Downregulation of NDUFB6 due to 9p24.1-p13.3 loss is implicated in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to clarify the genomic profiles of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and identify the genes responsible for development of metastasis. We analyzed the genomic profiles of 20 cases of primary ccRCC and their corresponding metastases using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and identified 32 chromosomal regions in which gene copy number alterations were detected more frequently in metastases than in the primary tumors. Among these 32 regions, 9p24.1-p13.3 loss was the most statistically significant alteration. Furthermore, we found that patients with 9p24.1-p13.3 loss in primary tumors exhibited significantly lower rates of recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival, suggesting that 9p loss in the primary tumor is a potential biomarker predicting early recurrence of metastasis. Interestingly, the genomic profiles of primary tumors with 9p loss resembled those of their corresponding metastases, though 9p loss was accumulated in the metastases derived from the primary tumors without 9p loss. Comparison of the mRNA expression levels revealed that 2 of 58 genes located at 9p24.1-p13.3 were downregulated due to gene copy number loss in ccRCCs. An overexpression study of these two genes in ccRCC cell lines revealed that downregulation of NDUFB6 due to loss at 9p24.1-p13.3 may confer a growth advantage on metastatic ccRCC cells. These results were confirmed by analyzing the data of 405 cases of ccRCC obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). On the basis of our present data, we propose that NDUFB6 is a possible tumor suppressor of metastatic ccRCCs.
Project description:Wider clinical applications of 9p status in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are limited owing to the lack of validation and consensus for interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (I-FISH) scoring technique. The aim of this study was to analytically validate the applicability of I-FISH in assessing 9p deletion in ccRCC and to clinically assess its long-term prognostic impact following surgical excision of ccRCC.Tissue microarrays were constructed from 108 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumour paraffin blocks. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis was undertaken based on preset criteria by two independent observers to assess interobserver variability. 9p status in ccRCC tumours was determined and correlated to clinicopathological variables, recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival.There were 80 ccRCCs with valid 9p scoring and a median follow-up of 95 months. Kappa statistic for interobserver variability was 0.71 (good agreement). 9p deletion was detected in 44% of ccRCCs. 9p loss was associated with higher stage, larger tumours, necrosis, microvascular and renal vein invasion, and higher SSIGN (stage, size, grade and necrosis) score. Patients with 9p-deleted ccRCC were at a higher risk of recurrence (P=0.008) and RCC-specific mortality (P=0.001). On multivariate analysis, 9p deletion was an independent predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio 4.323; P=0.021) and RCC-specific mortality (hazard ratio 4.603; P=0.007). The predictive accuracy of SSIGN score improved from 87.7% to 93.1% by integrating 9p status to the model (P=0.001).Loss of 9p is associated with aggressive ccRCC and worse prognosis in patients following surgery. Our findings independently confirm the findings of previous reports relying on I-FISH to detect 9p (CDKN2A) deletion.
Project description:Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) exhibits a broad range of metastatic phenotypes that have not been systematically studied to date. Here, we analyzed 575 primary and 335 metastatic biopsies across 100 patients with metastatic ccRCC, including two cases sampledat post-mortem. Metastatic competence was afforded by chromosome complexity, and we identify 9p loss as a highly selected event driving metastasis and ccRCC-related mortality (p = 0.0014). Distinct patterns of metastatic dissemination were observed, including rapid progression to multiple tissue sites seeded by primary tumors of monoclonal structure. By contrast, we observed attenuated progression in cases characterized by high primary tumor heterogeneity, with metastatic competence acquired gradually and initial progression to solitary metastasis. Finally, we observed early divergence of primitive ancestral clones and protracted latency of up to two decades as a feature of pancreatic metastases.
Project description:von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor loss results in hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha) stabilization and occurs in 70% of sporadic clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs). To determine whether opposing influences of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha on c-Myc activity regulate human ccRCC progression, we analyzed VHL genotype and HIF-alpha expression in 160 primary tumors, which segregated into three groups with distinct molecular characteristics. Interestingly, ccRCCs with intact VHL, as well as pVHL-deficient HIF-1alpha/HIF-2alpha-expressing ccRCCs, exhibited enhanced Akt/mTOR and ERK/MAPK signaling. In contrast, pVHL-deficient ccRCCs expressing only HIF-2alpha displayed elevated c-Myc activity, resulting in enhanced proliferation and resistance to replication stress. These reproducible distinctions in ccRCC behavior delineate HIF-alpha effects on c-Myc in vivo and suggest molecular criteria for selecting targeted therapies.
Project description:PD-L1 expression in primary clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) increases the likelihood of response to anti-PD-1 inhibition, but fails to identify all responders. We hypothesized that PD-L1 levels assessed in randomly selected areas of the primary tumors may not accurately reflect expression levels in metastatic lesions, which are the target of systemic therapy. Therefore, we compared PD-L1 expression in a series of primary ccRCC and their metastases. Tissue blocks from 53 primary ccRCCs and 76 corresponding metastases were retrieved. Areas with predominant and highest nuclear grade were selected. Slides were immunostained with a validated anti-PD-L1 antibody (405.9A11). Membranous expression in tumor cells was quantified using H-score. Expression in tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMC) was quantified using a combined score. Discordant tumor cell PD-L1 staining between primary tumors and metastases was observed in 11 of 53 cases (20.8%). Overall, tumor cell PD-L1 levels were not different in primary tumors and metastases (P = 0.51). Tumor cell PD-L1 positivity was associated with higher T stage (P = 0.03) and higher Fuhrman nuclear grade (P < 0.01). Within individual lesions, PD-L1 positivity was heterogeneous and almost exclusively detected in high nuclear grade areas (P < 0.001). No difference was found in PD-L1 levels in TIMCs between primary tumors and metastases (P = 0.82). The heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression in ccRCC suggests that its assessment as a predictive biomarker for PD-1 blockade may require analysis of metastatic lesions. Notably, because PD-L1 expression was mostly detected in high nuclear grade areas, to avoid false-negative results, these areas should be specifically selected for assessment.
Project description:Prognostic markers of bone metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) are poorly established. We tested prognostic value of HIF1?/HIF2? and their selected target genes in primary tumors and corresponding bone metastases.Expression of HIF2? was lower in mRCC both at mRNA and protein levels (p/mRNA/=0.011, p/protein/=0.001) while HIF1? was similar to nmRCC. At the protein level, CAIX, GAPDH and GLUT1 were increased in mRCC. In all primary RCCs, low HIF2? and high HIF1? as well as CAIX, GAPDH and GLUT1 expressions correlated with adverse prognosis, while VEGFR2 and EPOR gene expressions were associated with favorable prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed high HIF2? protein expression as an independent risk factor. Prognostic validation of HIFs, LDH, EPOR and VEGFR2 in RNA-Seq data confirmed higher HIF1? gene expression in primary RCC as an adverse (p=0.07), whereas higher HIF2? and VEGFR2 expressions as favorable prognostic factors. HIF1?/HIF2?-index (HIF-index) proved to be an independent prognostic factor in both the discovery and the TCGA cohort.Expressions of HIF1? and HIF2? as well as their 7 target genes were analysed on the mRNA and protein level in 59 non-metastatic ccRCCs (nmRCC), 40 bone metastatic primary ccRCCs (mRCC) and 55 corresponding bone metastases. Results were validated in 399 ccRCCs from the TCGA project.We identified HIF2? protein as an independent marker of the metastatic potential of ccRCC, however, unlike HIF1?, increased HIF2? expression is a favorable prognostic factor. The HIF-index incorporated these two markers into a strong prognostic biomarker of ccRCC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We have previously shown that angiopoietin-like 4 (angptl4) mRNA, a hypoxia-inducible gene, is highly expressed in clear cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common subtype of RCC for which no specific marker is available. We here investigated whether angptl4 mRNA 1) could be a useful diagnostic and/or prognostic marker of ccRCC in a large and comprehensive retrospective series, 2) induction is dependent on the VHL status of tumors.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Using in situ hybridization, we report that angptl4 mRNA is expressed in 100% of both sporadic (n = 102) and inherited (n = 6) primary ccRCCs, without any statistical association with nuclear grade (p = 0.39), tumor size (p = 0.09), stage grouping (p = 0.17), progression-free survival (p = 0.94), and overall survival (p = 0.80). Angptl4 mRNA was also expressed in 26 (87%) of 30 secondary ccRCCs but neither in any other secondary RCCs (n = 7). In contrast, angptl4 mRNA was neither expressed in 94% non-ccRCC renal tumors (papillary RCCs (n = 46), chromophobe RCCs (n = 28), and oncocytomas (n = 9)), nor in non-renal clear cell carcinomas (n = 39). Angptl4 expression was also examined in tumors associated (n = 23) or not associated (n = 66) with VHL disease. 40 (98%) hemangioblastomas expressed angptl4 whereas all pheochromocytomas (n = 23) and pancreatic tumors (n = 25) were angptl4-negative, whatever their VHL status.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Angptl4 mRNA expression was highly associated with ccRCC (p = 1.5 10(-49), Chi square test) allowing to define its expression as a diagnosis marker for primary ccRCC. Moreover, angptl4 mRNA allows to discriminate the renal origin of metastases of clear-cell carcinomas arising from various organs. Finally, inactivation of VHL gene is neither necessary nor sufficient for angptl4 mRNA induction.
Project description:Detailed genetic profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has revealed genomic regions commonly affected by structural changes and a general genetic heterogeneity. VHL and PBRM1, both located at chromosome 3p, are 2 major genes mutated at high frequency but apart from these aberrations, the mutational landscape in ccRCC is largely undefined. Potential prognostic information given by the genomic changes appears to depend on the particular cohort studied. We analyzed a Swedish ccRCC cohort of 74 patients and found common changes (loss or gain occurring in >20% of the tumors) in 12 chromosomal regions (1p, 3p, 3q, 5q, 6q, 7p, 7q 8p, 9p, 9q, 10q, and 14q). A poor outcome was associated with gain of 7q and losses on 9p, 9q, and 14q. These aberrations were more frequent in metastasized tumors, suggesting alterations of genes important for tumor progression. Sequencing of 48 genes implicated in cancer revealed that only VHL, TP53, and PTEN were mutated at a noticeable frequency (51%, 9%, and 9%, respectively). Shorter relative telomere length (RTL) has been associated with loss of specific chromosomal regions in ccRCC tumors, but we could not verify this finding. However, a significantly lower tumor/nontumor (T/N) RTL ratio was detected for tumors with losses in 4q or 9p. In conclusion, poor outcome in ccRCC was associated with gain of 7q and loss on 9p, 9q, and 14q, whereas the mutation rate overall was low in a screen of cancer-associated genes.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) frequently exhibit inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene, VHL, and often harbor multiple copy-number alterations in genes that regulate cell cycle progression. We show here that modeling these genetic alterations by combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 specifically in renal epithelial cells in mice caused ccRCC. These tumors arose from proximal tubule epithelial cells and shared molecular markers and mRNA expression profiles with human ccRCC. Exome sequencing revealed that mouse and human ccRCCs exhibit recurrent mutations in genes associated with the primary cilium, uncovering a mutational convergence on this organelle and implicating a subset of ccRCCs as genetic ciliopathies. Different mouse tumors responded differently to standard therapies for advanced human ccRCC, mimicking the range of clinical behaviors in the human disease. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-? transcription factors with acriflavine as third-line therapy had therapeutic effects in some tumors, providing preclinical evidence for further investigation of HIF-? inhibition as a ccRCC treatment. This autochthonous mouse ccRCC model represents a tool to investigate the biology of ccRCC and to identify new treatment strategies.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common form of human kidney cancer. Histological and molecular analyses suggest that ccRCCs have significantly altered metabolism. Recent human studies of lung cancer and intracranial malignancies demonstrated an unexpected preservation of carbohydrate oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. To test the capacity of ccRCC to oxidize substrates in the TCA cycle, we infused 13C-labeled fuels in ccRCC patients and compared labeling patterns in tumors and adjacent kidney. After infusion with [U-13C]glucose, ccRCCs displayed enhanced glycolytic intermediate labeling, suppressed pyruvate dehydrogenase flow, and reduced TCA cycle labeling, consistent with the Warburg effect. Comparing 13C labeling among ccRCC, brain, and lung tumors revealed striking differences. Primary ccRCC tumors demonstrated the highest enrichment in glycolytic intermediates and lowest enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. Among human tumors analyzed by intraoperative 13C infusions, ccRCC is the first to demonstrate a convincing shift toward glycolytic metabolism.
Project description:Detailed genetic profiling of clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) has shown that these tumors are characterized by large genetic heterogeneity with some genomic regions commonly affected by structural changes. Loss on chromosomes 3p and 14q, and gain on 5q and 7 are examples of alterations commonly reported in ccRCC. However, there is no consensus regarding the potential prognostic information carried by the identified alterations. We report on poorer outcome for patients with gain on 5q and 7, and loss on 9p, 9q and 14q. These aberrations were in addition found more frequently in metastasized tumors, suggesting that they are markers for advanced disease. Furthermore, the presence of M-bM-^IM-% 4 common aberrations was associated with decreased survival time. Shorter relative telomere length (RTL) has been associated with loss of chromosomal regions in ccRCC tumors, but we found no significant associations between tumor RTL and chromosomal deletions. However, significantly lower tumor-to-nontumor (T/N) RTL ratio was detected for patients with loss on 4q and 9p. Finally, we found a minimum region (MR) of genetic loss of 1.4 Mbp on chromosome 9p and this region contains only one gene, the tumor suppressor candidate 1 gene (TUSC1). TUSC1 has been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and our result further strengthens its role in tumorigenesis. Seventy-four ccRCC tumors and 22 paired normal kidney cortex and blood samples were genotyped on Illuminas HumanCytoSNP-12 bead chips.