Increased energy intake and a shift towards high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods amongst China's older adults, 1991-2009.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We examined trends from 1991-2009 in total energy intake and food group intake, and examine whether shifts varied by age or generation. DESIGN:Longitudinal time series (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009). SETTING:Nine provinces in China. PARTICIPANTS:Older Chinese aged ?60 years (n=5,068) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991-2009. METHODS:Using three 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory collected over three consecutive days, the top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991-2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. The top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991-2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. Linear regression was used to examine changes in mean calorie intake of food groups between 1991 and 2009, adjusting for age, sex, and region. In addition, we examined changes in the mean kcal per capita intake to examine shifts by age group and generation. RESULTS:Mean total energy intake increased significantly among older Chinese adults from 1379 total kilocalories in 1991 to 1463 kilocalories in 2009 (p< 0.001). Most food groups showed a significant increase in intake from 1991 to 2009, with plant oil, wheat buns, and wheat noodles showing the greatest increase. At the same age, more recent generations had more energy intake than earlier generations. An aging effect was observed, with energy intake decreasing with age, although more recent generations showed a smaller decrease in energy intake with aging. CONCLUSION:Older Chinese adults in recent generations show an increase in total calorie intake compared to older Chinese of earlier generations, paired with a less significant decrease in calorie intake as they age. Increased consumption of high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods such as plant oil and wheat buns suggests that diet quality of older Chinese adults is becoming less healthful in recent years.
Project description:We examined trends from 1977-2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older.Cross-sectional time series.A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population.Older Americans aged ?55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977-1978, 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 2005-2010.Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year.Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977-2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994-2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts.Increases in total calorie intake from 1977-2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations, and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study was to observe the non-heme iron absorption and biological utilization from typical whole Chinese diets in young Chinese healthy urban men, and to observe if the iron absorption and utilization could be affected by the staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-two young urban men aged 18-24 years were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups in which the staple food was rice and steamed buns, respectively. Each subject received 3 meals containing approximately 3.25 mg stable 57FeSO4 (the ratio of 57Fe content in breakfast, lunch and dinner was 1:2:2) daily for 2 consecutive days. In addition, approximately 2.4 mg 58FeSO4 was administered intravenously to each subject at 30-60 min after dinner each day. Blood samples were collected from each subject to measure the enrichment of the 57Fe and 58Fe. Fourteen days after the experimental diet, non-heme iron absorption was assessed by measuring 57Fe incorporation into red blood cells, and absorbed iron utilization was determined according to the red blood cell incorporation of intravenously infused 58Fe SO4. RESULTS:Non-heme iron intake values overall, and in the rice and steamed buns groups were 12.8 ±2.1, 11.3±1.3 and 14.3±1.5 mg, respectively; the mean 57Fe absorption rates were 11±7%, 13±7%, and 8±4%, respectively; and the mean infused 58Fe utilization rates were 85±8%, 84±6%, and 85±10%, respectively. There was no significantly difference in the iron intakes, and 57Fe absorption and infused 58Fe utilization rates between rice and steamed buns groups (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION:We present the non-heme iron absorption and utilization rates from typical whole Chinese diets among young Chinese healthy urban men, which was not affected by the representative staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. This study will provide a basis for the setting of Chinese iron DRIs.
Project description:Previous studies have indicated that snacking is contributing to increased calories in the American diet, and that the contribution of snacks to energy intake has increased in recent decades.The objective was to examine trends in the energy intake deriving from snacks and food sources of snacks for US adults over 35 years from 1977 to 2012, and whether these trends differ across sociodemographic groups.Participants included 74,291 US adults aged ?19 years who participated in the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS); the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), the 1994-1996 CSFII, the 1997-1998 CSFII, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, NHANES 2005-2006, NHANES 2009-2010 and NHANES 2011-2012; all surveys are a stratified random sample of the total civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Overall patterns of snacking, trends in energy intake from snacking, trends in snacking food and beverage sources and energy intake from snacks across racial/ethnic, age, education and income groups were examined.For all US adults there was a significant increase in per capita energy intake from snacks from 1977 to 2012 (p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest snacking energy intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in each year (p < 0.01 for all), with a peak intake in 2003-2006 of 76 kcal per capita per day. Intake of salty snacks increased in all groups between 1977 and 2012, with non-Hispanic blacks having the highest intake in 2009-2012 (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between income or education groups.Results show that snacking remains a significant component of the US diet and the foods consumed at these snacks (SSBs, desserts and sweets and salty snacks) are not the types of foods recommended by the US dietary guidelines. Our finding that non-Hispanic blacks are consuming a higher proportion of SSBs and salty snacks than other groups, and showing the largest increase in energy intake deriving from snacks overall over the past 35 years, is indeed concerning.
Project description:Low-grade inflammation appears to play an etiological role in cognitive decline. However the association between an inflammatory dietary pattern and cognitive decline has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with inflammation and whether such diet is associated with cognitive decline.We analyzed 5083 participants (28.7% women) from the Whitehall II cohort study. Diet and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. We used reduced rank regression methods to determine a dietary pattern associated with elevated IL-6. Cognitive tests were performed in 1997-1999 and repeated in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. The association between dietary pattern and cognitive decline between ages 45 and 79 was assessed using linear mixed models.We identified an inflammatory dietary pattern characterized by higher intake of red meat, processed meat, peas and legumes, and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains which correlated with elevated IL-6 both in 1991-1993 and 1997-1999. A greater decline in reasoning was seen in participants in the highest tertile of adherence to the inflammatory dietary pattern (-0.37 SD; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.40, -0.34) compared to those in the lowest tertile (-0.31; 95% CI -0.34, -0.28) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, occupational status, education, and total energy intake (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.01). This association remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Similarly for global cognition, the inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with faster cognitive decline after multivariable adjustment (p for interaction across tertiles = 0.04). Associations were stronger in younger participants (<56 years), reducing the possibility of reverse causation.Our study found that a dietary pattern characterized as higher intake of red and processed meat, peas, legumes and fried food, and lower intake of whole grains was associated with higher inflammatory markers and accelerated cognitive decline at older ages. This supports the case for further research.
Project description:In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes or stability in the structure of dietary patterns and tracking, trends and factors related to the adherence to these dietary patterns in China from 1991 to 2009. We analysed dietary data collected during seven waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey and included 9253 adults with complete dietary data for three or more waves. Dietary intake assessment was carried out over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory. Using factor analysis in each wave, we found that the structure of the two dietary patterns identified remained stable over the studied period. The traditional southern dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of rice, fresh leafy vegetables, low-fat red meat, pork, organ meats, poultry and fish/seafood and low intakes of wheat flour and maize/coarse grains and the modern high-wheat dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of wheat buns/breads, cakes/cookies/pastries, deep-fried wheat, nuts/seeds, starchy root/tuber products, fruits, eggs/egg products, soya milk, animal-based milk and instant noodles/frozen dumplings. Temporal tracking (maintenance of a relative position over time) was higher for the traditional southern dietary pattern, whereas adherence to the modern high-wheat dietary pattern had an upward trend over time. Higher income, education and urbanicity levels were positively associated with both the dietary patterns, but the association became weaker in the later years. These results suggest that even in the context of rapid economic changes in China, the way people chose to combine their foods remained relatively stable. However, the increasing popularity of the modern high-wheat dietary pattern, a pattern associated with several energy-dense foods, is a cause of concern.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Public health organizations in the United States have recently increased focus on reducing population consumption of added sugars. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to provide in-depth information on national trends in added sugars consumption and to examine both the mean and distribution of added sugars intake from 1977 to 2012. DESIGN:We conducted a descriptive study using six cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of food intake in the United States: the 1977-1978 National Food Consumption Survey (n=29,668), the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (n=14,827), the 1994-1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (n=19,027), the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=8,273), the 2009-2010 NHANES (n=9,042), and the 2011-2012 NHANES (n=16,451). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:We examined the key dependent variables, calories from added sugars and percentage of total energy intake from added sugars, at the mean and by quintiles of added sugars consumption for children (2 to 18 years) and adults (19 years and older) across the survey years. We also examined trends in added sugars intakes from foods and beverages. We used ordinary least squares regression to examine linear trends between survey years and multinomial logistic regressions to examine sociodemographic characteristics by quintile of added sugars consumption. We adjusted estimates by race, income, sex, and education. RESULTS:The US mean adjusted intake of added sugars remains high. In 2011-2012, children and adults consumed 326 kcal/day and 308 kcal/day, respectively, of added sugars, or 14% and 17%, respectively, of total their energy. For both children and adults, there was a considerable increase in calories from added sugars from 1977 to 2003, followed by a substantial decline from 2003 to 2012. There was no decline in the percentage of total energy intake from added sugars from 2003 to 2012. Changes over time were consistent across each quintile of added sugars consumption. The highest quintile of consumption was more likely to be male and in children was more likely to be non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS:Despite a decline in consumption of added sugars since 2003 in the United States, mean adjusted added sugars intakes continue to be above the recommended level of 10% of the total energy intake. Changes in added sugars consumption from 1977 through 2012 occurred evenly across the distribution of added sugars intakes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was aimed to roughly describe individual Trans Fatty Acids (TFAs) intake and the percentage of energy intake(E%), and identify major food sources in the Chinese population, taking gender, age, and regional distribution into the consideration, as well as examining temporal changes over the course of 20?years. METHOD:This multi-center study, covering nine provinces among populations aged ??3 in China, was conducted to collect food consumption information from 1991 to 2011. A classical assessment method was used to estimate the level of dietary TFA intake. RESULTS:Over the 20-year period, the intake of TFAs in Chinese populations had increased, but remained at a relatively lower level (from 0.25?g/d(0.11% for E%) to 0.53?g/d(0.24% for E%)) compared with that of other countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level. Collectively, males and participants aged 19-60 generally consumed more TFA-containing foods. People in eastern regions consumed more TFAs and had a higher E% than those in western area. Industrial sources of TFAs, especially vegetable oil, ranked as the principal food sources of TFAs in the Chinese population. Natural sources of TFAs have gradually increased in proportion among children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:TFA intake and the E% are commonly under the recommended level in the general population in China. Presently, restriction of vegetable oil could be a crucial method to reduce TFA intake. It would be critical to facilitate and promote public health that food recommendations might be based on the dietary preferences for population separated by different ages and regions.
Project description:A C57BL6/J (B6) x CAST/Ei (CAST) strain intercross was used to identify the first mammalian QTL for macronutrient-specific intake (carbohydrate and fat) and for total energy intake. A region on proximal Chromosome 17 revealed two significant QTL that co-localized for increased macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1) and total kilocalorie intake (Kcal2), adjusted for body weight. An interval-specific congenic strain, B6.CAST-17, was then developed which verified the QTL. A new sub-congenic strain was developed which retained the linked traits. Important new findings emerged shows that this congenic interval confers an activity phenotype, i.e., mice carrying the differential segment have 20% higher spontaneous physical activity levels compared with the host B6 strain. We hypothesize that this Chromosome 17 QTL is either encoded by a single gene locus that determines both food intake and physical activity, or by two or more genes, each determining a sub-phenotype of energy balance. Microarray analysis of skeletal muscle and hypothalamus in congenic and wild type B6 mice was carried out to identify potential candidate genes for the activity and food intake behavior. Keywords: macronutrient-specific intake, sub-congenic strain Overall design: Hypothalamus and skeletal muscle RNA were obtained from three male B6.CAST-17 homozygous congenic mice and three male wild type B6 mice. Each strain was represented by three mice, thus three biological replicates were analyzed for each strain.
Project description:This study built on limited knowledge about patterns and trends of adult snacking in the US. We selected adults aged 19 y and older (n = 44,754) between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006 with results weighted and adjusted for sample design effects. Differences testing, by a Student's t test, used STATA 10 (P < or = 0.01). We defined a snacking event as intake of foods over a 15-min period and excluded food defined as snacks but eaten at a meal. Dietary data were obtained from the first 2 d for the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS 77) and the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII 89); and 2-d dietary data from the 1994-1996 CSFII (CSFII 96) and the NHANES from 2 consecutive surveys: NHANES 2003-2004 and NHANES 2005-2006 (NHANES 03-06). Results showed that snacking prevalence increased significantly from 71 to 97% in 2003-2006 with increases in both the 1989-1994 and the 1994-2006 periods. In all adults, snacking occasions increased 0.97 events over this time period (P < 0.01) and the contribution of snacks to total energy intake increased from 18 to 24% (P < 0.01). The energy density of snacks (food plus beverages) also increased progressively over the time period studied. Important changes in snacking food sources were found among desserts, salty snacks, candies, and sweetened beverages. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the implications for overall energy intake and energy imbalance.
Project description:Resilience, the ability to recover from adverse events, is of fundamental importance to food security. This is especially true in poor countries, where basic needs are frequently threatened by economic, environmental and health shocks. An empirically sound formalization of the concept of food security resilience, however, is lacking. Here, we introduce a general non-equilibrium framework for quantifying resilience based on the statistical notion of persistence. Our approach can be applied to any food security variable for which high-frequency time-series data are available. We illustrate our method with per capita kilocalorie availability for 161 countries between 1961 and 2011. We find that resilient countries are not necessarily those that are characterized by high levels or less volatile fluctuations of kilocalorie intake. Accordingly, food security policies and programmes will need to be tailored not only to welfare levels at any one time, but also to long-run welfare dynamics.