A dose- rather than delivery profile-dependent mechanism regulates the "muscle-full" effect in response to oral essential amino acid intake in young men.
ABSTRACT: The anabolic response of skeletal muscle to essential amino acids (EAAs) is dose dependent, maximal at modest doses, and short lived, even with continued EAA availability, a phenomenon termed "muscle-full." However, the effect of EAA ingestion profile on muscle metabolism remains undefined.We determined the effect of Bolus vs. Spread EAA feeding in young men and hypothesized that muscle-full is regulated by a dose-, not delivery profile-, dependent mechanism.We provided 16 young healthy men with 15 g mixed-EAA, either as a single dose ("Bolus"; n = 8) or in 4 fractions at 45-min intervals ("Spread"; n = 8). Plasma insulin and EAA concentrations were assayed by ELISA and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. Limb blood flow by was determined by Doppler ultrasound, muscle microvascular flow by Sonovue (Bracco) contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 substrates by immunoblotting. Intermittent muscle biopsies were taken to quantify myofibrillar-bound (13)C6-phenylalanine to determine muscle protein synthesis (MPS).Bolus feeding achieved rapid insulinemia (13.6 ?IU · mL(-1), 25 min after commencement of feeding), aminoacidemia (?2500 ?M at 45 min), and capillary recruitment (+45% at 45 min), whereas Spread feeding achieved attenuated insulin responses, gradual low-amplitude aminoacidemia (peak: ?1500 ?M at 135 min), and no detectable capillary recruitment (all P < 0.01 vs. Bolus). Despite these differences, identical anabolic responses were observed; fasting fractional synthetic rates of 0.054% · h(-1) (Bolus) and 0.066% · h(-1) (Spread) increased to 0.095% and 0.104% · h(-1) (no difference in increment or final values between regimens). With both Spread and Bolus feeding strategies, a latency of at least 90 min was observed before an upswing in MPS was evident. Similarly with both feeding strategies, MPS returned to fasting rates by 180 min despite elevated circulating EAAs.These data do not support EAA delivery profile as an important determinant of anabolism in young men at rest, nor rapid aminoacidemia/leucinemia as being a key factor in maximizing MPS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01735539.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Resistance exercise and dietary protein stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS). The rate at which proteins are digested and absorbed into circulation alters peak plasma amino acid concentrations and may modulate postexercise MPS. A novel mineral modified milk protein concentrate (mMPC), with identical amino acid composition to standard milk protein concentrate (MPC), was formulated to induce rapid aminoacidemia. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine whether rapid aminoacidemia and greater peak essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations induced by mMPC would stimulate greater postresistance exercise MPS, anabolic signaling, and ribosome biogenesis compared to standard dairy proteins, which induce a small but sustained plasma essential aminoacidemia. METHODS:Thirty healthy young men (22.5 ± 3.0 y; BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2) received primed constant infusions of l-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine and completed 3 sets of leg presses and leg extensions at 80% of 1 repetition. Afterwards, participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume 25 g mMPC, MPC, or calcium caseinate (CAS). Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at rest, and 2 and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS:Plasma EAA concentrations, including leucine, were 19.2-26.6% greater in the mMPC group 45-90 min post ingestion than in MPC and CAS groups (P < 0.001). Myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate from baseline to 4 h was increased by 82.6 ± 64.8%, 137.8 ± 72.1%, and 140.6 ± 52.4% in the MPC, mMPC, and CAS groups, respectively, with no difference between groups (P = 0.548). Phosphorylation of anabolic signaling targets (P70S6KThr389, P70S6KThr421/Ser424, RPS6Ser235/236, RPS6Ser240/244, P90RSKSer380, 4EBP1) were elevated by <3-fold at both 2 and 4 h post exercise in all groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The amplitude of plasma leucine and EAA concentrations does not modulate the anabolic response to resistance exercise after ingestion of 25 g dairy protein in young men. This trial was registered at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12617000393358.
Project description:We investigated the effects of ingesting a leucine-enriched essential amino acid (EAA) gel alone or combined with resistance exercise (RE) versus RE alone (control) on plasma aminoacidemia and intramyocellular anabolic signaling in healthy younger (28 ± 4 years) and older (71 ± 3 years) adults. Blood samples were obtained throughout the three trials, while muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and 2 h following RE, following the consumption of two 50 mL EAA gels (40% leucine, 15 g total EAA), and following RE with EAA (combination (COM)). Protein content and the phosphorylation status of key anabolic signaling proteins were determined via immunoblotting. Irrespective of age, during EAA and COM peak leucinemia (younger: 454 ± 32 µM and 537 ± 111 µM; older: 417 ± 99 µM and 553 ± 136 µM) occurred ~60-120 min post-ingestion (younger: 66 ± 6 min and 120 ± 60 min; older: 90 ± 13 min and 78 ± 12 min). In the pooled sample, the area under the curve for plasma leucine and the sum of branched-chain amino acids was significantly greater in EAA and COM compared with RE. For intramyocellular signaling, significant main effects were found for condition (mTOR (Ser2481), rpS6 (Ser235/236)) and age (S6K1 (Thr421/Ser424), 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46)) in age group analyses. The phosphorylation of rpS6 was of similar magnitude (~8-fold) in pooled and age group data 2 h following COM. Our findings suggest that a gel-based, leucine-enriched EAA supplement is associated with aminoacidemia and a muscle anabolic signaling response, thus representing an effective means of stimulating muscle protein anabolism in younger and older adults following EAA and COM.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Impaired anabolic responses to nutrition and exercise contribute to loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing (sarcopenia). Here, we tested responses of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), in the under represented group of older women, to leucine-enriched essential amino acids (EAA) in comparison to a large bolus of whey protein (WP). METHODS:Twenty-four older women (65 ± 1 y) received (N = 8/group) 1.5 g leucine-enriched EAA supplements (LEAA_1.5), 6 g LEAA (LEAA_6) in comparison to 40 g WP. A primed constant I.V infusion of 13C6-phenylalanine was used to determine MPS at baseline and in response to feeding (FED) and feeding-plus-exercise (FED-EX; 6 × 8 unilateral leg extensions; 75%1-RM). We quantified plasma insulin/AA concentrations, leg femoral blood flow (LBF)/muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF), and anabolic signalling via immunoblotting. RESULTS:Plasma insulineamia and EAAemia were greater and more prolonged with WP than LEAA, although LEAA_6 peaked at similar levels to WP. Neither LEAA or WP modified LBF or MBF. FED increased MPS similarly in the LEAA_1.5, LEAA_6 and WP (P < 0.05) groups over 0-2 h, with MPS significantly higher than basal in the LEAA_6 and WP groups only over 0-4 h. However, FED-EX increased MPS similarly across all the groups from 0 to 4 h (P < 0.05). Only p-p70S6K1 increased with WP at 2 h in FED (P < 0.05), and at 2/4 h in FED-EX (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, LEAA_1.5, despite only providing 0.6 g of leucine, robustly (perhaps maximally) stimulated MPS, with negligible trophic advantage of greater doses of LEAA or even to 40 g WP. Highlighting that composition of EAA, in particular the presence of leucine rather than amount is most crucial for anabolism.
Project description:In humans, essential amino acids (EAAs) stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with no effect on muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Insulin can stimulate MPS, and carbohydrates (CHOs) and insulin decrease MPB. Net protein balance (NB; indicator of overall anabolism) is greatest when MPS is maximized and MPB is minimized. To determine whether adding CHO or a gluconeogenic amino acid to EAAs would improve NB compared with EAA alone, young men and women (n = 21) ingested 10 g EAA alone, with 30 g sucrose (EAA+CHO), or with 30 g alanine (EAA+ALA). The fractional synthetic rate and phenylalanine kinetics (MPS, MPB, NB) were assessed by stable isotopic methods on muscle biopsies at baseline and 60 and 180 min following nutrient ingestion. Insulin increased 30 min postingestion in all groups and remained elevated in the EAA+CHO and EAA+ALA groups for 60 and 120 min, respectively. The fractional synthetic rate increased from baseline at 60 min in all groups (P < 0.05; EAA = 0.053 ± 0.018 to 0.090 ± 0.039%?·?h(-1); EAA+ALA = 0.051 ± 0.005 to 0.087 ± 0.015%?·?h(-1); EAA+CHO = 0.049 ± 0.006 to 0.115 ± 0.024%?·?h(-1)). MPS and NB peaked at 30 min in the EAA and EAA+CHO groups but at 60 min in the EAA+ALA group and NB was elevated above baseline longer in the EAA+ALA group than in the EAA group (P < 0.05). Although responses were more robust in the EAA+CHO group and prolonged in the EAA+ALA group, AUCs were similar among all groups for fractional synthetic rate, MPS, MPB, and NB. Because the overall muscle protein anabolic response was not improved in either the EAA+ALA or EAA+CHO group compared with EAA, we conclude that protein nutritional interventions to enhance muscle protein anabolism do not require such additional energy.
Project description:Background:The muscle protein anabolic response to contraction and feeding may be blunted in older adults. Acute bouts of exercise can improve the ability of amino acids to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by activating mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, but it is not known whether exercise training may improve muscle sensitivity to amino acid availability. Objective:The aim of this study was to determine if muscle protein anabolism is resistant to essential amino acids (EAAs) and whether resistance exercise training (RET) improves muscle sensitivity to EAA in healthy older adults. Methods:In a longitudinal study, 19 healthy older adults [mean ± SD age: 71 ± 4 y body mass index (kg/m2): 28 ± 3] were trained for 12 wk with a whole-body program of progressive RET (60-75% 1-repetition maximum). Body composition, strength, and metabolic health were measured pre- and posttraining. We also performed stable isotope infusion experiments with muscle biopsies pre- and posttraining to measure MPS and markers of amino acid sensing in the basal state and in response to 6.8 g of EAA ingestion. Results:RET increased muscle strength by 16%, lean mass by 2%, and muscle cross-sectional area by 27% in healthy older adults (P < 0.05). MPS and mTORC1 signaling (i.e., phosphorylation status of protein kinase B, 4E binding protein 1, 70-kDa S6 protein kinase, and ribosomal protein S6) increased after EAA ingestion (P < 0.05) pre- and posttraining. RET increased basal MPS by 36% (P < 0.05); however, RET did not affect the response of MPS and mTORC1 signaling to EAA ingestion. Conclusion:RET increases strength and basal MPS, promoting hypertrophy in healthy older adults. In these subjects, a small dose of EAAs stimulates muscle mTORC1 signaling and MPS, and this response to EAAs does not improve after RET. Our data indicate that anabolic resistance to amino acids may not be a problem in healthy older adults. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02999802.
Project description:Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in humans. Leucine may have a greater stimulatory effect on MPS than other EAA and/or decrease muscle protein breakdown (MPB). To determine the effect of 2 different leucine concentrations on muscle protein turnover and associated signaling, young men (n = 6) and women (n = 8) ingested 10 g EAA in 1 of 2 groups: composition typical of high quality proteins (CTRL; 1.8 g leucine) or increased leucine concentration (LEU; 3.5 g leucine). Participants were studied for 180 min postingestion. Fractional synthetic rate and leg phenylalanine and leucine kinetics were assessed on muscle biopsies using stable isotopic techniques. Signaling was determined by immunoblotting. Arterial leucine concentration and delivery to the leg increased in both groups and was significantly higher in LEU than in CTRL; however, transport into the muscle and intracellular availability did not differ between groups. MPS increased similarly in both groups 60 min postingestion. MPB decreased at 60 min only in LEU, but net muscle protein balance improved similarly. Components of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were improved in LEU, but no changes were observed in ubiquitin-proteasome system signaling. Changes in light chain 3 and mTOR association with Unc-51-like kinase 1 indicate autophagy decreased more in LEU. We conclude that in 10 g of EAA, the leucine content typical of high quality proteins (~1.8 g) is sufficient to induce a maximal skeletal muscle protein anabolic response in young adults, but leucine may play a role in autophagy regulation.
Project description:Effects of conventional endurance (CE) exercise and essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC) and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ? min(-1)) were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ? m(-1)) LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg) or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC) exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine) or control (CON, non-nutritive) drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05), independent of dietary treatment. EAA enhanced mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS during exercise, regardless of mode (drink main effect, P < 0.05). Mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS were higher in recovery for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05). No other differences or interactions (mode x drink) were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P < 0.05). These data show that, although whole-body protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.
Project description:Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is increased following resistance exercise, but ingestion of carbohydrate during postexercise recovery can decrease MPB with no effect on muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We sought to determine whether a combination of essential amino acids (EAA) with low carbohydrate or high carbohydrate could effectively reduce MPB following resistance exercise and improve muscle protein net balance (NB). We hypothesized that higher levels of carbohydrate and resulting increases in circulating insulin would inhibit MPB and associated signaling, resulting in augmented NB. Thirteen male subjects were assigned to one of two groups receiving equivalent amounts of EAA (approximately 20 g) but differing carbohydrate levels (low = 30, high = 90 g). Groups ingested nutrients 1 h after an acute bout of leg resistance exercise. Leg phenylalanine kinetics (e.g., MPB, MPS, NB), signaling proteins, and mRNA expression were assessed on successive muscle biopsies using stable isotopic techniques, immunoblotting, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. MPB tended to decrease (P < 0.1) and MPS increased (P < 0.05) similarly in both groups following nutrient ingestion. No group differences were observed, but muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) protein content and MuRF1 mRNA expression increased following resistance exercise and remained elevated following nutrient ingestion, while autophagy marker (light-chain 3B-II) decreased after nutrient ingestion (P < 0.05). Forkhead box-O3a phosphorylation, total muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) protein, and MAFbx and caspase-3 mRNA expression were unchanged. We conclude that the enhanced muscle protein anabolic response detected when EAA+carbohydrate are ingested postresistance exercise is primarily due to an increase in MPS with minor changes in MPB, regardless of carbohydrate dose or circulating insulin level.
Project description:This double-blind study examined effects of a protease enzyme blend (Prohydrolase®) added to whey protein on post-resistance exercise aminoacidemia and intramuscular anabolic signaling were investigated in ten resistance-trained males. Participants completed 4 sets of 8-10 repetitions in the leg press and leg extension exercises at 75% of 1-repetition maximum. Participants then consumed either 250 mg of Prohydrolase® + 26 g of whey protein (PW), 26 g whey alone (W), or non-nutritive control (CON) in counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained prior to exercise (baseline) and then immediately-post (IP), 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 180-min post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, 1-h (1H), and 3-h (3H) post-exercise. Phosphorylation of AKTSer437 was decreased (3H only: p < 0.001), mTORSer2448 was increased (1H: p = 0.025; 3H: p = 0.009), and p70S6KThr412 remained unchanged similarly for each condition. Plasma leucine, branch-chained amino acids, and essential amino acid concentrations for PW were significantly higher than CON (p < 0.05) at 30 min and similar to W. Compared to IP, PW was the only treatment with elevated plasma leucine levels at 30 min (p = 0.007; ? = 57.8 mmol/L, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 20.0, 95.6) and EAA levels at 180 min (p = 0.003; ? = 179.1 mmol/L, 95% CI: 77.5, 280.7). Area under the curve amino acid analysis revealed no differences between PW and W. While no different than W, these data indicate that PW was the only group to produce elevated amino acid concentrations 30-min and 180-min post-ingestion.
Project description:Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m-1) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed. Expression of myomiR (RT-qPCR) were determined at rest (PRE), immediately post-exercise (POST), and 3 h into recovery (REC). Muscle protein synthesis (2H5-phenylalanine) was measured during exercise and recovery. Relative to PRE, POST, and REC expression of miR-1-3p, miR-206, miR-208a-5, and miR-499 was lower (P < 0.05) for LC compared to CE, regardless of dietary treatment. Independent of exercise mode, miR-1-3p and miR-208a-5p expression were lower (P < 0.05) after ingesting EAA+CHO compared to CON. Expression of miR-206 was highest for CE-CON than any other treatment (exercise-by-drink, P < 0.05). Common targets of differing myomiR were identified as markers within mTORC1 signaling, and miR-206 and miR-499 were inversely associated with MPS rates immediately post-exercise. These findings suggest the alterations in myomiR expression between exercise mode and EAA+CHO intake may in part be due to differing MPS modulation immediately post-exercise.