Association of childhood physical and sexual abuse with intimate partner violence, poor general health and depressive symptoms among pregnant women.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. METHODS:In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS:Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72-2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15-12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60-6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04-1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58-2.71). CONCLUSION:These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women's health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence.
Project description:To examine the independent and joint associations of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence with migraine among pregnant women.Childhood abuse and intimate partner violence have each been associated with migraine headaches in previous studies, but these associations have not been explored among pregnant women.A cross-sectional study was conducted among a cohort of 2970 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. History of childhood abuse (ie, physical or sexual abuse) was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was assessed using the World Health Organization questionnaire. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).The prevalence of any migraine was 33.5% while approximately 70% of participants reported a history of childhood abuse and 36.7% a history of IPV. Women with a history of any childhood abuse had a 38% increased odds of any migraine compared to women with no history of childhood abuse (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI 1.15-1.64). The odds of migraine increased with increasing numbers of experienced childhood abuse events (Ptrend ?<?.001). Additionally, after adjusting for confounders women with a history of IPV had a 43% increased odds of any migraine as compared to women without intimate partner violence (OR?=?1.43; 95%CI 1.02-2.02). Women with a joint positive history of childhood abuse and IPV, as compared with the reference group, had a 88% increased odds of migraine (aOR?=?1.88, 95%CI: 1.51-2.35).Childhood abuse and IPV are associated with increased odds of migraine in pregnant women. Our findings highlight the importance of screening for abuse among pregnant migraineurs to help guide treatment strategies.
Project description:We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV).In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49?years old prior to 16?weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85).Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health.
Project description:To examine the associations of Intimate partner violence (IPV) with stress-related sleep disturbance (measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test [FIRST]) and poor sleep quality (measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during early pregnancy.This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding IPV history, and sleep traits. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using logistic regression procedures.Lifetime IPV was associated with a 1.54-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (95% CI: 1.08-2.17) and a 1.93-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.33-2.81). Compared with women experiencing no IPV during lifetime, the aOR (95% CI) for stress-related sleep disturbance associated with each type of IPV were: physical abuse only 1.24 (95% CI: 0.84-1.83), sexual abuse only 3.44 (95%CI: 1.07-11.05), and physical and sexual abuse 2.51 (95% CI: 1.27-4.96). The corresponding aORs (95% CI) for poor sleep quality were: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13-2.61), 2.82 (95% CI: 0.99-8.03), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.30-4.81), respectively. Women reporting any IPV in the year prior to pregnancy had increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.17-3.67) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.30-3.97) during pregnancy.Lifetime and prevalent IPV exposures are associated with stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be important mechanisms that underlie the lasting adverse effects of IPV on maternal and perinatal health.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) among married women of reproductive age in a rural population in northeast Bangladesh. In addition, we examined women's sharing and disclosure of violence experience with others.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>This cross-sectional study uses data from a household survey of 3966 women conducted in 2014 in the Sylhet District of Bangladesh. Interviews were completed in respondent's homes by trained local female interviewers.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Twenty-nine percent (28.8%, 95% CI 27.4-30.3%) of the women reported ever experiencing physical or sexual IPV by their spouse; 13.2% (95% CI 12.1-14.3%) reported physical or sexual IPV in the past year. Of the 13.2%, 10.1% (95% CI 9.2-11.1%) reported experiencing physical IPV and 4.6% (95% CI 4.0-5.3%) reported sexual IPV. In a combined model, the adjusted odds of having experienced physical or sexual IPV in the past year were higher for women who were raised in households with history of IPV (AOR = 4.35, 95% CI 3.26-5.80); women with no formal education (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37); women whose husbands had no formal education (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.17); Muslim (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.03-2.57); women younger than age 30 (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.12); and women who were members of an NGO or microcredit financial organization (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.82). Wealth, parity, number of household members, and pregnancy status (pregnant, postpartum, neither pregnant nor postpartum) were not associated with physical or sexual IPV after adjusting for other factors. Data on disclosure was available for women who reported experiencing physical violence in the last year; only 31.8% of victims told someone about the violence they had experienced and 1% reported to police, clerics, health workers, or a counselor altogether.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In rural northeast Bangladesh, a high proportion of women of reproductive age experience physical or sexual IPV. Women do not often speak of these experiences, especially to anyone outside of family. Interventions aimed at preventing future IPV and addressing current IPV should focus on women who witnessed IPV in childhood, as well as younger women and less educated couples.<br><br><b>Trial registration: </b>This study was registered as a Clinical Trial (Identifier: NCT01702402). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01702402.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is regarded an important public health and human rights issue, characterized by physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Globally more than one in three women report physical or sexual violence by their intimate partners. Though the association between IPV and depression is known, we found no study investigating depression as a risk factor for IPV and very few studies using standard tools in assessing both IPV and depression among pregnant women. AIM:To measure the prevalence of IPV and depression during pregnancy and assess the association between IPV and depression and other determinants. METHODS:A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 589 pregnant women living in Wondo-Genet district, southern Ethiopia. IPV experience was assessed using a structured questionnaire of the World Health Organization (WHO), and maternal depression was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Descriptive statistics were computed and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to estimate risk and adjust for confounders. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of IPV was 21% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 18.1-24.7). After adjusting for potential confounders, increased risk of IPV remained among rural women (adjusted odds ratio[AOR] = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.06-4.09), women who had parental exposure to IPV (AOR = 14.00; 95%CI = 6.43-30.48), women whose pregnancy was not desired (AOR = 9.64; 95%CI = 3.44-27.03), women whose husbands used alcohol (AOR = 17.08; 95%CI = 3.83-76.19), women with depression (AOR = 4.71; 95%CI = 1.37-16.18) and women with low social support (AOR = 13.93; 95%CI = 6.98-27.77). The prevalence of antenatal depressive symptom (with EPDS score above 13) was 6.8% (95% CI 6.2-11.3). Increased risk of depression was found among women who had been exposed to IPV (AOR = 17.60; 95%CI = 6.18-50.10) and whose husbands use alcohol (AOR = 3.31; 95%CI = 1.33-8.24). CONCLUSION:One in five pregnant women experienced IPV and it was strongly associated with depression. Screening for IPV and depression at antenatal visits with referral to relevant care and service is recommended.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health problem. Understanding risk factors is crucial for developing prevention programmes. Yet, little evidence exists on population-based prevalence and risk factors for IPV in West Africa. Our objective was to measure both lifetime and past year prevalence of IPV and to determine factors associated with past year physical or sexual IPV experience. This population-based survey involved 2000 randomly selected women aged 18 to 49 years living in 40 localities within four districts of the Central Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were interviewer-administered from February to May 2016. Respondents were currently or ever-partnered, and resident in study area ?12months preceding the survey. Data collected included: socio-demographics; sexual behavior; mental health and substance use; employment status; 12-month and lifetime experience of violence; household food insecurity; gender norms/attitudes; partner characteristics and childhood trauma. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with sexual or physical IPV, adjusting for age and survey design. About 34% of respondents had experienced IPV in the past year, with 21.4% reporting sexual and or physical forms. Past year experience of emotional and economic IPV were 24.6% and 7.4% respectively. Senior high school education or higher was protective of IPV (AOR = 0.51[0.30-0.86]). Depression (AOR = 1.06[1.04-1.08], disability (AOR = 2.30[1.57-3.35]), witnessing abuse of mother (AOR = 2.1.98[1.44-2.72]), experience of childhood sexual abuse (AOR = 1.46[1.07-1.99]), having had multiple sexual partners in past year (AOR = 2.60[1.49-4.53]), control by male partner (AOR = 1.03[1.00-1.06]), male partner alcohol use in past year (AOR = 2.65[2.12-3.31]) and male partner infidelity (AOR = 2.31[1.72-3.09]) were significantly associated with increased odds of past year physical or sexual IPV experience. Male perpetrated IPV remains a significant public health issue in Ghana. Evidence-based interventions targeting women's mental health, disabilities, exposure to violence in childhood, risky sexual behavior and unequal power in relationships will be critical in reducing IPV in this setting.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy is associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes. Describing the extent and the evolution of IPV is a crucial step in developing interventions to reduce the health impact of IPV.The objectives are to study the prevalence of psychological abuse, as well as physical & sexual violence, and to provide insight into the evolution of IPV 12 months before and during pregnancy.Between June 2010 and October 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 antenatal care clinics in Belgium. Consenting pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire (available in Dutch, French and English) in a separate room. Ethical clearance was obtained in all participating hospitals.The overall percentage of IPV was 14.3% (95% CI: 12.7 - 16.0) 12 months before pregnancy and 10.6% (95% CI: 9.2 - 12.1) during pregnancy. Physical partner violence before as well as during pregnancy was reported by 2.5% (95% CI: 1.7 - 3.3) of the respondents (n = 1894), sexual violence by 0.9% (95% CI 0.5 - 1.4), and psychological abuse by 14.9% (95% CI: 13.3 - 16.7). Risk factors identified for IPV were being single or divorced, having a low level of education, and choosing another language than Dutch to fill out the questionnaire. The adjusted analysis showed that physical partner violence (aOR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22 - 0.56) and psychological partner abuse (aOR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.79) were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the period of 12 months before pregnancy. The difference between both time periods is greater for physical partner violence (65%) compared to psychological partner abuse (30%). The analysis of the frequency data showed a similarly significant evolution for physical partner violence and psychological partner abuse, but not for sexual violence.The IPV prevalence rates in our study are slightly lower than what can be found in other Western studies, but even so IPV is to be considered a prevalent problem before and during pregnancy. We found evidence, however, that physical partner violence and psychological partner abuse are significantly lower during pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sexual and physical abuse in childhood creates a great health burden including on mental and reproductive health. A possible link between child abuse and HIV infection has increasingly attracted attention. This paper investigated whether a history of child physical and sexual abuse is associated with HIV infection among adult women. METHODS:A cross sectional survey was conducted among 2042 postnatal women (mean age = 26y) attending six public primary health care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe within 6 weeks post-delivery. Clinic records were reviewed for mother's antenatal HIV status. Participants were interviewed about childhood abuse including physical or sexual abuse before 15 years of age, forced first sex before 16, HIV risk factors such as age difference at first sex before age 16. Multivariate analyses assessed the associations between mother's HIV status and child physical and sexual abuse while controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS:More than one in four (26.6%) reported abuse before the age of 15: 14.6% physical abuse and 9.1% sexual abuse,14.3% reported forced first sex and 9.0% first sex before 16 with someone 5+ years older. Fifteen percent of women tested HIV positive during the recent antenatal care visit. In multivariate analysis, childhood physical abuse (aOR 3.30 95%CI 1.58-6.90), sexual abuse (3.18 95%CI: 1.64-6.19), forced first sex (aOR 1.42, 95%CI: 1.00-2.02), and 5+ years age difference with first sex partner (aOR 1.66 95%CI 1.09-2.53) were independently associated with HIV infection. CONCLUSION:This study highlights that child physical and/or sexual abuse may increase risk for HIV acquisition. Further research is needed to assess the pathways to HIV acquisition from childhood to adulthood. Prevention of child abuse must form part of the HIV prevention agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Evidence-based interventions are essential in the prevention of violence against women (VAW). An understanding of risk factors for male perpetration of VAW using population-based research is crucial for developing such interventions. This study is a baseline assessment of a two-arm unmatched cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), set up to assess the impact of a Rural Response System (RRS) intervention for preventing violence against women and girls in Ghana. This study aims at assessing past year prevalence and risk factors for sexual or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among men.The population-based survey involved 2126 men aged 18 and above living in selected communities in 4 districts in the central region of Ghana. Logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for sexual or physical IPV perpetration. All models adjusted for age of respondent and took into account the study design.Half of the men had perpetrated at least one form of violence against their intimate partners in their lifetime while 41% had perpetrated sexual or physical IPV. Majority (93%) of the men had been in relationships in the 12 months preceding the survey, and of these, 23% had perpetrated sexual or physical IPV. Childhood factors associated with sexual or physical IPV included witnessing abuse of mother (aOR:1.40(1.06-1.86)), and neglect (aOR:1.81(1.30-2.50)). Other major risk factors for IPV perpetration were: having multiple partners (aOR:1.76(1.36-2.26)), (involvement in transactional sex (aOR:1.76(1.36-2.26)), substance use (aOR:1.74(1.25-2.43)) and gender inequitable attitudes (aOR:0.94(0.91-0.97)).Childhood violence experience and witnessing, risky behaviour (multiple partners, transactional sex, substance use) and gender inequitable attitudes are major risk factors for sexual or physical IPV perpetration. Perpetration of sexual or physical IPV tend to co-occur with non-partner violence and emotional IPV perpetration. Interventions targeting these factors are critical in reducing IPV.
Project description:Violence against women remains a significant public health problem globally. The majority of longitudinal studies documenting the negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women come from high-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal association between emotional, physical, or sexual IPV and depression symptoms among South African women in a prospective cohort study. Participants were 981 South African women enrolled in the Drakenstein Child Health Study-a cohort study investigating the early life determinants of child health. Interview data from four time-points (antenatal care visit, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months postpartum) were included. The primary independent variable was self-reported emotional, physical, and sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Depressive symptoms were assessed at each time-point with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); a cutoff score of ?13 was used to define significant depression symptoms. We used pooled-multivariable logistic regression models to determine associations between the three different forms of IPV and significant depression symptoms while adjusting for time-fixed and time-updated covariates. The mean age of the sample at antenatal care visit was 27 years (standard deviation = 6.0). In the adjusted model including all forms of IPV and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, substance use, and childhood trauma, emotional (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.02, 2.34]; p = .039)] and sexual (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: [1.10, 3.72]; p < .001) IPV were significantly associated with significant depression symptoms. The relationship between physical IPV and significant depression symptoms was not statistically significant (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: [0.44, 1.05]; p = .485). Our study confirms findings from high-income countries of the association between IPV and depressive symptoms among women in South Africa. Routine screening for IPV, including emotional IPV and intervention programs for IPV among women, is needed in South Africa.