Small heterodimer partner/neuronal PAS domain protein 2 axis regulates the oscillation of liver lipid metabolism.
ABSTRACT: In mammals, circadian rhythms are essential for coordinating the timing of various metabolic processes. The Clock gene regulates diurnal plasma triglyceride fluctuation through nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Shp; Nr0b2). Given that SHP is a critical regulator of metabolism in the liver, it is unknown whether SHP is necessary to coordinate metabolism and circadian rhythms. Shp(+/+) and Shp(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background (n = 3-5/group) were fed a standard chow diet and water ad libitum. Serum and livers were collected at zeitgeber time 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22. In vivo and in vitro assays included RNA sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, very-low-density lipoprotein production, adenovirus overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown, serum parameters, circadian locomotor activity, Oil Red O staining, transient transfection, luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, gel-shift assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and western blottings. Shp deficiency had a robust global impact on major liver metabolic genes. Several components of the liver clock, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, coactivator 1 (Pgc-1?), neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 2 (Npas2), and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (Ror)?/? were sharply induced in Shp(-/-) liver. At the molecular level, SHP inhibited Npas2 gene transcription and promoter activity through interaction with Ror? to repress Ror? transactivation and by interacting with Rev-erb? to enhance its inhibition of Ror? activity. Conversely, Npas2 controlled the circadian rhythm of Shp expression by binding rhythmically to the Shp promoter, which was enhanced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, but not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Phenotypically, Npas2 deficiency induced severe steatosis in Shp(-/-) mice, which was attributed to the dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism.Shp and Npas2 crosstalk is essential to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is involved in various biological processes and is considered a key reversible post-translational modification in the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. This post-translational modification is therefore highly relevant in the context of circadian biology, but its characterization on the proteome-wide scale and its circadian clock dependence are still poorly described. Here, we provide a comprehensive and rhythmic acetylome map of the mouse liver. Rhythmic acetylated proteins showed subcellular localization-specific phases that correlated with the related metabolites in the regulated pathways. Mitochondrial proteins were over-represented among the rhythmically acetylated proteins and were highly correlated with SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. SIRT3 activity being nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+ level-dependent, we show that NAD+ is orchestrated by both feeding rhythms and the circadian clock through the NAD+ salvage pathway but also via the nicotinamide riboside pathway. Hence, the diurnal acetylome relies on a functional circadian clock and affects important diurnal metabolic pathways in the mouse liver.
Project description:Many metabolic and physiological processes display circadian oscillations. We have shown that the core circadian regulator, CLOCK, is a histone acetyltransferase whose activity is counterbalanced by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1. Here we show that intracellular NAD+ levels cycle with a 24-hour rhythm, an oscillation driven by the circadian clock. CLOCK:BMAL1 regulates the circadian expression of NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase), an enzyme that provides a rate-limiting step in the NAD+ salvage pathway. SIRT1 is recruited to the Nampt promoter and contributes to the circadian synthesis of its own coenzyme. Using the specific inhibitor FK866, we demonstrated that NAMPT is required to modulate circadian gene expression. Our findings in mouse embryo fibroblasts reveal an interlocked transcriptional-enzymatic feedback loop that governs the molecular interplay between cellular metabolism and circadian rhythms.
Project description:The mammalian clock is regulated at the cellular level by a transcriptional/translational feedback loop. BMAL1/clock (or NPAS2) heterodimers activate the expression of the period (PER) and cryptochrome (CRY) genes acting as transcription factors directed to the PER and CRY promoters via E-box elements. PER and CRY proteins form heterodimers and suppress the activity of the BMAL1/clock (or NPAS2) completing the feedback loop. The circadian expression of BMAL1 is influenced by retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?) and REV-ERB?, two nuclear receptors that target a ROR-response element in the promoter of the BMAL1 gene. Given that BMAL1 functions as an obligate heterodimer with either clock or NPAS2, it is unclear how the expression of the partner is coordinated with BMAL1 expression. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS2 is also a ROR? and REV-ERB? target gene. Using a ChIP/microarray screen, we identified both ROR? and REV-ERB? occupancy of the NPAS2 promoter. We identified two functional ROREs within the NPAS2 promoter and also demonstrate that both ROR? and REV-ERB? regulate the expression of NPAS2 mRNA. These data suggest a mechanism by which ROR? and REV-ERB? coordinately regulate the expression of the positive arm of the circadian rhythm feedback loop.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying the circadian control of gene expression in peripheral tissues and influencing many biological pathways are poorly defined. Factor VII (FVII), the protease triggering blood coagulation, represents a valuable model to address this issue in liver since its plasma levels oscillate in a circadian manner and its promoter contains E-boxes, which are putative DNA-binding sites for CLOCK-BMAL1 and NPAS2-BMAL1 heterodimers and hallmarks of circadian regulation. The peaks of FVII mRNA levels in livers of wild-type mice preceded those in plasma, indicating a transcriptional regulation, and were abolished in Clock(-/-); Npas2(-/-) mice, thus demonstrating a role for CLOCK and NPAS2 circadian transcription factors. The investigation of Npas2(-/-) and Clock(Delta19/Delta19) mice, which express functionally defective heterodimers, revealed robust rhythms of FVII expression in both animal models, suggesting a redundant role for NPAS2 and CLOCK. The molecular bases of these observations were established through reporter gene assays. FVII transactivation activities of the NPAS2-BMAL1 and CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimers were (i) comparable (a fourfold increase), (ii) dampened by the negative circadian regulators PER2 and CRY1, and (iii) abolished upon E-box mutagenesis. Our data provide the first evidence in peripheral oscillators for an overlapping role of CLOCK and NPAS2 in the regulation of circadianly controlled genes.
Project description:The Intracellular levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) are rhythmic and controlled by the circadian clock. However, whether NAD(+) oscillation in turn contributes to circadian physiology is not fully understood. To address this question we analyzed mice mutated for the NAD(+) hydrolase CD38. We found that rhythmicity of NAD(+) was altered in the CD38-deficient mice. The high, chronic levels of NAD(+) results in several anomalies in circadian behavior and metabolism. CD38-null mice display a shortened period length of locomotor activity and alteration in the rest-activity rhythm. Several clock genes and, interestingly, genes involved in amino acid metabolism were deregulated in CD38-null livers. Metabolomic analysis identified alterations in the circadian levels of several amino acids, specifically tryptophan levels were reduced in the CD38-null mice at a circadian time paralleling with elevated NAD(+) levels. Thus, CD38 contributes to behavioral and metabolic circadian rhythms and altered NAD(+) levels influence the circadian clock.
Project description:Circadian clocks regulate behavioral, physiological and biochemical processes in a day/night cycle. Circadian oscillators have an essential role in the coordination of physiological processes with the cyclic changes in the physical environment. Such mammalian circadian clocks composed of the positive components (BMAL1 and CLOCK) and the negative components (CRY and PERIOD (PER)) are regulated by a negative transcriptional feedback loop in which PER is rate-limiting for feedback inhibition. In addition, posttranslational modification of these components is critical for setting or resetting the circadian oscillation. Circadian regulation of metabolism is mediated through reciprocal signaling between the clock and metabolic regulatory networks. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the brain and peripheral tissue is a crucial cellular energy sensor that has a role in metabolic control. AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CRY and Casein kinases I regulates the negative feedback control of circadian clock by proteolytic degradation. AMPK can also modulate the circadian rhythms through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent regulation of silent information regulator 1. Growing evidence elucidates the AMPK-mediated controls of circadian clock in metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the current comprehension of AMPK-mediated regulation of the circadian rhythms. This will provide insight into understanding how their components regulate the metabolism.
Project description:Heterodimers of CLOCK and BMAL1 are the major transcriptional activators of the mammalian circadian clock. Because the paralog NPAS2 can substitute for CLOCK in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker, CLOCK-deficient mice maintain circadian rhythms in behavior and in tissues in vivo. However, when isolated from the SCN, CLOCK-deficient peripheral tissues are reportedly arrhythmic, suggesting a fundamental difference in circadian clock function between SCN and peripheral tissues. Surprisingly, however, using luminometry and single-cell bioluminescence imaging of PER2 expression, we now find that CLOCK-deficient dispersed SCN neurons and peripheral cells exhibit similarly stable, autonomous circadian rhythms in vitro. In CLOCK-deficient fibroblasts, knockdown of Npas2 leads to arrhythmicity, suggesting that NPAS2 can compensate for loss of CLOCK in peripheral cells as well as in SCN. Our data overturn the notion of an SCN-specific role for NPAS2 in the molecular circadian clock, and instead indicate that, at the cellular level, the core loops of SCN neuron and peripheral cell circadian clocks are fundamentally similar.
Project description:Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation to synchronize oxidative metabolic pathways with the 24-hour fasting and feeding cycle. Circadian control of the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) generated rhythms in the acetylation and activity of oxidative enzymes and respiration in isolated mitochondria, and NAD(+) supplementation restored protein deacetylation and enhanced oxygen consumption in circadian mutant mice. Thus, circadian control of NAD(+) bioavailability modulates mitochondrial oxidative function and organismal metabolism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding.
Project description:The circadian clock is encoded by a transcription-translation feedback loop that synchronizes behavior and metabolism with the light-dark cycle. Here we report that both the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and levels of NAD+ display circadian oscillations that are regulated by the core clock machinery in mice. Inhibition of NAMPT promotes oscillation of the clock gene Per2 by releasing CLOCK:BMAL1 from suppression by SIRT1. In turn, the circadian transcription factor CLOCK binds to and up-regulates Nampt, thus completing a feedback loop involving NAMPT/NAD+ and SIRT1/CLOCK:BMAL1.
Project description:Retinoic acid-related orphan receptors (RORs) and the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor Npas2 have been implicated in the control of circadian rhythm. In this study, we demonstrate that ROR? directly regulates Npas2 expression in vivo. Although the rhythmicity of Npas2 mRNA expression was maintained in ROR?(-/-) mice, the peak level of expression was significantly reduced in several tissues, while loss of ROR? had little effect. Inversely, overexpression of ROR? in hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells greatly induced the expression of Npas2. ROR?-activated Npas2 transcription directly by binding two ROREs in its proximal promoter. ChIP analysis demonstrated that ROR? was recruited to this promoter in the liver of wild-type mice, but not ROR?-deficient mice. Activation of Npas2 correlated positively with chromatin accessibility and level of H3K9 acetylation. The activation of Npas2 by ROR? was repressed by co-expression with Rev-Erb? or addition of the ROR inverse agonist T0901317. Npas2 expression was also significantly enhanced during brown adipose differentiation and that this induction was greatly suppressed in adipose cells lacking ROR?. Our results indicate that ROR? and Rev-Erb? are part of a feed-back loop that regulates the circadian expression of Npas2 suggesting a regulatory role for these receptors in Npas2-dependent physiological processes.