Cardiovascular syphilis with coronary stenosis and aneurysm.
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation, and coronary ostial stenosis. Coronary ostial lesions have been detected in as many as 26% of patients with syphilitic aortitis. However nonostial coronary stenosis and coronary aneurysms in same patient is rarely described in cardiovascular syphilis.
Project description:The tertiary stage of syphilis is nowadays extremely rare, showing predilection for the cardiovascular and nervous systems. A 57-year-old Caucasian man sought medical assistance due to back pain that evolved to paraplegia of the lower limbs. A thoracic CT scan demonstrated an important aneurysmatic lesion of the descending thoracic aorta causing erosion of the vertebral bodies and VDRL and FTA-abs positivity. Although rare, syphilitic aortitis, the hallmark of cardiovascular syphilis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with thoracic aneurysm when in the absence of classic risk factors for atherosclerosis, especially in cases that progress with erosion of vertebral bodies.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Coronary artery ostial stenosis is a rare but well-known complication to aortic root replacement. The occurrence of this complication in patients with the Medtronic Freestyle bioprosthesis is poorly described. We report a case of late bilateral coronary ostial stenosis due to pseudointimal membranes within a Medtronic Freestyle bioprosthesis, resulting in acute coronary syndrome. <h4>Case summary</h4> In 2013, a 43-year-old male patient received a Medtronic Freestyle bioprosthesis as a full aortic root implantation due to endocarditis with root abscess. Preoperative coronary angiography was normal. The patient, who had no previous symptoms of coronary ischaemia, presented with severe chest pain and acute coronary syndrome in 2017. Coronary angiography and electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography showed bilateral coronary ostial stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting. Intraoperative inspection revealed pseudointimal membranes covering the coronary ostia. Histology showed fibro-intimal thickening with areas of inflamed granulation tissue. <h4>Discussion</h4> Bilateral coronary ostial stenosis is a severe, potentially life-threatening condition, and a possible complication to implantation of the Medtronic Freestyle bioprosthesis as a full root. The phenomenon may occur late and should be distinguished from arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Project description:This study was designed to evaluate ostial left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis and investigate concomitant stenotic lesions of LMCA and right coronary arteries (RCA) and their demographic and angiographic features. We evaluated 11,283 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were placed into four groups according to having ostial or nonostial LMCA or RCA stenosis. Significant LMCA stenosis was observed in 242 (8.3%) of the patients, and only 68 (28.1%) of them had significant ostial LMCA stenosis. There was a significant correlation between ostial stenosis of LMCA and RCA (p = 0.03). The frequency of female gender was greater in ostial LMCA and ostial RCA stenosis groups compared with the other groups (p = 0.01). Ostial LMCA and RCA stenosis were related significantly. Both female predominance and coexistence of ostial LMCA and RCA stenosis might have suggest a different pathological ground for this disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To estimate probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) among women with and without syphilis through a systematic review of published literatures.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies assessing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal syphilis through August 2013. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Fifty-four literatures involving 11398 syphilitic women and 43342 non-syphilitic women were included from 4187 records initially found. Among untreated mothers with syphilis, pooled estimates were 76.8% for all APOs, 36.0% for congenital syphilis, 23.2% for preterm, 23.4% for low birth weight, 26.4% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 14.9% for miscarriage and 16.2% for neonatal deaths. Among syphilitic mother receiving treatment only in the late trimester (>28 weeks), pooled estimates were 64.4% for APOs, 40.6% for congenital syphilis, 17.6% for preterm, 12.4% for low birth weight, and 21.3% for stillbirth or fetal loss. Among syphilitic mothers with high titers (?1?8), pooled estimates were 42.8% for all APOs, 25.8% for congenital syphilis, 15.1% for preterm, 9.4% for low birth weight, 14.6% for stillbirth or fetal loss and 16.0% for neonatal deaths. Among non-syphilitic mothers, the pooled estimates were 13.7% for all APOs, 7.2% for preterm birth, 4.5% for low birth weight, 3.7% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 2.3% for miscarriage and 2.0% for neonatal death. Begg's rank correlation test indicated little evidence of publication bias (P>0.10). Substantial heterogeneity was found across studies in the estimates of all adverse outcomes for both women with syphilis (I2?=?93.9%; P<0.0001) and women without syphilis (I2?=?94.8%; P<0.0001).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Syphilis continues to be an important cause of substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality, which reminds that policy-makers charged with resource allocation that the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis is a public health priority.
Project description:Calcified nodules in human coronary arteries are usually focally distributed. Non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries by bedside emergency transthoracic echocardiography in adults is possible and may become a useful adjunct to other methods of coronary artery examination. Coronary artery stenosis can be identified as localized color aliasing and accelerated flow velocities. Complete visualization of individual ostial coronary segments might ease the demonstration of coronary stenosis by bedside transthoracic echocardiography. The left main coronary artery stenosis requires prompt emergency evaluation and treatment because emergency conditions have higher mortality rates. The authors wish to emphasize the usefulness of emergency bedside echo-Doppler for a prompt diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening condition.
Project description:Although a rare form of congenital heart disease, anomalies of the coronary arteries can present as heart failure in infants. The most common lesion is an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery, but other abnormalities can present similarly. This case is an infant who is found to have left coronary ostial stenosis causing dilated cardiomyopathy.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assays hold promise in detecting the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure in aortic stenosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism for troponin release in patients with aortic stenosis and whether plasma cTnI concentrations are associated with long-term outcome.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Plasma cTnI concentrations were measured in two patient cohorts using a high-sensitivity assay. First, in the Mechanism Cohort, 122 patients with aortic stenosis (median age 71, 67% male, aortic valve area 1.0 ± 0.4 cm(2)) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography to assess left ventricular (LV) myocardial mass, function, and fibrosis. The indexed LV mass and measures of replacement fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement) were associated with cTnI concentrations independent of age, sex, coronary artery disease, aortic stenosis severity, and diastolic function. In the separate Outcome Cohort, 131 patients originally recruited into the Scottish Aortic Stenosis and Lipid Lowering Trial, Impact of REgression (SALTIRE) study, had long-term follow-up for the occurrence of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular deaths. Over a median follow-up of 10.6 years (1178 patient-years), 24 patients died from a cardiovascular cause and 60 patients had an AVR. Plasma cTnI concentrations were associated with AVR or cardiovascular death HR 1.77 (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.55) independent of age, sex, systolic ejection fraction, and aortic stenosis severity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with aortic stenosis, plasma cTnI concentration is associated with advanced hypertrophy and replacement myocardial fibrosis as well as AVR or cardiovascular death.
Project description:Background:Coronary ostial stenosis is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication following aortic root replacement with or without aortic valve replacement (including Bentall and David procedures). This manifests clinically as acute myocardial ischaemia in the early or late post-operative period. Traditionally, this might be managed with redo open-heart surgery. Case summary:This case series describes two presentations where urgent percutaneous coronary intervention was used to manage myocardial infarction complicating aortic root surgery with coronary reimplantation. Discussion:This series highlights the risk of acute myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery involving coronary reimplantation. Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention is feasible and illustrates the importance of shared post-operative care involving the cardiac surgeons and the cardiology team.
Project description:Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports. We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications.
Project description:As the prevalence of syphilis rises, an increase in tertiary syphilis with spinal involvement is predicted. We report what we believe to be the first case of compressive cervical spine syphilitic gummata, with central cord compression signs. We also review the relevant literature to date. The diagnosis of syphilis in the spine relies on the physician to be aware of it as part of the differential diagnosis. Treponemal laboratory tests are an important aid in establishing a diagnosis.