ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of ?-catenin in the nucleus has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, but the fate of nuclear ?-catenin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the tripartite motif-containing protein 33 (TRIM33), acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduces the abundance of nuclear ?-catenin protein. TRIM33-mediated ?-catenin is destabilized and is GSK-3? or ?-TrCP independent. TRIM33 interacts with and ubiquitylates nuclear ?-catenin. Moreover, protein kinase C?, which directly phosphorylates ?-catenin at Ser715, is required for the TRIM33-?-catenin interaction. The function of TRIM33 in suppressing tumour cell proliferation and brain tumour development depends on TRIM33-promoted ?-catenin degradation. In human glioblastoma specimens, endogenous TRIM33 levels are inversely correlated with ?-catenin. In summary, our findings identify TRIM33 as a tumour suppressor that can abolish tumour cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by degrading nuclear ?-catenin. This work suggests a new therapeutic strategy against human cancers caused by aberrant activation of ?-catenin.
Project description:The von Hippel-Lindau protein pVHL suppresses renal tumorigenesis in part by promoting the degradation of hypoxia-inducible HIF-alpha transcription factors; additional mechanisms have been proposed. pVHL also stabilizes the plant homeodomain protein Jade-1, which is a candidate renal tumour suppressor that may correlate with renal cancer risk. Here we show that Jade-1 binds the oncoprotein beta-catenin in Wnt-responsive fashion. Moreover, Jade-1 destabilizes wild-type beta-catenin but not a cancer-causing form of beta-catenin. Whereas the well-established beta-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase component beta-TrCP ubiquitylates only phosphorylated beta-catenin, Jade-1 ubiquitylates both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated beta-catenin and therefore regulates canonical Wnt signalling in both Wnt-off and Wnt-on phases. Thus, the different characteristics of beta-TrCP and Jade-1 may ensure optimal Wnt pathway regulation. Furthermore, pVHL downregulates beta-catenin in a Jade-1-dependent manner and inhibits Wnt signalling, supporting a role for Jade-1 and Wnt signalling in renal tumorigenesis. The pVHL tumour suppressor and the Wnt tumorigenesis pathway are therefore directly linked through Jade-1.
Project description:Purpose:To evaluate the expression of tripartite motif-containing 33 (TRIM33) in ccRCC tissues and explore the biological effect of TRIM33 on the progress of ccRCC. Method:The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to examine the mRNA expression levels of TRIM33 in ccRCC tissues and its clinical relevance. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to evaluate its expression in ccRCC tissues obtained from our hospital. The correlation between TRIM33 expression and clinicopathological features of the patients was also investigated. The effects of TRIM33 on the proliferation of ccRCC cells were examined using the CCK-8 and colony formation assays. The effects of TRIM33 on the migration and invasion of ccRCC cells were explored through wound healing and transwell assays, along with the use of Wnt signaling pathway agonists in rescue experiments. Western blotting was used to explore the potential mechanism of TRIM33 in renal cancer cells. A xenograft model was used to explore the effect of TRIM33 on tumor growth. Result:Bioinformatics analysis showed that TRIM33 mRNA expression in ccRCC tissues was downregulated, and low TRIM33 expression was related to poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. In agreement with this, low TRIM33 expression was detected in human ccRCC tissues. TRIM33 expression levels were correlated with clinical characteristics, including tumor size and Furman's grade. Furthermore, TRIM33 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of 786-O and ACHN cell lines. The rescue experiment showed that the originally inhibited migration and invasion capabilities were restored. TRIM33 overexpression reduced the expression levels of ?-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc, and inhibited tumor growth in ccRCC cells in vivo. Conclusion:TRIM33 exhibits an abnormally low expression in human ccRCC tissues. TRIM33 may serve as a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for ccRCC.
Project description:Members of the Dickkopf (Dkk) family of Wnt antagonists interrupt Wnt-induced receptor assembly and participate in axial patterning and cell fate determination. One family member, DKK3, does not block Wnt receptor activation. Loss of Dkk3 expression in cancer is associated with hyperproliferation and dysregulated ß-catenin signaling, and ectopic expression of Dkk3 halts cancer growth. The molecular events mediating the DKK3-dependent arrest of ß-catenin-driven cell proliferation in cancer cells are unknown. Here we report the identification of a new intracellular gene product originating from the Dkk3 locus. This Dkk3b transcript originates from a second transcriptional start site located in intron 2 of the Dkk3 gene. It is essential for early mouse development and is a newly recognized regulator of ß-catenin signaling and cell proliferation. Dkk3b interrupts nuclear translocation ß-catenin by capturing cytoplasmic, unphosphorylated ß-catenin in an extra-nuclear complex with ß-TrCP. These data reveal a new regulator of one of the most studied signal transduction pathways in metazoans and provides a novel, completely untapped therapeutic target for silencing the aberrant ß-catenin signaling that drives hyperproliferation in many cancers.
Project description:Congenital cardiac malformations are among the most common birth defects in humans. Here we show that Trim33, a member of the Tif1 subfamily of tripartite domain containing transcriptional cofactors, is required for appropriate differentiation of the pre-cardiogenic mesoderm during a narrow time window in late gastrulation. While mesoderm-specific Trim33 mutants did not display noticeable phenotypes, epiblast-specific Trim33 mutant embryos developed ventricular septal defects, showed sparse trabeculation and abnormally thin compact myocardium, and died as a result of cardiac failure during late gestation. Differentiating embryoid bodies deficient in Trim33 showed an enrichment of gene sets associated with cardiac differentiation and contractility, while the total number of cardiac precursor cells was reduced. Concordantly, cardiac progenitor cell proliferation was reduced in Trim33-deficient embryos. ChIP-Seq performed using antibodies against Trim33 in differentiating embryoid bodies revealed more than 4000 peaks, which were significantly enriched close to genes implicated in stem cell maintenance and mesoderm development. Nearly half of the Trim33 peaks overlapped with binding sites of the Ctcf insulator protein. Our results suggest that Trim33 is required for appropriate differentiation of precardiogenic mesoderm during late gastrulation and that it will likely mediate some of its functions via multi-protein complexes, many of which include the chromatin architectural and insulator protein Ctcf.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an established model for investigating developmental processes, disease conditions, tissue regeneration and therapeutic targets. Previous studies have shown that tripartite motif-containing 33 protein (Trim33) functions as a chromatin reader during Nodal-induced mesoderm induction. Here we report that despite reduced proliferation, mouse ESCs deficient in Trim33 remained pluripotent when cultured under non-differentiating conditions. However, when induced to differentiate to embryoid bodies (EBs), the mutant cultures showed increased cell shedding and apoptosis at day 3 of differentiation. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that several molecular functions associated with cell survival, transcriptional/translational activity and growth factor signaling were affected already by the second day of differentiation in Trim33-deficient EBs. Consistent with increased apoptosis, expression of Rac1, a critical factor for EB cell survival, was reduced in Trim33 mutant EBs. In addition, a set of genes involved in regulation of pluripotency was upregulated in mutant EBs. Our results suggest that Trim33 regulates early maturation of mouse embryoid bodies in vitro.
Project description:The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins plays important roles in innate immunity and antimicrobial infection. None of these proteins has been shown to directly regulate transcription of genes in monocyte/macrophage except TRIM33 that we have recently shown to be a macrophage specific transcriptional inhibitor of Ifnb1. Using ChIP-seq analyses, we now report that TRIM33 is bound to two fold more genes in immature than in mature myeloid cell lines. When located near the same genes, TRIM33 is bound to different sequences in the two cell lines suggesting a role of TRIM33 in both immature and mature myeloid cells. Accordingly, expression of TRIM33 in immature myeloid cells is necessary for efficient production of small peritoneal macrophages, monocytes and bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) and TRIM33 targets a subset of genes involved in the inflammatory response only in mature myeloid cells. Functionally, this targeting is associated with impaired repression of pathways regulating the late phases of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of BMDM and a high sensitivity to LPS in vivo when the trim33 gene is inactivated in mature myeloid cells. These findings pinpoint TRIM33 as an important transcriptional actor of monocyte/macrophage mediated inflammation.
Project description:The WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway controls stem and progenitor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in epithelial tissues. Aberrant stimulation of this pathway is therefore frequently observed in cancers from epithelial origin. For instance, colorectal and hepatic cancers display activating mutations in the CTNNB1 gene encoding ?-catenin, or inactivating APC and AXIN gene mutations. However, these mutations are uncommon in breast and pancreatic cancers despite nuclear ?-catenin localization, indicative of pathway activation. Notably, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), an indispensable co-receptor for WNT, is frequently overexpressed in colorectal, liver, breast and pancreatic adenocarcinomas in association with increased WNT/? -catenin signaling. Moreover, LRP6 is hyperphosphorylated in KRAS-mutated cells and in patient-derived colorectal tumours. Polymorphisms in the LRP6 gene are also associated with different susceptibility to developing specific types of lung, bladder and colorectal cancers. Additionally, recent observations suggest that LRP6 dysfunction may be involved in carcinogenesis. Indeed, reducing LRP6 expression and/or activity inhibits cancer cell proliferation and delays tumour growth in vivo. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the biological function and regulation of LRP6 in the development of epithelial cancers-especially colorectal, liver, breast and pancreatic cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mature myeloid cells play a crucial role in Crohn's disease (CD) but the molecular players that regulate their functions in CD are not fully characterized. We and others have shown that TRIM33 is involved in the innate immune response and in the inflammatory response but TRIM33 role in intestinal inflammation is not known. In this study, we investigated the role of TRIM33 in myeloid cells during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS:We study the role of TRIM33 during DSS-induced colitis which mimics intestinal inflammation using mice deleted for Trim33 only in mature myeloid cells (Trim33-/- mice) FINDINGS: We first show that Trim33 mRNA level is decreased in CD patient's blood monocytes suggesting a role of TRIM33 in CD. Using Trim33-/- mice, we show that these mice display an impaired resolution of colonic inflammation with an increased number of blood and colon monocytes and a decreased number of colonic macrophages. Trim33-/- monocytes are less competent for recruitment and macrophage differentiation. Finally, during resolution of inflammation, Trim33-/- colonic macrophages display an impaired M1/M2 switch and express a low level of membrane-bound TNF that is associated with an increased number of colonic neutrophils. INTERPRETATION:Our study shows an important role of TRIM33 in monocytes/macrophages during DSS-induced colitis and suggests that the decreased expression of TRIM33 in CD patient's blood monocytes might not be a consequence but might be involved in CD progression. FUND: La Ligue contre le Cancer (équipe labelisée), INSERM, CEA, Université Paris-Diderot, Université Paris-Sud.
Project description:Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is most common among all thyroid cancers. Multiple genomic alterations occur in PTC, and gene rearrangements are one of them. Here we screened 14 tumors for novel fusion transcripts by RNA-Seq. Two samples harboring RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were positive controls whereas the remaining ones were negative regarding the common PTC alterations. We used Sanger sequencing to validate potential fusions. We detected 2 novel potentially oncogenic transcript fusions: TG-FGFR1 and TRIM33-NTRK1. We detected 4 novel fusion transcripts of unknown significance accompanying the TRIM33-NTRK1 fusion: ZSWIM5-TP53BP2, TAF4B-WDR1, ABI2-MTA3, and ARID1B-PSMA1. Apart from confirming the presence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in positive control samples, we also detected known oncogenic fusion transcripts in remaining samples: TFG-NTRK1, ETV6-NTRK3, MKRN1-BRAF, EML4-ALK, and novel isoform of CCDC6-RET.
Project description:The expression of Trim33 (Tif1?) increases in skeletal muscles during regeneration and decreases upon maturation. Although Trim33 is required for the normal development of other tissues, its role in skeletal muscle is unknown. The current study aimed to define the role of Trim33 in muscle development and regeneration. We generated mice with muscle-specific conditional knockout of Trim33 by combining floxed Trim33 and Cre recombinase under the Pax7 promoter. Muscle regeneration was induced by injuring mouse muscles with cardiotoxin. We studied the consequences of Trim33 knockdown on viability, body weight, skeletal muscle histology, muscle regeneration, and gene expression. We also studied the effect of Trim33 silencing in satellite cells and the C2C12 mouse muscle cell line. Although Trim33 knockdown mice weighed less than control mice, their skeletal muscles were histologically unremarkable and regenerated normally following injury. Unexpectedly, RNAseq analysis revealed dramatically increased expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) in regenerating muscle from Trim33 knockout mice, satellite cells from Trim33 knockout mice, and C2C12 cells treated with Trim33 siRNA. Trim33 knockdown had no demonstrable effect on muscle differentiation or regeneration. However, Trim33 knockdown induced CCK expression in muscle, suggesting that suppression of CCK expression requires Trim33.