Comparative efficacy between clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics on depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE phase 2E data.
ABSTRACT: The comparative antidepressant effects of clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia remain elusive, leading us to examine this question using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness phase 2E.Ninety-nine patients who discontinued treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone because of inadequate efficacy were randomly assigned to open-label treatment with clozapine (n=49) or double-blind treatment with another atypical antipsychotic not previously received in the trial (olanzapine [n=19], quetiapine [n=15], or risperidone [n=16]). The primary outcome was the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) total score. Antidepressant effects of clozapine and the other atypical antipsychotics were compared in patients with chronic schizophrenia and those with a major depressive episode (MDE) at baseline (i.e. ?6 on the CDSS), using mixed models.No differences in the baseline CDSS total scores were found between the treatment groups regardless of presence of an MDE. Clozapine was more effective than quetiapine in antidepressant effects for chronic schizophrenia (p<.01 for the whole sample and p=.01 for those with an MDE), and comparable to olanzapine and risperidone.The present findings suggest that clozapine demonstrates superior antidepressant effects to quetiapine and comparable effects to olanzapine and risperidone in chronic schizophrenia regardless of presence of MDE. Given the indication of clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and the negative impacts of depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes in schizophrenia, further research is warranted to investigate antidepressant effects of clozapine in TRS with an MDE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:According to the American Psychiatric Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for schizophrenia, second-generation antipsychotics may be specifically indicated for the treatment of depression in schizophrenia. We examined the impact of these medications on symptoms of depression using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE), conducted between January 2001 and December 2004. METHOD:Patients with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia (N = 1,460) were assigned to treatment with a first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of 4 second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) and followed for up to 18 months (phase 1). Patients with tardive dyskinesia were excluded from the randomization that included perphenazine. Depression was assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Mixed models were used to evaluate group differences during treatment with the initially assigned drug. An interaction analysis evaluated differences in drug response by whether patients had a baseline score on the CDSS of ? 6, indicative of a current major depressive episode (MDE). RESULTS:There were no significant differences between treatment groups on phase 1 analysis, although there was a significant improvement in depression across all treatments. A significant interaction was found between treatment and experiencing an MDE at baseline (P = .05), and further paired comparisons suggested that quetiapine was superior to risperidone among patients who were in an MDE at baseline (P = .0056). CONCLUSIONS:We found no differences between any second-generation antipsychotic and the first-generation antipsychotic perphenazine and no support for the clinical practice recommendation, but we did detect a signal indicating a small potential difference favoring quetiapine over risperidone only in patients with an MDE at baseline.
Project description:The metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are serious and have not been compared head to head in a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the metabolic side effects of the following SGAs head-to-head: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine.We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search January 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the above mentioned SGA in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders. At least three reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was weight change. We also assessed changes of cholesterol and glucose. The results were combined in a meta-analysis.We included 48 studies with 105 relevant arms. Olanzapine produced more weight gain than all other second-generation antipsychotics except for clozapine where no difference was found. Clozapine produced more weight gain than risperidone, risperidone more than amisulpride, and sertindole more than risperidone. Olanzapine produced more cholesterol increase than aripiprazole, risperidone and ziprasidone. (No differences with amisulpride, clozapine and quetiapine were found). Quetiapine produced more cholesterol increase than risperidone and ziprasidone. Olanzapine produced more increase in glucose than amisulpride, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone; no difference was found with clozapine.Some SGAs lead to substantially more metabolic side effects than other SGAs. When choosing an SGA for an individual patient these side effects with their potential cause of secondary diseases must be weighed against efficacy and characteristics of the individual patient.
Project description:PURPOSE/BACKGROUND:In addition to clozapine, other atypical antipsychotic drugs pharmacologically similar to clozapine, for example, olanzapine, risperidone, and melperone, are also effective in a similar proportion of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients, ~40%. The major goal of this study was to compare 2 doses of lurasidone, another atypical antipsychotic drug, and time to improvement in psychopathology and cognition during a 6-month trial in TRS patients. METHODS/PROCEDURES:The diagnosis of TRS was based on clinical history and lack of improvement in psychopathology during a 6-week open trial of lurasidone 80 mg/d (phase 1). This was followed by a randomized, double-blind, 24-week trial of lurasidone, comparing 80- and 240-mg/d doses (phase 2). FINDINGS/RESULTS:Significant non-dose-related improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Total and subscales and in 2 of 7 cognitive domains, speed of processing and executive function, were noted. Twenty-eight (41.8%) of 67 patients in the combined sample improved ?20% in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Total. Of the 28 responders, 19 (67.9%) first reached ?20% improvement between weeks 6 and 24 during phase 2, including some who had previously failed to respond to clozapine. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Improvement with lurasidone is comparable with those previously reported for clozapine, melperone, olanzapine, and risperidone in TRS patients. In addition, this study demonstrated that 80 mg/d lurasidone, an effective and tolerable dose for non-TRS patients, was also effective in TRS patients but required longer duration of treatment. Direct comparison of lurasidone with clozapine in TRS patients is indicated.
Project description:While all second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are promoted for having a low risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), clinical observations suggest differences between the various agents. Nevertheless, this question has never been examined in a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons.We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE (last search July 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the following SGAs in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, and zotepine. At least 3 reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was "use of antiparkinson medication." The results were combined in a meta-analysis.We included 54 studies with 116 arms. Risperidone was associated with more use of antiparkinson medication than clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. Ziprasidone showed more use of antiparkinson medication than olanzapine and quetiapine and zotepine more than clozapine. There was no significant difference between amisulpride and its comparators (olanzapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone). Quetiapine showed significantly less use of antiparkinson medication than the 3 other SGAs it was compared with (olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone). Scale-derived data (Barnes Akathisia Scale and Simpson Angus Scale) were limited.Our meta-analysis demonstrates that there are differences between the SGAs in their ability to induce EPS that clinicians consider warrant treatment with antimuscarinic drugs. Even though the differences were relatively small, they might be important for individual patients and should be taken into account in drug choice.
Project description:Because early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES), this meta-analysis compared efficacy and tolerability of individual second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in FES. We conducted systematic literature search (until 12 December 2010) and meta-analysis of acute, randomized trials with ?1 FGA vs. SGA comparison; patients in their first episode of psychosis and diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; available data for psychopathology change, treatment response, treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, or cognition. Across 13 trials (n = 2509), olanzapine (seven trials) and amisulpride (one trial) outperformed FGAs (haloperidol: 9/13 trials) in 9/13 and 8/13 efficacy outcomes, respectively, risperidone (eight trials) in 4/13, quetiapine (one trial) in 3/13 and clozapine (two trials) and ziprasidone (one trial) in 1/13, each. Compared to FGAs, extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related outcomes were less frequent with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine, but weight gain was greater with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Pooled SGAs were similar to FGAs regarding total psychopathology change, depression, treatment response and metabolic changes. SGAs significantly outperformed FGAs regarding lower treatment discontinuation, irrespective of cause, negative symptoms, global cognition and less EPS and akathisia, while SGAs increased weight more (p < 0.05-0.01). Results were not affected by FGA dose or publication bias, but industry-sponsored studies favoured SGAs more than federally funded studies. To summarize, in FES, olanzapine, amisulpride and, less so, risperidone and quetiapine showed superior efficacy, greater treatment persistence and less EPS than FGAs. However, weight increase with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine and metabolic changes with olanzapine were greater. Additional FES studies including broader-based SGAs and FGAs are needed.
Project description:This network meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and tolerability of lurasidone versus other oral atypical antipsychotic monotherapies in adolescent schizophrenia. A systematic literature review identified 13 randomized controlled trials of antipsychotics in adolescents with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A Bayesian network meta-analysis compared lurasidone to aripiprazole, asenapine, clozapine, olanzapine, paliperidone extended-release (ER), quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Outcomes included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), weight gain, all-cause discontinuation, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and akathisia. Results were reported as median differences for continuous outcomes and odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes, along with 95% credible intervals (95% CrI). Lurasidone was significantly more efficacious than placebo on the PANSS (-?7.95, 95% CrI -?11.76 to -?4.16) and CGI-S (-?0.44, 95% CrI -?0.67 to -?0.22) scores. Lurasidone was associated with similar weight gain to placebo and statistically significantly less weight gain versus olanzapine (-?3.62 kg, 95% CrI -?4.84 kg to -?2.41 kg), quetiapine (-?2.13 kg, 95% CrI -?3.20 kg to -?1.08 kg), risperidone (-?1.16 kg, 95% CrI -?2.14 kg to -?0.17 kg), asenapine (-?0.98 kg, 95% CrI -?1.71 kg to -?0.24 kg), and paliperidone ER (-?0.85 kg, 95% CrI -?1.57 kg to -?0.14 kg). The odds of all-cause discontinuation were significantly lower for lurasidone than aripiprazole (OR?=?0.28, 95% CrI 0.10-0.76) and paliperidone ER (OR?=?0.25, 95% CrI 0.08-0.81) and comparable to other antipsychotics. Rates of EPS and akathisia were similar for lurasidone and other atypical antipsychotics. In this network meta-analysis of atypical antipsychotics in adolescent schizophrenia, lurasidone was associated with similar efficacy, less weight gain, and lower risk of all-cause discontinuation compared to other oral atypical antipsychotics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP) is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted with psychosis. METHODS:Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Depression factor (PANSS-D) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). RESULTS:A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ?6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529.
Project description:This study assessed the association between second-generation antipsychotic medications and risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia because the evidence is limited in the population. We enrolled a nationwide cohort of 33,024 inpatients with schizophrenia ranged in age from 18 to 65 years, who were derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2000 to 2008. Cases (n = 1741) were defined as patients who developed pneumonia after their first psychiatric admissions. Risk set sampling was used to match each case with 4 controls by age, sex, and the year of the first admission based on nested case-control study. Antipsychotic exposure was categorized by type, duration, and daily dose, and the association between exposure and pneumonia was assessed using conditional logistic regression. We found that current use of clozapine (adjusted risk ratio = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.62-3.86, P < .001) was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk. Although quetiapine, olanzapine, zotepine, and risperidone were associated with increased risk, there was no clear dose-dependent relationship. Amisulpride was associated with a low risk of pneumonia. The use of clozapine combined with another drug (olanzapine, quetiapine, zotepine, risperidone, or amisulpride), as assessed separately, was associated with increased risk for pneumonia. In addition, with the exception of amisulpride, each drug was associated with increased risk for pneumonia at the beginning of treatment. Clinicians who prescribe clozapine to patients with schizophrenia should closely monitor them for pneumonia, particularly at the start of therapy and when clozapine is combined with other antipsychotics.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Atypical antipsychotic agents (AAP) alleviate the symptoms of severe mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia, by antagonizing dopamine and serotonin receptors. Recently, AAP have also been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in the central nervous system (CNS).<h4>Objective</h4>Building on research which demonstrated the ability of the AAP risperidone and clozapine to modify the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to more fully investigate the potential of clozapine as a possible treatment for MS.<h4>Results</h4>We report that orally administered clozapine significantly reduced the disease severity of EAE in a dose-dependent manner and was effective when administered prophylactically and therapeutically. In comparison to risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine, clozapine was the best at reducing disease severity. While clozapine-treated mice had only modest changes to peripheral leukocytes and cytokine responses, these animals had significantly fewer CNS-infiltrating CD4 T cells and myeloid cells. Furthermore, the CNS myeloid cells displayed a less activated phenotype in mice treated with clozapine. Finally, we found that co-administration of clozapine with glatiramer acetate enhanced disease protection compared to either treatment alone.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These studies indicate that clozapine is an effective immunomodulatory agent with the potential to treat immune-mediated diseases such as MS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are interindividual differences in the adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics, which include autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Accordingly, to clarify the interindividual differences in the adverse effects of specific atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia, we investigated the association between ANS dysfunction and ATP-binding cassette transport sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS:In total, 233 Japanese patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. All of the participants received an atypical antipsychotic as monotherapy: 89 participants received risperidone, 69 olanzapine, 48 aripiprazole, and 27 quetiapine. ANS activity was assessed by means of a power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 (rs1045642, rs1128503, rs2032582, and rs2235048) were genotyped using the TaqMan method. RESULTS:For aripiprazole, sympathetic and total autonomic nervous activities were significantly lower in the rs1045642 T allele carrier-rs2235048 C allele carrier group than in the rs1045642 non-T allele carrier-rs2235048 non-C allele carrier group. In addition, in the aripiprazole group, the T-C-T-A haplotype (rs1045642-rs2235048-rs1128503-rs2032582) was associated with decreased ANS activity. However, there were no significant associations between ANS activity and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in the risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sympathetic and total nervous activities were significantly associated with the ABCB1 rs1045642-rs2235048 genotype and the T-C-T-A haplotype (rs1045642-rs2235048-rs1128503-rs2032582). CONCLUSION:We suggest that ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms affect aripiprazole-related ANS dysfunction but do not affect risperidone-, olanzapine-, or quetiapine-related ANS dysfunction.