Perlecan is recruited by dystroglycan to nodes of Ranvier and binds the clustering molecule gliomedin.
ABSTRACT: Fast neural conduction requires accumulation of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier. Dedicated adhesion molecules on myelinating cells and axons govern node organization. Among those, specific laminins and dystroglycan complexes contribute to Na(+) channel clustering at peripheral nodes by unknown mechanisms. We show that in addition to facing the basal lamina, dystroglycan is found near the nodal matrix around axons, binds matrix components, and participates in initial events of nodogenesis. We identify the dystroglycan-ligand perlecan as a novel nodal component and show that dystroglycan is required for the selective accumulation of perlecan at nodes. Perlecan binds the clustering molecule gliomedin and enhances clustering of node of Ranvier components. These data show that proteoglycans have specific roles in peripheral nodes and indicate that peripheral and central axons use similar strategies but different molecules to form nodes of Ranvier. Further, our data indicate that dystroglycan binds free matrix that is not organized in a basal lamina.
Project description:Nodes of Ranvier are specialized axonal domains, at which voltage-gated sodium channels cluster. How axons cluster molecules in discrete domains is mostly unknown. Both axons and glia probably provide constraining mechanisms that contribute to domain formation. Proper sodium channel clustering in peripheral nerves depends on contact from Schwann cell microvilli, where at least one molecule, gliomedin, binds the sodium channel complex and induces its clustering. Furthermore, mice lacking Schwann cell dystroglycan have aberrant microvilli and poorly clustered sodium channels. Dystroglycan could interact at the basal lamina or at the axonglial surface. Because dystroglycan is a laminin receptor, and laminin 2 mutations [merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A)] cause reduced nerve conduction velocity, we asked whether laminins are involved. Here, we show that the composition of both laminins and the dystroglycan complex at nodes differs from that of internodes. Mice defective in laminin 2 have poorly formed microvilli and abnormal sodium clusters. These abnormalities are similar, albeit less severe, than those of mice lacking dystroglycan. However, mice lacking all Schwann cell laminins show severe nodal abnormalities, suggesting that other laminins compensate for the lack of laminin 2. Thus, although laminins are located at a distance from the axoglial junction, they are required for proper clustering of sodium channels. Laminins, through their specific nodal receptors and cytoskeletal linkages, may participate in the formation of mechanisms that constrain clusters at nodes. Finally, abnormal sodium channel clusters are present in a patient with MDC1A, providing a molecular basis for the reduced nerve conduction velocity in this disorder.
Project description:Rapid action potential propagation in myelinated axons requires Na? channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier. However, the mechanism of clustering at CNS nodes remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the assembly of nodes of Ranvier in the CNS involves three mechanisms: a glia-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) complex containing proteoglycans and adhesion molecules that cluster NF186, paranodal axoglial junctions that function as barriers to restrict the position of nodal proteins, and axonal cytoskeletal scaffolds (CSs) that stabilize nodal Na? channels. We show that while mice with a single disrupted mechanism had mostly normal nodes, disruptions of the ECM and paranodal barrier, the ECM and CS, or the paranodal barrier and CS all lead to juvenile lethality, profound motor dysfunction, and significantly reduced Na? channel clustering. Our results demonstrate that ECM, paranodal, and axonal cytoskeletal mechanisms ensure robust CNS nodal Na? channel clustering.
Project description:The scaffolding protein ankyrin-G is required for Na(+) channel clustering at axon initial segments. It is also considered essential for Na(+) channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier to facilitate fast and efficient action potential propagation. However, notwithstanding these widely accepted roles, we show here that ankyrin-G is dispensable for nodal Na(+) channel clustering in vivo. Unexpectedly, in the absence of ankyrin-G, erythrocyte ankyrin (ankyrin-R) and its binding partner ?I spectrin substitute for and rescue nodal Na(+) channel clustering. In addition, channel clustering is also rescued after loss of nodal ?IV spectrin by ?I spectrin and ankyrin-R. In mice lacking both ankyrin-G and ankyrin-R, Na(+) channels fail to cluster at nodes. Thus, ankyrin R-?I spectrin protein complexes function as secondary reserve Na(+) channel clustering machinery, and two independent ankyrin-spectrin protein complexes exist in myelinated axons to cluster Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:Clustered ion channels at nodes of Ranvier are critical for fast action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Axon-glia interactions converge on ankyrin and spectrin cytoskeletal proteins to cluster nodal Na+ channels during development. However, how nodal ion channel clusters are maintained is poorly understood. Here, we generated mice lacking nodal spectrins in peripheral sensory neurons to uncouple their nodal functions from their axon initial segment functions. We demonstrate a hierarchy of nodal spectrins, where ?4 spectrin is the primary spectrin and ?1 spectrin can substitute; each is sufficient for proper node organization. Remarkably, mice lacking nodal ? spectrins have normal nodal Na+ channel clustering during development, but progressively lose Na+ channels with increasing age. Loss of nodal spectrins is accompanied by an axon injury response and axon deformation. Thus, nodal spectrins are required to maintain nodal Na+ channel clusters and the structural integrity of axons.
Project description:The clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier is essential for the initiation and propagation of action potentials in myelinated axons. Sodium channels localize to the AIS through an axon-intrinsic mechanism driven by ankyrin G, while clustering at the nodes requires cues from myelinating glia that interact with axonal neurofascin186 (Sherman et al., 2005; Dzhashiashvili et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2007). Here, we report that in zebrafish mutants lacking Schwann cells in peripheral nerves (erbb2, erbb3, and sox10/colorless), axons form numerous aberrant sodium channel clusters throughout their length. Morpholino knockdown of ankyrin G, but not neurofascin, reduces the number of sodium channel clusters in Schwann cell-deficient mutants, suggesting that these aberrant clusters form by an axon-intrinsic mechanism. We also find that gpr126 mutants, in which Schwann cells are arrested at the promyelinating stage (Monk et al., 2009), are deficient in the clustering of neurofascin at the nodes of Ranvier. When Schwann cell migration in gpr126 mutants is blocked, there is an increase in the number of neurofascin clusters in peripheral axons. Our results suggest that Schwann cells inhibit the ability of ankyrin G to cluster sodium channels at ectopic locations, restricting its activity to the AIS and nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:Intricate molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells underlie the creation of unique domains that are essential for saltatory conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Previously, the cell surface adhesion molecule Neurofascin (Nfasc) has been shown to have a dual-role in the establishment of axonal domains from both the glial and neuronal interface. While the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF186) is indispensable for clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier; the glial-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF155) is required for myelinating glial cells to organize the paranodal domain. Although many studies have addressed the individual roles of NF155 and NF186 in assembling paranodes and nodes, respectively; critical questions about their roles in the maintenance and long-term health of the myelinated axons remain, which we aimed to address in these studies. Here using spatiotemporal ablation of Neurofascin in neurons alone or together with myelinating glia, we report that loss of NF186 individually from postnatal mice leads to progressive nodal destabilization and axonal degeneration. While individual ablation of paranodal NF155 does not disrupt nodes of Ranvier; loss of NF186 combined with NF155 causes more accelerated nodal destabilization than loss of NF186 alone, providing strong evidence regarding a supporting role for paranodes in nodal maintenance. In both cases of NF186 loss, myelinating axons show ultrastructural changes and degeneration. Our studies reveal that long-term maintenance of nodes and ultimately the health of axons is correlated with the stability of NF186 within the nodal complex and the presence of auxiliary paranodes.
Project description:Saltatory conduction requires high-density accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Nodal Na(+) channel clustering in the peripheral nervous system is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through unknown mechanisms. During development, Na(+) channels are first clustered at heminodes that border each myelin segment, and later in the mature nodes that are formed by the fusion of two heminodes. Here, we show that initial clustering of Na(+) channels at heminodes requires glial NrCAM and gliomedin, as well as their axonal receptor neurofascin 186 (NF186). We further demonstrate that heminodal clustering coincides with a second, paranodal junction (PNJ)-dependent mechanism that allows Na(+) channels to accumulate at mature nodes by restricting their distribution between two growing myelin internodes. We propose that Schwann cells assemble the nodes of Ranvier by capturing Na(+) channels at heminodes and by constraining their distribution to the nodal gap. Together, these two cooperating mechanisms ensure fast and efficient conduction in myelinated nerves.
Project description:The fast and reliable propagation of action potentials along myelinated fibers relies on the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier. Axo-glial communication is required for assembly of nodal proteins in the central nervous system, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Oligodendrocytes are known to support node of Ranvier assembly through paranodal junction formation. In addition, the formation of early nodal protein clusters (or prenodes) along axons prior to myelination has been reported, and can be induced by oligodendrocyte conditioned medium (OCM). Our recent work on cultured hippocampal neurons showed that OCM-induced prenodes are associated with an increased conduction velocity (Freeman et al., 2015). We here unravel the nature of the oligodendroglial secreted factors. Mass spectrometry analysis of OCM identified several candidate proteins (i.e., Contactin-1, ChL1, NrCAM, Noelin2, RPTP/Phosphacan, and Tenascin-R). We show that Contactin-1 combined with RPTP/Phosphacan or Tenascin-R induces clusters of nodal proteins along hippocampal GABAergic axons. Furthermore, Contactin-1-immunodepleted OCM or OCM from Cntn1-null mice display significantly reduced clustering activity, that is restored by addition of soluble Contactin-1. Altogether, our results identify Contactin-1 secreted by oligodendrocytes as a novel factor that may influence early steps of nodal sodium channel cluster formation along specific axon populations.
Project description:Accumulation of voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels at nodes of Ranvier is paramount for action potential propagation along myelinated fibers, yet the mechanisms governing nodal development, organization, and stabilization remain unresolved. Here, we report that genetic ablation of the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (Nfasc(NF¹??)) in vivo results in nodal disorganization, including loss of Na(v) channel and ankyrin-G (AnkG) enrichment at nodes in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, the presence of paranodal domains failed to rescue nodal organization in the PNS and the CNS. Most importantly, using ultrastructural analysis, we demonstrate that the paranodal domains invade the nodal space in Nfasc(NF¹??) mutant axons and occlude node formation. Our results suggest that Nfasc(NF¹??)-dependent assembly of the nodal complex acts as a molecular boundary to restrict the movement of flanking paranodal domains into the nodal area, thereby facilitating the stereotypic axonal domain organization and saltatory conduction along myelinated axons.
Project description:Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system . Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes . We have shown that assembly of this adhesion complex at the extremities of migrating oligodendroglial processes promotes process convergence along the axon during central nervous system (CNS) node assembly . Here we show that anchorage of this axoglial complex to the axon cytoskeleton is essential for efficient CNS node formation. When anchorage is disrupted, both the adaptor Protein 4.1B and the cytoskeleton protein ?II spectrin are mislocalized in the axon, and assembly of the node of Ranvier is significantly delayed. Nodal proteins and migrating oligodendroglial processes are no longer juxtaposed, and single detached nodal complexes replace the symmetrical heminodes found in both the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) during development. We propose that axoglial adhesion complexes contribute to the formation of an interface between cytoskeletal elements enriched in Protein 4.1B and ?II spectrin and those enriched in nodal ankyrinG and ?IV spectrin. This clusters nascent nodal complexes at heminodes and promotes their timely coalescence to form the mature node of Ranvier. These data demonstrate a role for the axon cytoskeleton in the assembly of a critical neuronal domain, the node of Ranvier.