Age and sex differences in kidney microRNA expression during the life span of F344 rats.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play a role in susceptibilities to specific toxicities and adverse drug reactions. MiRNAs in particular have been shown to be important regulators in cancer and other diseases and show promise as predictive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we characterized the global kidney miRNA expression profile in untreated male and female F344 rats throughout the life span. These findings were correlated with sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events, such as male-biased renal fibrosis and inflammation in old age. METHODS: Kidney miRNA expression was examined in F344 rats at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age in both sexes using Agilent miRNA microarrays. Differential expression was determined using filtering criteria of ≥1.5 fold change and ANOVA or pairwise t-test (FDR <5%) to determine significant age and sex effects, respectively. Pathway analysis software was used to investigate the possible roles of these target genes in age- and sex-specific differences. RESULTS: Three hundred eleven miRNAs were found to be expressed in at least one age and sex. Filtering criteria revealed 174 differentially expressed miRNAs in the kidney; 173 and 34 miRNAs exhibiting age and sex effects, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed age effects predominated over sex effects, with 2-week miRNA expression being much different from other ages. No significant sexually dimorphic miRNA expression was observed from 5 to 8 weeks, while the most differential expression (13 miRNAs) was observed at 21 weeks. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of 56% of detected renal miRNAs was found to vary significantly with age and/or sex during the life span of F344 rats. Pathway analysis suggested that 2-week-expressed miRNAs may be related to organ and cellular development and proliferation pathways. Male-biased miRNA expression at older ages correlated with male-biased renal fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. These miRNAs showed high representation in renal inflammation and nephritis pathways, and included miR-214, miR-130b, miR-150, miR-223, miR-142-5p, miR-185, and miR-296*. Analysis of kidney miRNA expression throughout the rat life span will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.
Project description:Purpose:The current study aims to examine the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in the kidney tissues of rats. Methods:Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal experiment groups: the AGE group, the RSA group, and the control group. The rats in the AGE group and the RSA group were administered with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and rat serum albumin (RSA) via the tail vein, respectively, whereas the control group received PBS. Total RNA was prepared from the rat kidney tissues, and the miRNA expression profiles in different experiment groups were compared by microarray analysis. The expression levels of selected differential miRNAs were verified by RT-qPCR. Target gene prediction was conducted using algorithms such as TargetScan, miRanda, and PICTar. Functional analysis was performed to determine the putative biological roles of the validated miRNAs. Results:The microarray study revealed 451 upregulated and 320 downregulated miRNAs in the AGE group compared with the RSA group (p < 0.05). Seven miRNAs, including miR-21-5p, miR-92b-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-196a-5p, miR-181b-5p, miR-186-5p, and miR-192-5p, were screened and verified using RT-qPCR, of which, the change of miR-92b-3p was the most obvious according to the miRNA expression different multiple and p < 0.05). Seven miRNAs, including miR-21-5p, miR-92b-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-196a-5p, miR-181b-5p, miR-186-5p, and miR-192-5p, were screened and verified using RT-qPCR, of which, the change of miR-92b-3p was the most obvious according to the miRNA expression different multiple and. Conclusion:The results of the current study suggested that miR-92b-3p could mediate AGE-induced development of renal abnormalities through targeting Smad7 in rats with DN.
Project description:Biomarkers for the identification of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are needed as current tests lack sensitivity for detecting early kidney damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding regulatory ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules commonly found in urinary exosomes differentially expressed as renal function declines. We evaluated urinary exosomal miRNA expression in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DKD (T2DKD). 87 human urinary exosomal miRNAs were profiled in a discovery cohort of patients with T2DKD (n = 14) and age and gender matched controls with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal renal function (T2DNRF; n = 15). Independent validation of differentially expressed target miRNAs was performed in a second cohort with T2DKD (n = 22) and two control groups: T2DNRF (n = 15) and controls with chronic kidney disease (CCKD) and poor renal function without diabetes (n = 18). In the discovery cohort, urinary miR-21-5p, let-7e-5p and miR-23b-3p were significantly upregulated in T2DKD compared to T2DNRF (p < 0.05). Conversely, miR-30b-5p and miR-125b-5p expression was significantly lower in T2DKD (p < 0.05). Independent validation confirmed up-regulation of miR-21-5p in the replication cohort in T2DKD (2.13-fold, p = 0.006) and in CCKD (1.73-fold, p = 0.024). In contrast, miR-30b-5p was downregulated in T2DKD (0.82-fold, p = 0.006) and in CCKD (0.66-fold, p < 0.002). This study identified differential expression of miR-21-5p and miR-30b-5p in individuals with diabetic kidney disease and poor renal function. These miRNAs represent potential biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A majority of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), occur predominantly in females. Recent studies have identified specific dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in both human and murine lupus, implying an important contribution of these miRNAs to lupus pathogenesis. However, to date, there is no study that examined sex differences in miRNA expression in immune cells as a plausible basis for sex differences in autoimmune disease. This study addresses this aspect in NZB/WF1 mice, a classical murine lupus model with marked female bias, and further investigates estrogen regulation of lupus-associated miRNAs. METHODS: The Taqman miRNA assay system was used to quantify the miRNA expression in splenocytes from male and female NZB/WF1 mice at 17-18, 23, and 30 weeks (wks) of age. To evaluate potential estrogen's effect on lupus-associated miRNAs, 6-wk-old NZB/WF1 male mice were orchidectomized and surgically implanted with empty (placebo) or estrogen implants for 4 and 26 wks, respectively. To assess the lupus status in the NZB/WF1 mice, serum anti-dsDNA autoantibody levels, proteinuria, and renal histological changes were determined. RESULTS: The sex differences in the expression of lupus-associated miRNAs, including the miR-182-96-183 cluster, miR-155, miR-31, miR-148a, miR-127, and miR-379, were markedly evident after the onset of lupus, especially at 30 wks of age when female NZB/WF1 mice manifested moderate to severe lupus when compared to their male counterparts. Our limited data also suggested that estrogen treatment increased the expression of aforementioned lupus-associated miRNAs, with the exception of miR-155, in orchidectomized male NZB/WF1 mice to a similar level in age-matched intact female NZB/WF1 mice. It is noteworthy that orchiectomy, itself, did not affect the expression of lupus-associated miRNAs. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated sex differences in the expression of lupus-associated miRNAs in splenocytes, especially in the context of autoimmunity. The increased expression of lupus-associated miRNA in female NZB/WF1 mice and conceivably in estrogen-treated orchidectomized male NZB/WF1 mice was associated with lupus manifestation. The notable increase of lupus-associated miRNAs in diseased, female NZB/WF1 mice may be a result of both lupus manifestation and the female gender.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), the most common genetic cause of chronic kidney failure, is characterized by the presence of numerous, progressively enlarging fluid-filled cysts in the renal parenchyma. The cysts arise from renal tubules and are lined by abnormally functioning and hyperproliferative epithelial cells. Despite recent progress, no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy is available to retard cyst growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that inhibit posttranscriptional gene expression. Dysregulated miRNA expression is observed in PKD, but whether miRNAs are directly involved in kidney cyst formation and growth is not known. Here, we show that miR-17?92, an oncogenic miRNA cluster, is up-regulated in mouse models of PKD. Kidney-specific transgenic overexpression of miR-17?92 produces kidney cysts in mice. Conversely, kidney-specific inactivation of miR-17?92 in a mouse model of PKD retards kidney cyst growth, improves renal function, and prolongs survival. miR-17?92 may mediate these effects by promoting proliferation and through posttranscriptional repression of PKD genes Pkd1, Pkd2, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1?. These studies demonstrate a pathogenic role of miRNAs in mouse models of PKD and identify miR-17?92 as a therapeutic target in PKD. Our results also provide a unique hypothesis for disease progression in PKD involving miRNAs and regulation of PKD gene dosage.
Project description:Kidney miRNA expression was examined in F344 rats at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age in both sexes using Agilent miRNA microarrays. 311 miRNAs were found to be expressed in at least one age and sex. Filtering criteria of ≥1.5 fold change and ANOVA (FDR <5%) revealed 174 differentially expressed miRNAs in the kidney; 173 and 34 miRNAs exhibiting age and sex effects, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed age effects predominated over sex effects, with 2 week miRNA expression being much different from other ages. No significant sexually dimorphic miRNA expression was observed from 5 to 8 weeks, while the most differential expression (13 miRNAs) was observed at 21 weeks. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Pathway analysis was used to investigate the possible roles of these target genes in age- and sex-specific differences. Untreated male and female F344 rats from 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age (n=5) were sacrificed by CO2 asphyxiation, whole kidneys collected and homogenized, total RNA, including small RNA fraction, was used for miRNA expression arrays (Agilent).
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of 18-23 nucleotides that regulate gene expression. Recently, plasma miRNAs have been investigated as biomarkers for various physiological and pathological conditions. The present study details the conserved miRNA expression profiles of tubular tissues, and discusses whether they could be used to distinguish between proximal tubule injury, diagnose acute kidney injury (AKI), and the early-stage renal tubular dysfunction. miRNA expression was assessed with miRNA array and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan system. The expression profiles of miR-200a/b/c, miR-145, miR-192, miR-194, miR-216a/b, miR-217, and miR-449a in human and rat tubular tissues such as the kidneys, lung, small intestine, and various exocrine glands were adequate for discriminating tubular tissues. In the kidney, miR-192 and miR-194 were highly expressed, whereas miR-145 and miR-449a were absent. miR-145 and miR-449a were relatively specifically expressed in small intestine and lung, respectively. Therefore, the combined levels of miR-200a/b/c, miR-192, and miR-194 in plasma were very useful in diagnosing AKI induced by contact freezing in mice. Moreover, urinary miR-200a levels were useful for the diagnosis of renal tubular dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rat with high salt administration. Our results indicate that miRNA expression profiles are useful as biomarkers for identification of various kidney injuries.
Project description:Cystic kidney diseases are common renal disorders characterized by the formation of fluid-filled epithelial cysts in the kidneys. The progressive growth and expansion of the renal cysts replace existing renal tissue within the renal parenchyma, leading to reduced renal function. While several genes have been identified in association with inherited causes of cystic kidney disease, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes in the context of post-transcriptional regulation are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with the pathogenesis of cystic kidney disease.In this review, recent studies that implicate dysregulation of miRNA expression in cystogenesis will be discussed. The relationship of specific miRNAs, such as the miR-17?92 cluster and cystic kidney disease, miR-92a and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and alterations in LIN28-LET7 expression in Wilms tumor will be explored.At present, there are no specific treatments available for patients with cystic kidney disease. Understanding and identifying specific miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders may have the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies and biomarkers.
Project description:Our objective was to identify microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers of drug-induced liver and kidney injury by profiling the circulating miRNome in patients with acetaminophen overdose. Plasma miRNAs were quantified in age- and sex-matched overdose patients with (N?=?27) and without (N?=?27) organ injury (APAP-TOX and APAP-no TOX, respectively). Classifier miRNAs were tested in a separate cohort (N?=?81). miRNA specificity was determined in non-acetaminophen liver injury and murine models. Sensitivity was tested by stratification of patients at hospital presentation (N?=?67). From 1809 miRNAs, 75 were 3-fold or more increased and 46 were 3-fold or more decreased with APAP-TOX. A 16 miRNA classifier model accurately diagnosed APAP-TOX in the test cohort. In humans, the miRNAs with the largest increase (miR-122-5p, miR-885-5p, miR-151a-3p) and the highest rank in the classifier model (miR-382-5p) accurately reported non-acetaminophen liver injury and were unaffected by kidney injury. miR-122-5p was more sensitive than ALT for reporting liver injury at hospital presentation, especially combined with miR-483-3p. A miRNA panel was associated with human kidney dysfunction. In mice, miR-122-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-382-5p specifically reported APAP toxicity - being unaffected by drug-induced kidney injury. Profiling of acetaminophen toxicity identified multiple miRNAs that report acute liver injury and potential biomarkers of drug-induced kidney injury.
Project description:(1) Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation is associated with septic acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the time-dependent miRNA expression changes in the kidney caused by LPS. (2) Methods: Male outbred NMRI mice were injected with LPS and sacrificed at 1.5 and 6 h (40 mg/kg i.p., early phase, EP) or at 24 and 48 h (10 mg/kg i.p., late phase, LP). The miRNA profile was established using miRCURY LNA™ microarray and confirmed with qPCR. Total renal proteome was analyzed by LC-MS/MS (ProteomeXchange: PXD014664). (3) Results: Septic AKI was confirmed by increases in plasma urea concentration and in renal TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA expression. Most miRNAs were altered at 6 and 24 h and declined by 48 h. In EP miR-762 was newly identified and validated and was the most elevated miRNA. The predicted target of miR-762, Ras related GTPase 1B (Sar1b) was downregulated. In LP miR-21a-5p was the most influenced miRNA followed by miR-451a, miR-144-3p, and miR-146a-5p. Among the potential protein targets of the most influenced miRNAs, only aquaporin-1, a target of miR-144-3p was downregulated at 24 h. (4) Conclusion: Besides already known miRNAs, septic AKI upregulated miR-762, which may regulate GTP signaling, and miR-144-3p and downregulated its target, aquaporin-1.
Project description:Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of cisplatin-mediated chemotherapy in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unclear, making it difficult to design effective renoprotective approaches. Here, we have examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We show that cisplatin nephrotoxicity was not affected by overall depletion of both beneficial and detrimental miRNAs from kidney proximal tubular cells in mice in which the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer had been conditionally knocked out. To identify miRNAs involved in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we used microarray analysis to profile miRNA expression and identified 47 up-regulated microRNAs and 20 down-regulated microRNAs in kidney cortical tissues. One up-regulated miRNA was miR-375, whose expression was also induced in cisplatin-treated renal tubular cells. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-375 decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-375 is a cell-damaging or pro-apoptotic agent. Blockade of P53 or NF-?B attenuated cisplatin-induced miR-375 expression, supporting a role of P53 and NF-?B in miR-375 induction. We also identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF-1?) as a key downstream target of miR-375. Of note, we further demonstrated that HNF-1? protected renal cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that upon cisplatin exposure, P53 and NF-?B collaboratively induce miR-375 expression, which, in turn, represses HNF-1? activity, resulting in renal tubular cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity.