Different time trends of caloric and fat intake between statin users and nonusers among US adults: gluttony in the time of statins?
ABSTRACT: Both dietary modification and use of statins can lower blood cholesterol. The increase in caloric intake among the general population is reported to have plateaued in the last decade, but no study has examined the relationship between the time trends of caloric intake and statin use.To examine the difference in the temporal trends of caloric and fat intake between statin users and nonusers among US adults.A repeated cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of 27,886 US adults, 20 years or older, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2010.Statin use.Caloric and fat intake measured through 24-hour dietary recall. Generalized linear models with interaction term between survey cycle and statin use were constructed to investigate the time trends of dietary intake for statin users and nonusers after adjustment for possible confounders. We calculated model-adjusted caloric and fat intake using these models and examined if the time trends differed by statin use. Body mass index (BMI) changes were also compared between statin users and nonusers.In the 1999-2000 period, the caloric intake was significantly less for statin users compared with nonusers (2000 vs 2179 kcal/d; P?=?.007). The difference between the groups became smaller as time went by, and there was no statistical difference after the 2005-2006 period. Among statin users, caloric intake in the 2009-2010 period was 9.6% higher (95% CI, 1.8-18.1; P?=?.02) than that in the 1999-2000 period. In contrast, no significant change was observed among nonusers during the same study period. Statin users also consumed significantly less fat in the 1999-2000 period (71.7 vs 81.2 g/d; P?=?.003). Fat intake increased 14.4% among statin users (95% CI, 3.8-26.1; P?=?.007) while not changing significantly among nonusers. Also, BMI increased more among statin users (+1.3) than among nonusers (+0.4) in the adjusted model (P?=?.02).Caloric and fat intake have increased among statin users over time, which was not true for nonusers. The increase in BMI was faster for statin users than for nonusers. Efforts aimed at dietary control among statin users may be becoming less intensive. The importance of dietary composition may need to be reemphasized for statin users.
Project description:Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P < 0.05). Over the same period, intake of beverages with added sugars increased, specifically flavored milk, agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5-11 y and females aged 12-19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20-49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ?20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ?20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico.
Project description:Many changes in the economy, policies related to nutrition, and food processing have occurred within the United States since 2000, and the net effect on dietary quality is not clear. These changes may have affected various socioeconomic groups differentially.To investigate trends in dietary quality from 1999 to 2010 in the US adult population and within socioeconomic subgroups.Nationally representative sample of 29?124 adults aged 20 to 85 years from the US 1999 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.The Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), an 11-dimension score (range, 0-10 for each component score and 0-110 for the total score), was used to measure dietary quality. A higher AHEI-2010 score indicated a more healthful diet.The energy-adjusted mean of the AHEI-2010 increased from 39.9 in 1999 to 2000 to 46.8 in 2009 to 2010 (linear trend P?<?.001). Reduction in trans fat intake accounted for more than half of this improvement. The AHEI-2010 component score increased by 0.9 points for sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice (reflecting decreased consumption), 0.7 points for whole fruit, 0.5 points for whole grains, 0.5 points for polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 0.4 points for nuts and legumes over the 12-year period (all linear trend P?<?.001). Family income and education level were positively associated with total AHEI-2010, and the gap between low and high socioeconomic status widened over time, from 3.9 points in 1999 to 2000 to 7.8 points in 2009 to 2010 (interaction P?=?.01).Although a steady improvement in AHEI-2010 was observed across the 12-year period, the overall dietary quality remains poor. Better dietary quality was associated with higher socioeconomic status, and the gap widened with time. Future efforts to improve nutrition should address these disparities.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the association between statin drug use and peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in a U.S. nationally representative sample of adults. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002, representative of the noninstitutionalized U.S. POPULATION:The analytic study population included 3496 men and women aged 40-84 years without a history of cancer and who had information of telomere length and statin use. RESULTS:Compared with nonusers, statin users were more likely to be former smokers, older, white, male, and had more comorbidities. Statin users did not have longer telomeres than nonusers after age (coefficient -0.013, p = .30) and multivariable (0.0003, p = .98) adjustment. After multivariable adjustment, log-transformed telomere length nonstatistically significantly increased with increasing duration of use (0.003, p-trend = .11), which did not differ by number of comorbidities (p-interaction = 0.18). Compared with nonuse, more than 5 years of use had an odds ratio of telomere length above the 75th percentile of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 0.90-2.92; p-trend = .10). CONCLUSIONS:Although telomere length appeared to be longer with longer duration of use of a statin, this association was not statistically significant, and we could not rule out bias as the explanation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. OBJECTIVE: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. DESIGN: Data from adults (?19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. RESULTS: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA), result in tremendous disability and cost. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed medications and their use for primary prevention in many otherwise healthy individuals, including those who are physically active, is increasing. There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions. Given the rising disability associated with musculoskeletal conditions, understanding predisposing factors, including medication-related exposures, deserves further attention. OBJECTIVES:We examined the association between statin use and the risk of being diagnosed with non-traumatic arthropathies, use-related injury, and undergoing rehabilitation in a cohort with longitudinal follow-up. METHODS:Patients enrolled in a regional military healthcare system between 2003 and 2012 were evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. A propensity score was generated to match statin-users and nonusers using 115 baseline characteristics. Outcomes included ICD-9 diagnoses codes for Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality disease categories of: non-traumatic arthropathies, use-related injury and undergoing rehabilitation. Primary analysis examined the outcomes in statin-users and nonusers after propensity score matching using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Initially, 60,455 patients were identified. We propensity score-matched 6728 statin users with 6728 nonusers (52 years of age,?~?47% women). In the propensity score-matched cohort, non-traumatic arthropathies occurred in 59.8% of statin users and 56.0% of nonusers [odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.09-1.25] and use related injury occurred in 31.9% of statin users and 29.8% of nonusers (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19). There was no difference between statin users and nonusers undergoing rehabilitation (22.6% among statin users, 21.9% among nonusers, OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13). CONCLUSION:Statin use was associated with a significant increased risk of non-traumatic arthropathies and use-related injury. Our results provide additional data that can inform patient and clinician conversations about the benefits and risks of statin use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Statin medications have immunomodulatory effects. Several recent studies suggest that statins may reduce influenza vaccine response and reduce influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS:We compared influenza VE in statin users and nonusers aged ≥45 years enrolled in the US Vaccine Effectiveness Network study over 6 influenza seasons (2011-2012 through 2016-2017). All enrollees presented to outpatients clinics with acute respiratory illness and were tested for influenza. Information on vaccination status, medical history, and statin use at the time of vaccination were collected by medical and pharmacy records. Using a test-negative design, we estimated VE as (1 - OR) × 100, in which OR is the odds ratio for testing positive for influenza virus among vaccinated vs unvaccinated participants. RESULTS:Among 11692 eligible participants, 3359 (30%) were statin users and 2806 (24%) tested positive for influenza virus infection; 78% of statin users and 60% of nonusers had received influenza vaccine. After adjusting for potential confounders, influenza VE was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%-47%) among statin users and 39% (95% CI, 32%-45%) among nonusers. We observed no significant modification of VE by statin use. VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B viruses were similar among statin users and nonusers. CONCLUSIONS:In this large observational study, influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness was not affected by current statin use among persons aged ≥45 years. Statin use did not modify the effect of vaccination on influenza when analyzed by type and subtype.
Project description:Background This study aimed to explore whether statins reduce radiation-induced vascular complications in cancer patients postradiotherapy to the thorax, head, and neck. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study within a provincial linked database of 5718 cardiac patients with thorax and head or neck cancer having undergone radiotherapy between 2000 and 2011. One thousand five hundred fifty-two patients were identified as nonstatin users and 4166 as statin users. The primary outcome of interest was the composite of cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attack, and fatal or nonfatal stroke) or cardiovascular events (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction). Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The crude event rate was 10.31% for nonusers and 9.03% for statin users (hazard ratio of 0.92 [95% CI 0.76-1.10, P=0.3451]), over a mean time to event/censoring of 534±687 days for nonusers and 594±706 days for the statin users. After adjusting for age, sex, prior history of stroke/transient ischemic attack or myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and hypertension, statin use postradiotherapy was associated with a nonsignificant 15% relative risk reduction, but a strong trend toward reducing the primary outcome (hazard ratio=0.85 95% CI 0.69-1.04, P=0.0811). The use of statins was associated with a significant reduction of 32% for the outcome of stroke alone (hazard ratio=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98, P=0.0368). Conclusions Statin use post radiation therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stroke, with a trend toward significantly reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.
Project description:The efficacy of statins for the prevention of cardiovascular events is well established in the general population but remains unknown in renal transplant recipients. In this study, the association of statin use with patient and graft survival was investigated in a cohort of 2041 first-time recipients of renal allografts between 1990 and 2003. Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that statin use was independently associated with lower mortality rates. Twelve-year survival rates were 73% for statin users and 64% for nonusers (P = 0.055). The adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality associated with statin use was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.86). Graft survival rates during the same time period were 76% for statin users and 70% for nonusers (P = 0.055). The adjusted hazard ratio for graft survival associated with statin use was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.04). Results from marginal structural models were virtually identical. In summary, statin use was associated with prolonged patient survival, but no difference in graft survival was detected. Although these results are encouraging, a definitive causal relationship can be determined only from randomized clinical trials.
Project description:We investigated the effects of statins on tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia risks in asthma?chronic pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) patients. We extracted data of patients diagnosed as having ACOS during 2000?2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and divided them into statin users and nonusers. All study participants were followed up from the index date until death, withdrawal from insurance, or TB and pneumonia occurred (31 December 2011). The cumulative TB and pneumonia incidence was analyzed using Cox proportional regression analysis with time-dependent variables. After adjustments for multiple confounding factors including age, sex, comorbidities, and use of medications [statins, inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), or oral steroids (OSs)], statin use was associated with significantly lower TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34?0.70] and pneumonia (aHR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41?0.65) risks. Moreover, aHRs (95% CIs) for statins combined with ICSs and OSs were respectively 0.60 (0.31?1.16) and 0.58 (0.40?0.85) for TB and 0.61 (0.39?0.95) and 0.57 (0.45?0.74) for pneumonia. Thus, statin users had lower TB and pneumonia risks than did nonusers, regardless of age, sex, comorbidities, and ICS or OS use. Pneumonia risk was lower among users of statins combined with ICSs or Oss and TB risk was lower among the users of statins combined with OSs.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency is an inborn error of fatty acid metabolism that affects the degradation of long chain fatty acids and causes insufficient energy production and accumulation of toxic intermediates. The treatment consists of a diet low in fat, with supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides that bypass the metabolic block. In addition, frequent feeds and extra carbohydrates are given during febrile illnesses to reduce lipolysis. Hence, this diet differs from the general dietary recommendations for growing children. Furthermore, the Swedish dietary instructions for fat intake in LCHAD deficiency are given in grams, which differ from most guidelines that recommend fat intake as percentage shares of total caloric intake. AIMS:To assess growth in patients with LCHAD deficiency, in relation to dietary treatment and to evaluate if overweight/obesity is more common than in the normal population. RESULTS:The growth velocity showed acceleration after diagnosis and the start of treatment, followed by a period of stable or decelerated growth. The majority of the patients developed overweight to a greater extent than children without LCHAD deficiency. Several patients also went through a phase of obesity. Data on final height (FH) showed that three out of five patients had grown according to their genetic potential. CONCLUSIONS:Regular and frequent follow-up and careful monitoring of weight are essential to avoid the development of overweight and obesity. The Swedish dietary instructions defining fat intake in total grams per day may be an alternative approach to achieve a moderate total caloric intake.