Prevalence of purging at age 16 and associations with negative outcomes among girls in three community-based cohorts.
ABSTRACT: The comorbidity of purging behaviours, such as vomiting, inappropriate use of laxatives, diuretics or slimming medications, has been examined in literature. However, most studies do not include adolescents, individuals who purge in the absence of binge eating, or those purging at subclinical frequency. This study examines the prevalence of purging among 16-year-old girls across three countries and their association with substance use and psychological comorbidity.Data were obtained by questionnaire in 3 population-based cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), United Kingdom, n = 1,608; Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), USA, n = 3,504; North Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC85/86), Finland, n = 2,306). Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to estimate associations between purging and outcomes. Four models were fit adjusting for binge eating and potential confounders of these associations.In ALSPAC, 9.7% of girls reported purging in the 12-months prior to assessment, 7.3% in GUTS, and 3.5% in NFBC. In all 3 cohorts, purging was associated with adverse outcomes such as binge drinking (ALSPAC: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.9; GUTS: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5-4.0; NFBC: OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8), drug use (ALSPAC: OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8-4.7; GUTS: OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.8-7.3; NFBC: OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.6-6.6), depressive symptoms in ALSPAC (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.1) and GUTS(OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), and several psychopathology measures including clinical anxiety/depression in NFBC (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 31.7).Results show a higher prevalence of purging behaviours among girls in the United Kingdom compared to those in the United States and Finland. Our findings support evidence highlighting that purging in adolescence is associated with negative outcomes, independent of its frequency and binge eating.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eating behaviours in childhood are considered as risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses in adolescence. However, few longitudinal studies have examined this association. AIMS:We investigated associations between childhood eating behaviours during the first ten years of life and eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting and excessive exercise) and diagnoses (anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, purging disorder and bulimia nervosa) at 16 years. METHOD:Data on 4760 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were included. Longitudinal trajectories of parent-rated childhood eating behaviours (8 time points, 1.3-9 years) were derived by latent class growth analyses. Eating disorder diagnoses were derived from self-reported, parent-reported and objectively measured anthropometric data at age 16 years. We estimated associations between childhood eating behaviours and eating disorder behaviours and diagnoses, using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS:Childhood overeating was associated with increased risk of adolescent binge eating (risk difference, 7%; 95% CI 2 to 12) and binge eating disorder (risk difference, 1%; 95% CI 0.2 to 3). Persistent undereating was associated with higher anorexia nervosa risk in adolescent girls only (risk difference, 6%; 95% CI, 0 to 12). Persistent fussy eating was associated with greater anorexia nervosa risk (risk difference, 2%; 95% CI 0 to 4). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest continuities of eating behaviours into eating disorders from early life to adolescence. It remains to be determined whether childhood eating behaviours are an early manifestation of a specific phenotype or whether the mechanisms underlying this continuity are more complex. Findings have the potential to inform preventative strategies for eating disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disordered eating (DE) is common and is associated with body mass index (BMI). We investigated whether genetic variants for BMI were associated with DE. Methods: BMI polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated for participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 8654) and their association with DE tested. Data on DE behaviors (e.g., binge eating and compensatory behaviors) were collected at ages 14, 16, 18 years, and DE cognitions (e.g., body dissatisfaction) at 14 years. Mediation analyses determined whether BMI mediated the association between the BMI-PGS and DE. Results: The BMI-PGS was positively associated with fasting (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.25, 1.61), binge eating (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.46), purging (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.42), body dissatisfaction (Beta = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.77, 1.22), restrained eating (Beta = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.10, 1.17), emotional eating (Beta = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.052, 0.38), and negatively associated with thin ideal internalization (Beta = -0.15, 95% CI = -0.23, -0.07) and external eating (Beta = -0.19, 95% CI = -0.30, -0.09). These associations were mainly mediated by BMI. Conclusions: Genetic variants associated with BMI are also associated with DE. This association was mediated through BMI suggesting that weight potentially sits on the pathway from genetic liability to DE.
Project description:<b>Importance: </b>Eating disorders are serious mental disorders with increasing prevalence. Without early identification and treatment, eating disorders may run a long-term course.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>To characterize any associations among disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) and other mental health disorders and to identify early associations with the development of symptoms over time.<br><br><b>Design, setting, and participants: </b>This multicenter, population-based, longitudinal cohort study used data from baseline (collected in 2010), follow-up 1 (collected in 2012), and follow-up 2 (collected in 2015) of the IMAGEN Study, which included adolescents recruited from 8 European sites. The present study assessed data from 1623 healthy adolescents, aged 14 years at baseline, recruited from high schools. Data analyses were performed from January 2018 to September 2019.<br><br><b>Main outcomes and measures: </b>Body mass index (BMI), mental health symptoms, substance use behaviors, and personality variables were investigated as time-varying associations of DEBs (dieting, binge eating, and purging) or change in BMI over time. Polygenic risk scores were calculated to investigate genetic contributions associated with BMI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neuroticism to DEBs.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In this cohort study of 1623 adolescents (829 girls [51.1%]) recruited at a mean (SD) age of 14.5 (0.4) years and followed up at ages 16 and 19 years, 278 adolescents (17.1%) reported binge eating, 334 adolescents (20.6%) reported purging, and 356 adolescents (21.9%) reported dieting at 14, 16, or 19 years. Among the precursors of DEBs, high BMI was associated with future dieting (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 2.09-5.65). High levels of neuroticism (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06), conduct problems (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.69), and deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45) were associated with future binge eating. Low agreeableness (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.69-3.95), conduct problems (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.68), alcohol misuse (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54), and drug abuse (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.78-4.74) were associated with future purging. Polygenetic risk scores for BMI were associated with dieting (at 14 years: OR, 1.27; lower bound 95% CI, 1.08; at 16 years: OR, 1.38; lower bound 95% CI, 1.17); ADHD, with purging (at 16 years: OR, 1.25; lower bound 95% CI, 1.08; at 19 years, OR, 1.23; lower bound 95% CI, 1.06); and neuroticism, with binge eating (at 14 years: OR, 1.32; lower bound 95% CI, 1.11; at 16 years: OR, 1.24; lower bound 95% CI, 1.06), highlighting distinct etiologic overlaps between these traits. The DEBs predated other mental health problems, with dieting at 14 years associated with future symptoms of depression (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.56-4.10), generalized anxiety (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.14-4.51), deliberate self-harm (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.51-4.24), emotional problems (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.43), and smoking (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48). Purging at 14 years was also associated with future depression (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.69-5.01) and anxiety (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.49-4.12) symptoms.<br><br><b>Conclusions and relevance: </b>The findings of this study delineate temporal associations and shared etiologies among DEBs and other mental health disorders and emphasize the potential of genetic and phenotypical assessments of obesity, behavioral disorders, and neuroticism to improve early and differential diagnosis of eating disorders.
Project description:To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm.Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome.All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight.Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders among adolescents.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Few studies have explored the association between inflammation and eating disorders and none used a longitudinal design. We investigated the association between serum-levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in childhood and eating disorders and related behaviours and cognitions in adolescence in a large general population sample.<h4>Methods</h4>We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Our exposures were thirds of IL6 and CRP derived from serum measurements taken at age nine years, and outcomes were eating disorder diagnoses and self-reported disordered eating behaviours at ages 14, 16, and 18 years. We used univariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression models adjusting for a number of potential confounders, including sex, fat mass, and pre-existing mental health difficulties.<h4>Results</h4>Our sample included 3480 children. Those in the top third of CRP had lower odds of binge eating (odds ratio(OR):0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.39,1.00,p "equals" 0.05) and fasting (OR:0.63, 95% CI:0.38,1.07,p "equals" 0.09) after adjustment for confounders. We also observed weak associations of comparable magnitude for purging, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. We did not find any associations between levels of IL6 and any of the outcomes under study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was little evidence of an association between CRP and IL-6 and adolescent eating disorder outcomes. The inverse association observed between CRP and binge eating was unexpected, so caution is needed when interpreting it. One possible explanation is that higher CRP levels could have a protective role for disordered eating by affecting appetitive traits.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and covariation of four eating disorder behaviors across the elementary, middle, and high school years. In a sample of 1,906 youth measured over 5 years at nine time points, from the past year of elementary school through the second year of high school, binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting), compensatory exercise, and fasting behavior were assessed by self-report. Over the 5-year period, rates of binge eating and purging increased but rates of compensatory exercise and fasting decreased. Girls and boys did not differ in their rates of engagement in any of the behaviors. Within time, the behaviors covaried modestly. Health-care professionals are advised to assess each behavior individually, rather than base interventions on the presence or absence of a diagnosable eating disorder. Gender should not be a basis for assessing for the presence of any of these behaviors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent studies suggest psychotic and eating disorders can be comorbid and could have shared genetic liability. However, this comorbidity has been overlooked in the epidemiological literature.AimsTo test whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia are associated with disordered eating behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in the general population. METHOD:Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and random-effects logistic and linear regression models, we investigated the association between PRS for schizophrenia and self-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting and excessive exercise) and BMI at 14, 16 and 18 years. RESULTS:Of the 6920 children with available genetic data, 4473 (64.6%) and 5069 (73.3%) had at least one disordered eating and one BMI outcome measurement, respectively. An s.d. increase in PRS was associated with greater odds of having binge eating behaviours (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60) and lower BMI (coefficient, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest the presence of shared genetic risk between schizophrenia and binge eating behaviours. Intermediate phenotypes such as impaired social cognition and irritability, previously shown to be positively correlated in this sample with schizophrenia PRS, could represent risk factors for both phenotypes. Shared genetic liability between binge eating and schizophrenia could also explain higher rates of metabolic syndrome in individuals with schizophrenia, as binge eating could be a mediator of this association in drug-naïve individuals. The finding of an association between greater PRS and lower BMI, although consistent with existing epidemiological and genetic literature, requires further investigation.Declaration of interestNone.
Project description:Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates.Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999 to 2007 (spanning ages 13-26 years) provided repeated measures data on muscularity and leanness concerns, eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products), and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms).Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13 to 15, 16 to 18, 19 to 22, and 23 to 26 years identified 1 large Asymptomatic class and 4 symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%-6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%-2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%-5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%-1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes.Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The fetal programming model hypothesizes that developmental programming in utero and in early life induces adaptations that predetermine the adult phenotype. This study investigated whether prenatal/perinatal complications are associated with lifetime eating disorders in women. METHOD:Participants included 46,373 adult women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (den norske Mor & barn-undersøkelsen [MoBa]). MoBa mothers and their mothers (MoBa grandmothers) were the focus of the current study. MoBa mothers with lifetime eating disorders were compared to a referent group. RESULTS:MoBa mothers who weighed more at birth (birth weight, adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.19) or were born large-for-gestational-age (adjusted OR?=?1.39; 95% CI: 1.27-1.52) were more likely to develop binge-eating disorder in later life. MoBa mothers who weighed less at birth were more likely to develop anorexia nervosa (birth weight, adjusted OR?=?0.88; 95% CI: 0.81-0.95). Bulimia nervosa and purging disorder (PD) were not significantly predicted by the prenatal and perinatal factors examined. DISCUSSION:Results of this study, which include the first known investigation of prenatal and perinatal factors in binge-eating disorder and PD, suggest that fetal programming may be relevant to the development of anorexia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. Future genetically informative research is needed to help disentangle whether these associations are a function of genetic influences or a true environmental fetal programming effect.