stabilize ?-amino and carboxyl groups of the ligand. This unique ligand binding mode is unobserved in arginases from other domains of life. Structural analysis shows that substrate binding by residues from two neighboring subunits might also characterize some prokaryotic agmatinases. This feature of plant arginases is most likely the determinant of their ability to recognize not only arginine but also agmatine as their substrates, thus, to act as arginase and agmatinase.
Project description:Arginase, a manganese-dependent enzyme that widely distributed in almost all creatures, is a urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea. Compared with the well-studied arginases from animals and yeast, only a few eubacterial arginases have been characterized, such as those from H. pylori and B. anthracis. However, these enzymes used for arginase activity assay were all expressed with LB medium, as low concentration of Mn(2+) was detectable in the medium, protein obtained were partially Mn(2+) bonded, which may affect the results of arginase activity assay. In the present study, H. pylori arginase (RocF) was expressed in a Mn(2+) and Co(2+) free minimal medium, the resulting protein was purified through affinity and gel filtration chromatography and the apo-form of RocF was confirmed by flame photometry analysis. Gel filtration indicates that the enzyme exists as monomer in solution, which was unique as compared with homologous enzymes. Arginase activity assay revealed that apo-RocF had an acidic pH optimum of 6.4 and exhibited metal preference of Co(2+)>Ni(2+)>Mn(2+). We also confirmed that heat-activation and reducing regents have significant impact on arginase activity of RocF, and inhibits S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-Cysteine (BEC) and N?-hydroxy-nor-Arginine (nor-NOHA) inhibit the activity of RocF in a dose-dependent manner.
Project description:Leishmania arginase is a potential drug target for the treatment of leishmaniasis because this binuclear manganese metalloenzyme initiates de novo polyamine biosynthesis by catalyzing the hydrolysis of L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea. The product L-ornithine subsequently undergoes decarboxylation to yield putrescine, which in turn is utilized for spermidine biosynthesis. Polyamines such as spermidine are essential for the growth and survival of the parasite, so inhibition of enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway comprises an effective strategy for treating parasitic infections. To this end, two X-ray crystal structures of L. mexicana arginase complexed with ?,?-disubstituted boronic amino-acid inhibitors based on the molecular scaffold of 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid are now reported. Structural comparisons with human and parasitic arginase complexes reveal interesting differences in the binding modes of the additional ?-substituents, i.e. the D side chains, of these inhibitors. Subtle differences in the three-dimensional contours of the outer active-site rims among arginases from different species lead to different conformations of the D side chains and thus different inhibitor-affinity trends. The structures suggest that it is possible to maintain affinity while fine-tuning intermolecular interactions of the D side chain of ?,?-disubstituted boronic amino-acid inhibitors in the search for isozyme-specific and species-specific arginase inhibitors.
Project description:The X-ray crystal structure of arginase from Schistosoma mansoni (SmARG) and the structures of its complexes with several amino acid inhibitors have been determined at atomic resolution. SmARG is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to form l-ornithine and urea, and this enzyme is upregulated in all forms of the parasite that interact with the human host. Current hypotheses suggest that parasitic arginases could play a role in host immune evasion by depleting pools of substrate l-arginine that would otherwise be utilized for NO biosynthesis and NO-dependent processes in the immune response. Although the amino acid sequence of SmARG is only 42% identical with that of human arginase I, residues important for substrate binding and catalysis are strictly conserved. In general, classical amino acid inhibitors such as 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) tend to bind more weakly to SmARG than to human arginase I despite identical inhibitor binding modes in each enzyme active site. The identification of a patch on the enzyme surface capable of accommodating the additional C? substitutent of an ?,?-disubstituted amino acid inhibitor suggests that such inhibitors could exhibit higher affinity and biological activity. The structures of SmARG complexed with two different ?,?-disubstituted derivatives of ABH are presented and provide a proof of concept for this approach in the enhancement of enzyme-inhibitor affinity.
Project description:Many organisms have genes to protect themselves from toxic conditions such as high ethanol and/or ammonia concentrations. When a high ethanol condition is induced to Zymomonas mobilis ZM4, a representative ethanologenic organism, this bacterium overexpresses several genes to overcome this ethanol stress. Among them, we characterized a gene product annotated as an arginase (zmARG) from Z. mobilis ZM4. Even though all of the arginase-determining sequence motifs are not strictly conserved in zmARG, this enzyme converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine in the presence of a divalent manganese ion. The revealed high-resolution crystal structure of zmARG shows that it has a typical globular ?/? arginase fold with a protruded C-terminal helix. Two zinc ions reside in the active site, where one metal ion is penta-coordinated and the other has six ligands, discerning this zmARG from the reported arginases with two hexa-liganded metal ions. zmARG forms a dimeric structure in solution as well as in the crystalline state. The dimeric assembly of zmARG is formed mainly by interaction formed between the C-terminal ?-helix of one molecule and the ?/? hydrolase fold of another molecule. The presented findings demonstrate the first reported dimeric arginase formed by the C-terminal tail and has two metal ions coordinated by different number of ligands.
Project description:Arginase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of arginine to urea and ornithine. It is abundantly present in the liver of ureotelic animals (i.e. those whose excretion is characterized by the excretion of uric acid as the chief end-product of nitrogen metabolism), but its purification has hitherto not been simple, and the yield not high. Starting with a partially truncated cDNA for human liver arginase recently made available, we constructed an expression plasmid that had tandemly linked tac promotors placed upstream of a full-length cDNA. By selecting Escherichia coli strain KY1436 as the host micro-organism, we established an efficient system for the production of human liver arginase protein. Chromatographies on CM-Sephadex G-150, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-150, followed by preparative agar-gel electrophoresis, yielded 10 mg of apparently homogeneous enzyme protein from 1 g (wet wt.) of E. coli cells. E. coli-expressed human liver arginase had chemical, immunological and most catalytic properties indistinguishable from those of purified human erythrocyte arginase. However, E. coli-expressed arginase was a monomer of Mr 35,000, whereas the purified erythrocyte arginase was trimer of Mr 105,000. They differed also in pH- and temperature-stabilities. Gel-filtration experiments with these two purified arginases under various conditions, as well as with unfractionated human liver and erythrocyte cytosol preparations, indicated that the native form of human arginase should be of Mr 35,000, and that the trimeric appearance of human erythrocyte arginase after purification was an artifact of the purification procedures. It was thus concluded that, in Nature, the liver and erythrocyte arginases are identical proteins.
Project description:The active sites of eukaryotic arginase enzymes are strictly conserved, especially the first- and second-shell ligands that coordinate the two divalent metal cations that generate a hydroxide molecule for nucleophilic attack on the guanidinium carbon of l-arginine and the subsequent production of urea and l-ornithine. Here by using comprehensive pairwise saturation mutagenesis of the first- and second-shell metal ligands in human arginase I, we demonstrate that several metal binding ligands are actually quite tolerant to amino acid substitutions. Of >2800 double mutants of first- and second-shell residues analyzed, we found more than 80 unique amino acid substitutions, of which four were in first-shell residues. Remarkably, certain second-shell mutations could modulate the binding of both the nucleophilic water/hydroxide molecule and substrate or product ligands, resulting in activity greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. The data presented here constitute the first comprehensive saturation mutagenesis analysis of a metallohydrolase active site and reveal that the strict conservation of the second-shell metal binding residues in eukaryotic arginases does not reflect kinetic optimization of the enzyme during the course of evolution.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis airways are deficient for L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and arginases. The rationale for this study was to quantify NOS and arginase activity in the mouse lung. Anesthetized unventilated mice received a primed constant stable isotope intravenous infusion containing labeled L-arginine, ornithine, and citrulline. The isotopic enrichment of each of the infused isotopomers and its product amino acids were measured in plasma and organ homogenates using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of infection was studied three days after direct tracheal instillation of Pseudomonas-coated agar beads. In the infusion model, lung infection resulted in a significant (28-fold) increase in NOS activity in lung but not in trachea, kidney, liver, or plasma. Absolute rates of arginase activity in solid tissues could not be calculated in this model. In an isolated lung perfusion model used for comparison increased NOS activity in infected lungs was confirmed (28.5-fold) and lung arginase activity was increased 9.7-fold. The activity of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes can be measured using stable isotope conversion in the mouse. Accumulation of L-ornithine in the whole mouse model hindered the exact quantification of arginase activity in the lung, a problem that was overcome utilizing an isolated lung perfusion model.
Project description:Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of ?,?-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional ?-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.
Project description:Recently, we showed that pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of arginase-2 confers kidney protection in diabetic mouse models. Here, we tested whether the protective effect of arginase inhibition is nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) dependent in diabetic nephropathy. Experiments were conducted in eNOS-knockout and their wild-type littermate mice using multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin, and treated with continuous subcutaneous infusion of vehicle or the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine by an osmotic pump. Inhibition of arginases for 6 weeks in diabetic wild-type mice significantly attenuated albuminuria, the increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, histopathological changes, kidney fibronectin and TNF-? expression, kidney macrophage recruitment, and oxidative stress compared with vehicle-treated diabetic wild-type mice. Arginase inhibition in diabetic eNOS-knockout mice failed to affect any of these parameters, but reduced kidney macrophage recruitment and kidney TNF-? expression compared with vehicle-treated diabetic eNOS-knockout mice. Furthermore, diabetic wild-type and eNOS-knockout mice exhibited increased kidney arginase-2 protein, arginase activity, and ornithine levels. Thus, arginase inhibition mediates renal tissue protection in diabetic nephropathy by an eNOS-dependent mechanism and has an eNOS-independent effect on kidney macrophage recruitment.