GNAS mutations in Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a and related disorders.
ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) is characterized by hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia due to parathyroid hormone resistance, in association with the features of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). PHP1a is caused by maternally inherited inactivating mutations of Gs-alpha, which is encoded by a complex imprinted locus termed GNAS. Paternally inherited mutations can lead either to pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) characterized by AHO alone, or to progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), characterized by severe heterotopic ossification. The clinical aspects and molecular genetics of PHP1a and its related disorders are reviewed together with the 343 kindreds with Gs-alpha germline mutations reported so far in the literature. These 343 (176 different) mutations are scattered throughout the 13 exons that encode Gs-alpha and consist of 44.9% frameshift, 28.0% missense, 14.0% nonsense, and 9.0% splice-site mutations, 3.2% in-frame deletions or insertions, and 0.9% whole or partial gene deletions. Frameshift and other highly disruptive mutations were more frequent in the reported 37 POH kindreds than in PHP1a/PPHP kindreds (97.3% vs. 68.7%, P < 0.0001). This mutation update and respective genotype-phenotype data may be of use for diagnostic and research purposes and contribute to a better understanding of these complex disorders.
Project description:Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare endocrine disorder derived from the defective activation of the cAMP pathway by the parathyroid hormone secondary to GNAS molecular defects. PHP subtypes are defined by the presence/absence of specific clinical/biochemical features. PHP1A is characterized by resistance to multiple hormones with features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), while pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) is characterized by AHO in the absence of PTH resistance. Small subsets of PHP and PPHP patients without known molecular defects have been re-diagnosed as being affected by the brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), also known as the AHO-like syndrome. This study aimed to analyse 24 PHP1A and 51 PPHP patients without a molecular diagnosis for the presence of BDMR-associated 2q37 deletions to improve the differential diagnosis and to identify features that might help to avoid a misdiagnosis. Molecular investigations identified 4 deletions in 4 unrelated patients. The affected patients showed a combination of the most pathognomonic AHO features. Of note, 3 of the patients also displayed mild PTH resistance, and none of the patients developed ectopic ossifications. Our work confirmed the rarity of the misdiagnosis of BDMR in PHP patients through the identification of 4 patients bearing a 2q37 deletion in a cohort of 73 PHP patients (5.3%). Three patients with the deletion presented a PHP1A phenotype in the absence of any BDMR-specific findings. Further studies on larger case series are needed to elucidate the overlap between these clinical entities and to allow the early identification of patients.
Project description:Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) indicates a group of heterogeneous disorders whose common feature is represented by impaired signaling of hormones that activate Gsalpha, encoded by the imprinted GNAS gene. PHP-Ib patients have isolated Parathormone (PTH) resistance and GNAS epigenetic defects while PHP-Ia cases present with hormone resistance and characteristic features jointly termed as Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) due to maternally inherited GNAS mutations or similar epigenetic defects as found for PHP-Ib. Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) patients with an AHO phenotype and no hormone resistance and progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) cases have inactivating paternally inherited GNAS mutations.We here describe 17 subjects with an AHO-like phenotype that could be compatible with having PPHP but none of them carried Gsalpha mutations. Functional platelet studies however showed an obvious Gs hypofunction in the 13 patients that were available for testing. Methylation for the three differentially methylated GNAS regions was quantified via the Sequenom EpiTYPER. Patients showed significant hypermethylation of the XL amplicon compared to controls (36 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 3%; p<0.001); a pattern that is reversed to XL hypomethylation found in PHPIb. Interestingly, XL hypermethylation was associated with reduced XLalphaS protein levels in the patients' platelets. Methylation for NESP and ExonA/B was significantly different for some but not all patients, though most patients have site-specific CpG methylation abnormalities in these amplicons. Since some AHO features are present in other imprinting disorders, the methylation of IGF2, H19, SNURF and GRB10 was quantified. Surprisingly, significant IGF2 hypermethylation (20 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 7%; p<0.05) and SNURF hypomethylation (23 ± 6 vs. 32 6%; p<0.001) was found in patients vs. controls, while H19 and GRB10 methylation was normal.In conclusion, this is the first report of methylation defects including GNAS in patients with an AHO-like phenotype without endocrinological abnormalities. Additional studies are still needed to correlate the methylation defect with the clinical phenotype.
Project description:An inactivating mutation in the GNAS gene causes either pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1A) when it is maternally inherited or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) when it is paternally inherited. We investigated clinical manifestations and mutations of the GNAS gene in ethnic Chinese patients with PHP1A or PPHP. Seven patients from 5 families including 4 girls and 2 boys with PHP1A and 1 girl with PPHP were studied. All PHP1A patients had mental retardation. They were treated with calcitriol and CaCO3 with regular monitoring of serum Ca levels, urinary Ca/Cr ratios, and renal sonography. Among them, 5 patients also had primary hypothyroidism suggesting TSH resistance. One female patient had a renal stone which was treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. She had an increased urinary Ca/Cr ratio of 0.481 mg/mg when the stone was detected. We detected mutations using PCR and sequencing as well as analysed a splice acceptor site mutation using RT-PCR, sequencing, and minigene construct. We detected 5 mutations: c.85C>T (Q29*), c.103C>T (Q35*), c.840-2A>G (R280Sfs*21), c.1027_1028delGA (D343*), and c.1174G>A (E392K). Mutations c.840-2A>G and c.1027_1028delGA were novel. The c.840-2A>G mutation at the splice acceptor site of intron 10 caused retention of intron 10 in the minigene construct but skipping of exon 11 in the peripheral blood cells. The latter was the most probable mechanism which caused a frameshift, changing Arg to Ser at residue 280 and invoking a premature termination of translation at codon 300 (R280Sfs*21). Five GNAS mutations in ethnic Chinese with PHP1A and PPHP were reported. Two of them were novel. Mutation c.840-2A>G destroyed a spice acceptor site and caused exon skipping. Regular monitoring and adjustment in therapy are mandatory to achieve optimal therapeutic effects and avoid nephrolithiasis in patients with PHP1A.
Project description:Acrodysostosis (ADO) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gs?, as observed in PHP1a. The recent identification in patients affected with acrodysostosis of defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR-Gs?-cAMP-PKA signaling, has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: ADOHR, due to PRKAR1A defects, and ADOP4 (our denomination), due to PDE4D defects. The existence of GPCR-hormone resistance is typical of the ADOHR syndrome. We review here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, and discuss them in view of phenotypically related diseases caused by defects in the same signaling pathway.
Project description:Maternally inherited inactivating GNAS mutations are the most common cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) due to Gs? deficiency. Paternally inherited inactivating mutations lead to isolated AHO signs characterizing pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). Mutations are distributed throughout the Gs? coding exons of GNAS and there is a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. In this study, we sequenced exon 1-13 of GNAS in a large cohort of PHPIa- and PPHP patients and identified 58 different mutations in 88 patients and 27 relatives. Thirty-three mutations including 15 missense mutations were newly discovered. Furthermore, we found three hot spots: a known hotspot (p.D190MfsX14), a second at codon 166 (p.R166C), and a third at the exon 5 acceptor splice site (c.435 + 1G>A), found in 15, 5, and 4 unrelated patients, respectively. Comparing the clinical features to the molecular genetic data, a significantly higher occurrence of subcutaneous calcifications in patients harboring truncating versus missense mutations was demonstrated. Thus, in the largest cohort of PHPIa patients described to date, we extend the spectrum of known GNAS mutations and hot spots and demonstrate for the first time a correlation between the genetic defects and the expression of a clinical AHO-feature.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is a rare genetic disease primarily characterized by resistance to parathyroid hormone along with hormonal resistance and other features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). It is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in the maternal allele of the GNAS gene, which encodes the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (Gs?) and regulates production of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Herein, we report a case of of PHP1A with atypical clinical manifestations (oligomenorrhea, subclinical hypothyroidism, and normocalcemia) and explore the underlying genetic cause in this patient. METHODS:Blood samples were collected from the patient, her family members, and 100 healthy controls. The 13 exons and flanking splice sites of the GNAS gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. To further assess whether the novel mutation resulted in gain or loss of function of Gs?, we examined the level of cAMP activity associated with this mutation through in vitro functional studies by introducing the target mutation into a human GNAS plasmid. RESULTS:A novel heterozygous c.715A?>?G (p.N239D) mutation in exon 9 of the GNAS gene was identified in the patient. This mutation was also found in her mother, who was diagnosed with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. An in vitro cAMP assay showed a significant decrease in PTH-induced cAMP production in cells transfected with the mutant plasmid, compared to that in the wild-type control cells (P?<?0.01), which was consistent with loss of Gsa activity. CONCLUSION:We identified a novel GNAS mutation that altered Gs? function, which furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Screening for GNAS mutations should be considered in suspected cases of PHP1A even if the classical signs are not present.
Project description:Disorders related to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and PTH signaling pathway impairment are historically classified under the term of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). The disease was first described and named by Fuller Albright and colleagues in 1942. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is described as an associated clinical entity with PHP, characterized by brachydactyly, subcutaneous ossifications, round face, short stature and a stocky build. The classification of PHP is further divided into PHP-Ia, pseudo-PHP (pPHP), PHP-Ib, PHP-Ic and PHP-II according to the presence or absence of AHO, together with an in vivo response to exogenous PTH and the measurement of Gs? protein activity in peripheral erythrocyte membranes in vitro. However, PHP classification fails to differentiate all patients with different clinical and molecular findings for PHP subtypes and classification become more complicated with more recent molecular characterization and new forms having been identified. So far, new classifications have been established by the EuroPHP network to cover all disorders of the PTH receptor and its signaling pathway. Inactivating PTH/PTH-related protein signaling disorder (iPPSD) is the new name proposed for a group of these disorders and which can be further divided into subtypes - iPPSD1 to iPPSD6. These are termed, starting from PTH receptor inactivation mutation (Eiken and Blomstrand dysplasia) as iPPSD1, inactivating Gs? mutations (PHP-Ia, PHP-Ic and pPHP) as iPPSD2, loss of methylation of GNAS DMRs (PHP-Ib) as iPPSD3, PRKAR1A mutations (acrodysostosis type 1) as iPPSD4, PDE4D mutations (acrodysostosis type 2) as iPPSD5 and PDE3A mutations (autosomal dominant hypertension with brachydactyly) as iPPSD6. iPPSDx is reserved for unknown molecular defects and iPPSDn+1 for new molecular defects which are yet to be described. With these new classifications, the aim is to clarify the borders of each different subtype of disease and make the classification according to molecular pathology. The iPPSD group is designed to be expandable and new classifications will readily fit into it as necessary.
Project description:Heterozygous GNAS inactivating mutations cause pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) when maternally inherited and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP)/progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) when paternally inherited. Recent studies have suggested that mutations on the paternal, but not the maternal, GNAS allele could be associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and thus small size for gestational age.The aim of the study was to confirm and expand these findings in a large number of patients presenting with either PHP-Ia or PPHP/POH.We collected birth parameters (ie, gestational age, weight, length, and head circumference) of patients with either PHP-Ia (n = 29) or PPHP/POH (n = 26) with verified GNAS mutations. The parental allele carrying the mutation was assessed by investigating the parents or, when a de novo mutation was identified, through informative intragenic polymorphisms.Heterozygous GNAS mutations on either parental allele were associated with IUGR. However, when these mutations are located on the paternal GNAS allele, IUGR was considerably more pronounced than with mutations on the maternal allele. Moreover, birth weights were lower with paternal GNAS mutations affecting exons 2-13 than with exon 1/intron 1 mutations.These data indicate that a paternally derived GNAS transcript, possibly XL?s, is required for normal fetal growth and development and that this transcript affects placental functions. Thus, similar to other imprinted genes, GNAS controls growth and/or fetal development.