Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected women.
ABSTRACT: Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are disproportionately affected by human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anogenital disease, particularly with increased immunosuppression. AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5240 was a trial of 319 HIV-infected women in the United States, Brazil, and South Africa to determine immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in 3 strata based on screening CD4 count: >350 (stratum A), 201-350 (stratum B), and ≤200 cells/µL (stratum C).Safety and serostatus of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were examined. HPV serological testing was performed using competitive Luminex immunoassay (HPV-4 cLIA). HPV type-specific seroconversion analysis was done for participants who were seronegative for the given type at baseline.Median age of patients was 36 years; 11% were white, 56% black, and 31% Hispanic. Median CD4 count was 310 cells/µL, and 40% had undetectable HIV-1 load. No safety issues were identified. Seroconversion proportions among women at week 28 for HPV types 6, 11,16, and 18 were 96%, 98%, 99%, and 91%, respectively, for stratum A; 100%, 98%, 98%, and 85%, respectively, for stratum B, and 84%, 92%, 93%, and 75%, respectively, for stratum C.The quadrivalent HPV vaccine targeted at types 6, 11, 16, and 18 was safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected women aged 13-45 years. Women with HIV RNA load >10 000 copies/mL and/or CD4 count <200 cells/µL had lower rates of seroconversion rates. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00604175.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:People living with HIV have increased Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related lesions and malignancies. We describe HPV DNA recovered from the cervix and anal canal, explore the effect of vaccination on HPV detection, and examine the durability of vaccine titers in women living with HIV-1 who were vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS:AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5240 was a prospective study of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in 315 HIV-1 infected women in three CD4 strata (A: >350, B; 201-350, C: ≤200 cells/mm3). Vaccine was administered at entry, week 8 and week 24. Cervical and anal HPV DNA specimens were collected at baseline, weeks 28 and 52; serum for antibody testing was obtained at baseline, weeks 28 and 72. RESULTS:Vaccine antibody titers decreased across all four HPV types at week 72 compared to week 28. Lower proportions of sustained seropositivity were observed in women with lower CD4 counts for all four vaccine types, with the lowest titers for HPV 18. Despite the decrease, the geometric mean titer levels were above the seroconversion cut-off levels for all types except HPV 18 in the lowest CD4 stratum. Of the 174 participants who had a negative baseline HPV 16 antibody and developed antibody response at week 28, 95%, 88%, and 86% retained seropositivity at week 72 in strata A, B, and C respectively. Lower antibody retention was observed in women with CD4 < 200 compared to CD4 > 350 (p = 0.016). Anal HPV detection was more prevalent compared to cervical detection at all visits. Among high risk types, type 52, 31, 16, 18 and 51 were the most common in the cervical compartment, while types 16, 35, 18, and 51 were the most prevalent in the anal canal at baseline (listed in the order of prevalence). Later detection of HPV not present at baseline was uncommon in either compartment. Serial recovery of HPV over time was more commonly observed in the anal canal. CONCLUSION:The qHPV vaccine elicits durable titer response above the seroconversion cut-off levels in HIV-infected women. However, the titer levels were substantially lower by Week 72, most noticeably in type 18. HPV DNA was detected more frequently in the anal canal. Detection of non-vaccine high risk HPV suggests a role for the nonavalent vaccine.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas.We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital. Each woman underwent a gynecological exam, cervical cytology, HR-HPV detection by Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) using the BD Onclarity™ HPV Assay, colposcopy and biopsy, when necessary. We assessed the associations between potential risk factors and HR-HPV infection.Overall, 299 (92.0%) women had a PCR result. The prevalence of HR-HPV- infection was 31.1%. The most prevalent HR-HPV types were: 56/59/66 (32.2%), 35/39/68 (28.0%), 52 (21.5%), 16 (19.4%), and 45 (12.9%). Among the women with HR-HPV infection (n =?93), 43.0% had multiple infections. Women with HPV infection showed higher prevalence of cervical abnormalities than that HPV-negative (LSIL: 22.6% vs. 1.5%; HSIL: 10.8% vs. 0.0%). The prevalence of HR-HPV among women with cytological abnormalities was 87.5% for LSIL and 100.0% for HSIL. Women with CD4?<?200 cell/mm3 showed the highest HR-HPV prevalence (59.3%) although this trend was not statistically significant (p-value?=?0.62). The mean CD4 cell count decreased with increasing severity of cervical lesions (p-value?=?0.001). The multivariable analysis showed that increasing age was associated with a decreased risk of HR-HPV infection with an adjusted prevalence odds ratio of 0.9 (95.0% CI: 0.9-1.0, p-value: 0.03) for each additional year. The only factor statistically significant associated with HR-HPV infection was CD4 cell count.HR-HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence are high among women in the Amazonas. The low CD4 cell count was an important determinant of HPV infection and abnormal cytological findings. HPV quadrivalent vaccination used in Brazil might not offer protection for an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden in women living with HIV. This is partly explained by the high presence of non targeted vaccine HR-HPVs, such as the HPV genotype groups 56/59/66, 35/39/68 and individually HPV-52 and HPV-45, some of which contribute to high-grade lesion.
Project description:The objectives of this study are to address if and how albumin can be used as an indication of malnutrition in HIV infected and uninfected Africans.In 2005, 710 HIV-infected and 226 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in a cohort study. Clinical/demographic parameters, CD4 count, albumin, liver transaminases; anthropometric measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) were performed. Malnutrition outcomes were defined as body mass index (BMI), Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and Fat mass index (FMI). Separate linear predictive models including albumin were fit to these outcomes in HIV negative and HIV positive women by CD4 strata (CD4>350,200-350 and <200 cells/µl).In unadjusted models for each outcome in HIV-negative and HIV positive women with CD4>350 cells/µl, serum albumin was not significantly associated with BMI, FFMI or FMI. Albumin was significantly associated with all three outcomes (p<0.05) in HIV+ women with CD4 200-350 cells/µl, and highly significant in HIV+ women with CD4<200 cells/µl (P<0.001). In multivariable linear regression, albumin remained associated with FFMI in women with CD4 count<200 cells/µl (p<0.01) but not in HIV+ women with CD4>200.While serum albumin is widely used to indicate nutritional status it did not consistently predict malnutrition outcomes in HIV- women or HIV+ women with higher CD4. This result suggests that albumin may measure end stage disease as well as malnutrition and should not be used as a proxy for nutritional status without further study of its association with validated measures.
Project description:High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection are usually associated with rapid disease progression (RP). However, a minority of HIV-infected individuals remain asymptomatic and show persistently high CD4+ T cell counts despite high viremia for many years (viremic non progressors, VNP). The latter profile is reminiscent of the non-pathogenic model of SIV infection in natural hosts such as the sooty mangabey. We used various genomic approaches to examine 66 RP and 6 VNP defined according to strict criteria. RP were characterized by depletion of protective HLA alleles, enrichment of HLA alleles associated with disease progression, and a characteristic transcriptome profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaque. In contrast, VNPs presented lower expression of interferon stimulated genes than RP, and shared with SIV-infected sooty mangabeys a common profile of regulation of a set of genes that includes CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1 and EEF1D. The estimated 8% of RP and 0.1% of VNP in human cohorts represent two subsets of HIV-infected individuals whose analysis may inform our understanding of HIV pathogenesis. Selection criteria rapid progressors (RP): HIV seroconversion window <1 year WITH documented negative and positive serology or biological proof of primary infection. AND One of A) or B) A) >2 CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/µl within 3 years of seroconversion AND no subsequent rise of CD4+ T cells above 350 cells/µl in the absence of ART. B) ART initiated within 3 years of seroconversion AND CD4+ T cell count within 1 month of ART-start <350 cells/µl. Selection criteria viremic non progressors (VNP): > 3 years of follow-up AND median HIV viremia from >3 measurements >100'000 viral RNA copies/ml AND HIV viremia consistently above 10’000 copies/ml AND CD4+ T cell count above 350 cells/µl AND no ART during follow-up. Selection criteria elite/viremic controllers (EC): see Casado et al. 2010. Host and viral genetic correlates of clinical definitions of HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS ONE 5:e11079. Overall design: Total RNA from 41 samples obtained from CD4 T cells from HIV infected individuals to identify associations between gene expression and different distinct patterns of disease progression Total RNA from 38 samples obtained from CD8 T cells from HIV infected individuals to identify associations between gene expression and different distinct
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in pregnant women with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the persistence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in mothers and infants. METHODS:Antibodies were measured before vaccination, 1 month after vaccination, at delivery, and at postpartum week 24 in mothers and within 1 week of birth and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age in infants. RESULTS:We enrolled 98 HIV-uninfected and 100 HIV-infected pregnant women, including 93% with a CD4(+) T-cell count of ? 200 cells/µL. Compared with HIV-uninfected women, HIV-infected women had lower seroconversion rates (ranging from 63%-92% vs 36%-40%), lower antibody titers through postpartum week 24, and overlapping antibody half-lives (ranging from 106-121 vs 87-153 days). Infant titers were lower than the maternal titers within 1 week of delivery, regardless of vaccine strain and HIV exposure status. Compared with HIV-unexposed infants, HIV-exposed infants had a similar transplacental influenza virus antibody transfer ratio, lower titers, and a lower frequency of titers ? 1:40 (ranging from 82%-95% vs 43%-79%) at birth and higher antibody half-lives (ranging from 43-45 vs 56-65 days). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with HIV-uninfected pregnant women, HIV-infected pregnant women had lower antibody responses and persistence. Compared with HIV-unexposed infants, HIV-exposed infants had lower antibody levels at birth but similar antibody levels after 8 weeks of life. Early IIV3 administration during pregnancy did not decrease antibody titers among infants at birth.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing can improve access to treatment by enabling decentralization and reducing patient loss-to-follow-up. As new POC CD4 technologies become available, their performance should be assessed before widespread deployment. This study reports the findings of five independent evaluations of the PointCare NOW CD4 system. MATERIALS/METHODS: Evaluations were conducted in Southern Africa (Mozambique, South Africa) and North America (Canada, USA). 492 blood samples (55 from HIV-negative blood donors and 437 from HIV-infected patients, including 20 children aged between 12 and 59 months) were tested with both the PointCare NOW and reference flow cytometry instruments. Assessment of bias, precision and levels of clinical misclassification for absolute and percent CD4 count was conducted. RESULTS: PointCare NOW significantly overestimated CD4 absolute counts with a mean relative bias of +35.0%. Bias was greater in samples with CD4 counts below ? 350 cells/µl (+51.3%) than in the CD4 >350 cells/µl stratum (15.1%). Bias in CD4% had a similar trend with an overall relative mean bias of +25.6% and a larger bias for low CD4 stratum (+40.2%) than the higher CD4 stratum (+5.8%). Relative bias for CD4% in children was -6.8%. In terms of repeatability, PointCare NOW had a coefficient of variation of 11%. Using a threshold of 350 cells/µl, only 47% of patients who qualified for antiretroviral therapy with reference CD4 testing, would have been eligible for treatment with PointCare NOW test results. This was 39% using a 200 cells/µl threshold. Agreement with infant samples was higher, with 90% qualifying at a 25% eligibility threshold. CONCLUSION: The performance of the PointCare NOW instrument for absolute and percent CD4 enumeration was inadequate for HIV clinical management in adults. In children, the small sample size was not large enough to draw a conclusion. This study also highlights the importance of independent evaluation of new diagnostic technology platforms before deployment.
Project description:High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection are usually associated with rapid disease progression (RP). However, a minority of HIV-infected individuals remain asymptomatic and show persistently high CD4+ T cell counts despite high viremia for many years (viremic non progressors, VNP). The latter profile is reminiscent of the non-pathogenic model of SIV infection in natural hosts such as the sooty mangabey. We used various genomic approaches to examine 66 RP and 6 VNP defined according to strict criteria. RP were characterized by depletion of protective HLA alleles, enrichment of HLA alleles associated with disease progression, and a characteristic transcriptome profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaque. In contrast, VNPs presented lower expression of interferon stimulated genes than RP, and shared with SIV-infected sooty mangabeys a common profile of regulation of a set of genes that includes CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1 and EEF1D. The estimated 8% of RP and 0.1% of VNP in human cohorts represent two subsets of HIV-infected individuals whose analysis may inform our understanding of HIV pathogenesis. Selection criteria rapid progressors (RP): HIV seroconversion window <1 year WITH documented negative and positive serology or biological proof of primary infection. AND One of A) or B) A) >2 CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/µl within 3 years of seroconversion AND no subsequent rise of CD4+ T cells above 350 cells/µl in the absence of ART. B) ART initiated within 3 years of seroconversion AND CD4+ T cell count within 1 month of ART-start <350 cells/µl. Selection criteria viremic non progressors (VNP): > 3 years of follow-up AND median HIV viremia from >3 measurements >100'000 viral RNA copies/ml AND HIV viremia consistently above 10’000 copies/ml AND CD4+ T cell count above 350 cells/µl AND no ART during follow-up. Selection criteria elite/viremic controllers (EC): see Casado et al. 2010. Host and viral genetic correlates of clinical definitions of HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS ONE 5:e11079. Total RNA from 41 samples obtained from CD4 T cells from HIV infected individuals to identify associations between gene expression and different distinct patterns of disease progression Total RNA from 38 samples obtained from CD8 T cells from HIV infected individuals to identify associations between gene expression and different distinct
Project description:Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype B-infected individuals generally progress to AIDS within 8-10 years, limited data exist for other clades, especially from Africa. We investigated rates of HIV disease progression of clade C-infected South African women.Prospective seroincidence cohorts in KwaZulu-Natal were assessed for acute HIV infection monthly (n = 245) or every 3 months (n = 594) for up to 4 years. Rapid disease progression was defined as CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL by 2 years postinfection. Serial clinical and laboratory assessments were compared using survival analysis and logistic regression models.Sixty-two women were identified at a median of 42 days postinfection (interquartile range, 34-59), contributing 282 person-years of follow-up. Mean CD4 count dropped by 39.6% at 3 months and 46.7% at 6 months postinfection in women with preinfection measurements. CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL occurred in 31%, 44%, and 55% of women at 1, 2, and 3 years postinfection, respectively, and to <500 cells/µL in 69%, 79%, and 81% at equivalent timepoints. Predictors of rapid progression were CD4 count at 3 months postinfection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-3.28; P = .002), setpoint viral load (HR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.51-9.67; P = .005), and hepatitis B coinfection (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.31-15.69; P = .017). Conversely, presence of any of HLAB*1302, B*27, B*57, B*5801, or B*8101 alleles predicted non-rapid progression (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, .05-.74; P = .016).Nearly half of subtype C-infected women progressed to a CD4 count <350 cells/µL within 2 years of infection. Implementing 2013 World Health Organization treatment guidelines (CD4 count <500 cells/µL) would require most individuals to start antiretroviral therapy within 1 year of HIV infection.
Project description:A subgroup of women who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human papillomavirus (HPV), progress rapidly to cervical disease. We characterized HPV genotypes within cervical tumor biopsies, assessed the relationships of cervical disease stage with age, HIV-1 status, absolute CD4 count, and CD4 percentage, and identified the predictive power of these variables for cervical disease stage in a cohort of South African women.We recruited 181 women who were histologically diagnosed with cervical disease; 87 were HIV-1-positive and 94 were HIV-1-seronegative. Colposcopy-directed tumor biopsies were confirmed by histology and used for genomic DNA extraction. The Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping test was used for HPV genotyping. Peripheral whole blood was used for HIV-1 rapid testing. Fully automated FC500MPL/CellMek with PanLeucogate (PLG) was used to determine absolute CD4 count, CD4 percentage, and CD45 count. Chi-squared test, a logistic regression model, parametric Pearson correlation, and ROC curves were used for statistical analyses. We used the Benjamini-Horchberg test to control for false discovery rate (FDR, q-value). All tests were significant when both P and q were <.05.Age was a significant predictor for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in both HIV-1-seronegative (P?<?.0001, q?<?0.0001) and HIV-1-positive women (P = .0003, q = 0.0003). Sixty eight percent (59/87) of HIV-1-positive women with different stages of cervical disease presented with a CD4 percentage equal or less than 28%, and a median absolute CD4 count of 400?cells/?l (IQR 300-500?cells/?l). Of the HIV-1-positive women, 75% (30/40) with ICC, possessed ?28% CD4 cells vs 25% (10/40) who possessed >28% CD4 cells (both P?<?.001, q?<?0.001). Furthermore, 70% (28/40) of women with ICC possessed CD4 count >350 compared to 30% (12/40) who possessed CD4 count ? 350 (both P?<?.001, q?<?0.001).Age is an independent predictor for ICC. In turn, development of ICC in HIV-1-positive women is independent of the host CD4 cells and associates with low CD4 percentage regardless of absolute CD4 count that falls within the normal range. Thus, using CD4 percentage may add a better prognostic indicator of cervical disease stage than absolute CD4 count alone.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recent studies reported a lower human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) prevalence in cervical precancer among African American than Caucasian women in the general population. We assessed this relationship in women with HIV. DESIGN:Women living with or at risk for HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed semi-annually with Pap tests, colposcopy/histology (if indicated), and collection of cervicovaginal lavage samples for HPV testing by PCR. Racial and ethnic groups were defined using genomic Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). RESULTS:Among 175 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse (CIN-3+), 154 were diagnosed in women with HIV. African American (27%) and Hispanic (37%) cases were significantly less likely than Caucasian (62%) women to test positive for HPV16 (P?=?0.01). In multivariate logistic regression models, these associations remained significant for African Americans (odds ratio?=?0.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.44; P?=?0.001) but not Hispanics, after controlling for HIV status, CD4 count, history of AIDS, age, smoking, and sexual behavior. Limiting the analysis to women with HIV did not change the findings. CONCLUSION:HPV16 prevalence is lower in African American compared with Caucasian women with HIV and cervical precancer, independent of immune status. Future studies to determine why these racial differences exist are warranted, and whether there are similar associations between race and invasive cervical cancer in women with HIV. Further, HPV types not covered by quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines may play an especially important role in cervical precancer among HIV-positive African American women, a possible advantage to using nonavalent HPV vaccine in this population.