Genetic influence of dopamine receptor, dopamine transporter, and nicotine metabolism on smoking cessation and nicotine dependence in a Japanese population.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1), which is adjacent to the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2), and the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genes influence smoking cessation and nicotine dependence in a Japanese population. In 96 current and former smokers, genotyping frequencies for the ANKK1/DRD2 TaqIA, SLC6A3 VNTR, and CYP2A6 polymorphisms were subjected to chi-square analysis, and regression analyses were used to determine the association of the genotypes of current smokers with a Heavy Smoking Index, in addition to evaluating the effect of the subjects' smoking history on the association.Genotyping results suggested that nicotine dependence among current smokers homozygous for the SLC6A3 10r allele was lower than that of smokers carrying the minor alleles, and that the CYP2A6 polymorphism might mediate this association. Furthermore, the age at which current smokers began smoking might moderate the association between their genetic polymorphisms and nicotine dependence.This study provides preliminary findings on the influence of genetic variants on the smoking phenotypes in a Japanese population.
Project description:Some controversy exists on the specific genetic variants that are associated with nicotine dependence and smoking-related phenotypes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of smoking status and smoking-related phenotypes (included nicotine dependence) with 17 candidate genetic variants: CYP2A6*1×2, CYP2A6*2 (1799T>A) [rs1801272], CYP2A6*9 (-48T>G) [rs28399433], CYP2A6*12, CYP2A13*2 (3375C>T) [rs8192789], CYP2A13*3 (7520C>G), CYP2A13*4 (579G>A), CYP2A13*7 (578C>T) [rs72552266], CYP2B6*4 (785A>G), CYP2B6*9 (516G>T), CHRNA3 546C>T [rs578776], CHRNA5 1192G>A [rs16969968], CNR1 3764C>G [rs6928499], DRD2-ANKK1 2137G>A (Taq1A) [rs1800497], 5HTT LPR, HTR2A -1438A>G [rs6311] and OPRM1 118A>G [rs1799971]. We studied the genotypes of the aforementioned polymorphisms in a cohort of Spanish smokers (cases, N = 126) and ethnically matched never smokers (controls, N = 80). The results showed significant between-group differences for CYP2A6*2 and CYP2A6*12 (both P<0.001). Compared with carriers of variant alleles, the odds ratio (OR) for being a non-smoker in individuals with the wild-type genotype of CYP2A6*12 and DRD2-ANKK1 2137G>A (Taq1A) polymorphisms was 3.60 (95%CI: 1.75, 7.44) and 2.63 (95%CI: 1.41, 4.89) respectively. Compared with the wild-type genotype, the OR for being a non-smoker in carriers of the minor CYP2A6*2 allele was 1.80 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.65). We found a significant genotype effect (all P?0.017) for the following smoking-related phenotypes: (i) cigarettes smoked per day and CYP2A13*3; (ii) pack years smoked and CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*1×2, CYP2A13*7, CYP2B6*4 and DRD2-ANKK1 2137G>A (Taq1A); (iii) nicotine dependence (assessed with the Fagestrom test) and CYP2A6*9. Overall, our results suggest that genetic variants potentially involved in nicotine metabolization (mainly, CYP2A6 polymorphisms) are those showing the strongest association with smoking-related phenotypes, as opposed to genetic variants influencing the brain effects of nicotine, e.g., through nicotinic acetylcholine (CHRNA5), serotoninergic (HTR2A), opioid (OPRM1) or cannabinoid receptors (CNR1).
Project description:We utilized a cohort of 828 treatment-seeking self-identified white cigarette smokers (50% female) to rank candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), a measure of nicotine dependence which assesses quantity of cigarettes smoked and time- and place-dependent characteristics of the respondent's smoking behavior. A total of 1123 SNPs at 55 autosomal candidate genes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and genes involved in dopaminergic function, were tested for association to baseline FTND scores adjusted for age, depression, education, sex, and study site. SNP P-values were adjusted for the number of transmission models, the number of SNPs tested per candidate gene, and their intragenic correlation. DRD2, SLC6A3, and NR4A2 SNPs with adjusted P-values <0.10 were considered sufficiently noteworthy to justify further genetic, bioinformatic, and literature analyses. Each independent signal among the top-ranked SNPs accounted for approximately 1% of the FTND variance in this sample. The DRD2 SNP appears to represent a novel association with nicotine dependence. The SLC6A3 SNPs have previously been shown to be associated with SLC6A3 transcription or dopamine transporter density in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. Analysis of SLC6A3 and NR4A2 SNPs identified a statistically significant gene-gene interaction (P=0.001), consistent with in vitro evidence that the NR4A2 protein product (NURR1) regulates SLC6A3 transcription. A community cohort of N=175 multiplex ever-smoking pedigrees (N=423 ever smokers) provided nominal evidence for association with the FTND at these top ranked SNPs, uncorrected for multiple comparisons.
Project description:While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes.In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12-13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7-8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator).The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1)) were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value <0.01 using linear mixed models. After permutation and FDR adjustment, none of the associations remained statistically significant, although the p-values for the association between rs557748 in OPRM1 and the ND/craving and self-medication phenotypes were both 0.076.Because the genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3).Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the development of ND.
Project description:Nicotine dependence (ND) is a heterogeneous phenotype with complex genetic influences that may vary across ethnicities. The use of intermediate phenotypes may clarify genetic influences and reveal specific etiological pathways. Prior work in European Americans has found that the four Primary Dependence Motives (PDM) subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance) of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Motives represent core features of nicotine dependence and are promising intermediate phenotypes for understanding genetic pathways to ND. However, no studies have examined PDM as an intermediate phenotype in African American smokers, an ethnic population that displays unique patterns of smoking and genetic variation. In the current study, 268 African American daily smokers completed a phenotypic assessment and provided a sample of DNA. Associations among haplotypes in the NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 gene cluster, a dopamine-related gene region associated with ND, PDM intermediate phenotypes, and ND were examined. Dopamine-related genetic variation in the DBH and COMT genes was also considered on an exploratory basis. Mediational analysis was used to test the indirect pathway from genetic variation to smoking motives to nicotine dependence. NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 region variation was significantly associated with the Automaticity subscale and, further, Automaticity significantly mediated associations among NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 cluster variants and ND. DBH was also significantly associated with Automaticity, Craving, and Tolerance; Automaticity and Tolerance also served as mediators of the DBH-ND relationship. These results suggest that PDM, Automaticity in particular, may be a viable intermediate phenotype for understanding dopamine-related genetic influences on ND in African American smokers. Findings support a model in which putatively dopaminergic variants exert influence on ND through an effect on patterns of automatic routinized smoking.
Project description:Language impairment (LI) and reading disability (RD) are common pediatric neurobehavioral disorders that frequently co-occur, suggesting they share etiological determinants. Recently, our group identified prenatal nicotine exposure as a factor for RD and poor reading performance. Using smoking questionnaire and language data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we first determined if this risk could be expanded to other communication disorders by evaluating whether prenatal nicotine exposure increases risk for LI and poor performance on language tasks. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased LI risk (OR?=?1.60; p?=?0.0305) in a dose-response fashion with low (OR?=?1.25; p?=?0.1202) and high (OR?=?3.84; p?=?0.0002) exposures. Next, hypothesizing that the effects of prenatal nicotine may also implicate genes that function in nicotine related pathways, we determined whether known nicotine dependence (ND) genes associate with performance on language tasks. We assessed the association of 33 variants previously implicated in ND with LI and language abilities, finding association between ANKK1/DRD2 and performance on language tasks (p?0.0003). The associations of markers within ANKK1 were replicated in a separate LI case-control cohort (p<0.05). Our results show that smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for LI and poor performance on language tasks and that ANKK1/DRD2 contributes to language performance. More precisely, these findings suggest that prenatal environmental factors influence in utero development of neural circuits vital to language. Our association of ANKK1/DRD2 further implicates the role of nicotine-related pathways and dopamine signaling in language processing, particularly in comprehension and phonological memory.
Project description:The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a central role in addictive disorders, including nicotine addiction. Specific DA-related gene variants have been studied to identify responsiveness to treatment for nicotine addiction. Genetic variants in DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, DAT1, COMT and DBH genes show some promise in informing personalized prescribing of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. However, many trials studying these variants had small samples, used retrospective design or were composed of mainly self-identified Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, many of these studies lacked a comprehensive measurement of nicotine metabolism rate, did not assess the roles of sex or the menstrual cycle, and did not investigate the role of rare variants and/or epigenetic factors. Future work should be conducted addressing these limitations to more effectively utilize DA genetic information to unlock the potential of smoking cessation pharmacogenetics.
Project description:RATIONALE:Nicotine dependence (ND) is a heterogeneous phenotype with complex genetic influences. The use of intermediate ND phenotypes may clarify genetic influences and reveal specific etiological pathways. Prior work has found that the four Primary Dependence Motives (PDM) subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance) of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Motives (WISDM) represent heavy, pervasive smoking, which is a core feature of nicotine dependence, making these motives strong candidates as intermediate phenotypes. OBJECTIVE:This study examines the WISDM PDM as a novel intermediate phenotype of nicotine dependence. METHODS:The study used data from 734 European Americans who smoked at least 5 cigs/day [M?=?16.2 (SD?=?9.5)?cigs/day], completed a phenotypic assessment, and provided a sample of DNA. Based on prior evidence of the role of genetic variation in the NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 region on chromosome 11q23 in smoking behavior, associations among 12 region loci with nicotine dependence and PDM phenotypes were examined using haplotype and individual loci approaches. In addition, mediational analysis tested the indirect pathway from genetic variation to smoking motives to nicotine dependence. RESULTS:NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 region loci and haplotypes were significantly associated with the motive of Automaticity and, further, Automaticity significantly mediated associations among NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 cluster variants and nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that motives related to automaticity are a viable intermediate phenotype for understanding genetic contributions to nicotine dependence. Further, NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 variants may increase the likelihood that a person will become dependent via a highly automatic smoking ritual that can be elicited with little awareness.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Evidence suggests that both the nicotinic receptor ?5 subunit (CHRNA5) and Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotypes influence smoking cessation success and response to pharmacotherapy. We examine the effect of CYP2A6 genotype on smoking cessation success and response to cessation pharmacotherapy, and combine these effects with those of CHRNA5 genotypes. DESIGN:Placebo-controlled randomized smoking cessation trial. SETTING:Ambulatory care facility in Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS:Smokers (n?=?709) of European ancestry were randomized to placebo, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy or combined bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy. MEASUREMENTS:Survival analysis was used to model time to relapse using nicotine metabolism derived from CYP2A6 genotype-based estimates. Slow metabolism is defined as the lowest quartile of estimated metabolic function. FINDINGS:CYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolic function moderated the effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy on smoking relapse over 90 days [hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.32-5.99, P?=?0.0075], with pharmacotherapy significantly slowing relapse in fast (HR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.28-0.55, P?=?1.97?×?10(-8)), but not slow metabolizers (HR?=?1.09, 95% CI?=?0.55-2.17, P?=?0.80). Further, only the effect of nicotine replacement, and not bupropion, varies with CYP2A6-defined metabolic function. The effect of nicotine replacement on continuous abstinence is moderated by the combined genetic risks from CYP2A6 and CHRNA5 (Wald?=?7.44, d.f.?=?1, P?=?0.0064). CONCLUSIONS:Nicotine replacement therapy is effective among individuals with fast, but not slow, CYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolism. The effect of bupropion on relapse likelihood is unlikely to be affected by nicotine metabolism as estimated from CYP2A6 genotype. The variation in treatment responses among smokers with genes may guide future personalized smoking cessation interventions.
Project description:The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including nicotine, to promote public health. Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes may lead to lower levels of addiction. Smokers however may compensate by smoking more cigarettes and/or smoking more intensely. The objective of this study was to test whether individual differences in the level of nicotine dependence (as measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]) and/or the rate of nicotine metabolism influence smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants when smokers are switched to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNC).Data from 51 participants from a previously published clinical trial of RNC were analyzed. Nicotine content of cigarettes was progressively reduced over 6 months and measures of smoking behavior, as well as nicotine metabolites and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure, CYP2A6 and nicotinic CHRNA5-A3-B4 (rs1051730) genotype were measured.Higher baseline FTCD predicted smoking more cigarettes per day (CPD), higher cotinine and smoke toxicant levels while smoking RNC throughout the study, with no interaction by RNC level. Time to first cigarette (TFC) was associated with differences in compensation. TFC within 10 min was associated with a greater increase in CPD compared to TFC greater than 10 min. Neither rate of nicotine metabolism, nor CYP2A6 or nicotinic receptor genotype, had an effect on the outcome variables of interest.FTCD is associated with overall exposure to nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke, while a short TFC is associated with an increased compensatory response after switching to RNC.
Project description:To study the association between cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotype and metabolism of nicotine to cotinine, identify functional polymorphisms, and develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism.The conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D2-cotinine was quantified in 189 European-Americans and the contribution of CYP2A6 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine metabolism was assessed. Specifically, (i) single time point measures of D2-cotinine/(D2-cotinine+D2-nicotine) after oral administration were used as a metric of CYP2A6 activity; (ii) the impact of CYP2A6 haplotype was treated as acting multiplicatively; (iii) parameter estimates were calculated for all haplotypes in the subject pool, defined by a set of polymorphisms previously reported to affect function, including gene copy number; and (iv) a minimum number of predictive polymorphisms were justified to be included in the model based on statistical evidence of differences between haplotypes.The final model includes seven polymorphisms and fits the phenotype, 30-min after D2-nicotine oral administration, with R=0.719. The predictive power of the model is robust: parameter estimates calculated in men (n=89) predict the phenotype in women (n=100) with R=0.758 and vice versa with R=0.617; estimates calculated in current smokers (n=102) predict the phenotype in former-smokers (n=86) with R=0.690 and vice versa with R=0.703. Comparisons of haplotypes also demonstrate that CYP2A6*12 is a loss-of-function allele indistinguishable from CYP2A6*4 and CYP2A6*2 and that the CYP2A6*1B 5'-untranslated region conversion has negligible impact on metabolism. After controlling for CYP2A6 genotype, modest associations were found between increased metabolism and both female sex (P=4.8×10) and current smoking (P=0.02).Among European-Americans, seven polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene explain the majority of variability in the metabolism of nicotine to cotinine after oral administration. Parameters determined from this in-vivo experiment can be used to predict nicotine metabolism based on CYP2A6 genotype.