Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14?days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina.Workers anticipating at least 24?h away from work were enrolled June-August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2-7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn.Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49?h; range >0-96?h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates.Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96?h away from work.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS:At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS:One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25% increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.
Project description:Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO) and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO) workers and household members in North Carolina.Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting S. aureus isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multi-locus sequence type, and absence of the scn gene (a marker of livestock association).Among 99 ILO and 105 AFLO participants, S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was 41% and 40%, respectively. Among ILO and AFLO S. aureus carriers, MRSA was detected in 7% (3/41) and 7% (3/42), respectively. Thirty seven percent of 41 ILO versus 19% of 42 AFLO S. aureus-positive participants carried MDRSA. S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 was observed only among workers and predominated among ILO (13/34) compared with AFLO (1/35) S. aureus-positive workers. Only ILO workers carried scn-negative MRSA CC398 (2/34) and scn-negative MDRSA CC398 (6/34), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant.Despite similar S. aureus and MRSA prevalence among ILO and AFLO-exposed individuals, livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA (tetracycline-resistant, CC398, scn-negative) were only present among ILO-exposed individuals. These findings support growing concern about antibiotics use and confinement in livestock production, raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to an opportunistic and drug-resistant pathogen, which in other settings including hospitals and the community is of broad public health importance.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07-5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71-14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus.
Project description:Swine production work is a risk factor for nasal carriage of livestock-associated (LA-) Staphylococcus aureus and also for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). However, whether LA-S. aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk of SSTI remains unclear. We aimed to examine S. aureus nasal carriage and recent (?3 months prior to enrollment) SSTI symptoms among industrial hog operation (IHO) workers and their household contacts. IHO workers and their household contacts provided a nasal swab and responded to a questionnaire assessing self-reported personal and occupational exposures and recent SSTI symptoms. Nasal swabs were analyzed for S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant-S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (livestock association), and spa type. S. aureus with at least one indicator of LA was observed among 19% of 103 IHO workers and 6% of 80 household members. Prevalence of recent SSTI was 6% among IHO workers and 11% among 54 minor household members (0/26 adult household members reported SSTI). Among IHO workers, nasal carriers of MDRSA and scn-negative S. aureus were 8.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 43.9) and 5.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 22.2) times as likely to report recent SSTI as non-carriers, respectively. In one household, both an IHO worker and child reported recent SSTI and carried the same S. aureus spa type (t4976) intranasally. Prevalence of scn-negative S. aureus (PR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 21.4) was elevated among IHO workers who reported never versus always wearing a face mask at work. Although few SSTI were reported, this study of IHO workers and their household contacts is the first to characterize a relation between nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant LA-S. aureus and SSTI. The direction and temporality of this relation and IHO workers' use of face masks to prevent nasal carriage of these bacteria warrant further investigation.
Project description:Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear.We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households.In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (putative marker of livestock association), and spa type.S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO (53%) compared with CR (31%) adults [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.83], but MRSA nasal carriage prevalence was uncommon (2-3%) in IHO and CR adults. MDRSA nasal carriage prevalence was similar among IHO workers and CR adults (12% vs. 8%; aPR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.29). Nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO compared with CR children for S. aureus (49% vs. 31%; aPR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.99), MRSA (14% vs. 6%; aPR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.92), and MDRSA (23% vs. 8%; aPR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.75). We also found suggestive evidence of a higher prevalence of S. aureus, MRSA, and MDRSA among children living with an IHO worker who did versus did not report taking personal protective equipment (PPE) home from the IHO. Livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage predominated among IHO workers.Our findings support the importance of further research on the prevalence and potential sources of exposure to ABR S. aureus among children living with IHO workers.
Project description:Since its emergence in the early 2000s, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) has led to an increasing number of human infections in Denmark and other European countries with industrial pig production. LA-MRSA CC398 is primarily associated with skin infections among pig farm workers but is also increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease among elderly and immunocompromised people. Pig farm workers may serve as vehicles for the spread of LA-MRSA CC398 and other farm-origin bacteria between farms and into the general population. Yet, little is known about the bacterial community dynamics in pig farm workers and other persons with long- and short-term exposure to the pig farm environment. To gain insight into this, we investigated the nasal microbiomes in pig farm workers during a workweek on four LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farms, as well as in short-term visitors two hours before, immediately after, and 48 hours after a 1-hour visit to another LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farm. S. aureus and LA-MRSA CC398 carriage was quantified by means of culture, and the composition of the bacterial communities was investigated through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pig farm workers often carried LA-MRSA CC398 and other bacteria from the pig farm environment, both at work and at home, although at lower levels at home. In contrast, short-term visitors were subject to a less dramatic and rapidly reversible change in the nasal bacterial community composition. These results suggest that pig farm workers may be an important source of LA-MRSA CC398 and perhaps other pathogens of human and veterinary relevance.
Project description:Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is widely disseminated as a nasal colonizer of conventionally raised livestock and of humans subjected to occupational exposure. Reports on contamination of raw meat raise the question as to whether occupationally exposed food handlers are at particular risk of nasal colonization by LA-MRSA. Here, we report the results from a cross-sectional study on nasal S. aureus/MRSA colonization of butchers, meat sellers, and cooks in Germany. We sampled 286 butchers and meat sellers in 26 butcheries and 319 cooks handling meat in 16 professional canteen kitchens. Swabs were processed on both blood agar plates and MRSA-selective plates. MRSA were confirmed by PCR for mec genes and by broth microdilution. All isolates were subjected to molecular typing. PCR for markers useful to differentiate human-adapted and animal-adapted subpopulations was performed due to the presence of clonal complexes known to occur in both livestock and humans (CC5, CC7, CC8, CC9, and CC398). Only two participants (0.33%) were colonized by MRSA (Hospital-associated MRSA ST22). Nasal colonization by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was detected in 16.6% of cooks and in 26.2% of butchers and meat sellers. Among 16 of the isolates attributed to CC7, three were negative for the immune evasion gene cluster, suggesting an animal origin. Isolates attributed to CC5, CC8, and CC398 were negative for markers typical of animal-adapted subpopulations. The occupational handling of raw meat and raw meat products was not associated with nasal colonization by LA-MRSA.
Project description:New human pathogens can emerge from the livestock-human interface and spread into human populations through many pathways including livestock products. Occupational contact with livestock is a risk factor for exposure to those pathogens and may cause further spreading of those pathogens in the community. The current study used whole genome sequencing to explore nasal Staphylococcus aureus obtained from hog slaughterhouse workers and their community members, all of whom resided in a livestock-dense region in rural North Carolina. Sequence data were analyzed for lineage distribution, pathogenicity-related genomic features, and mobile genetic elements. We observed evidence of nasal S. aureus differences between hog workers and non-workers. Nasal S. aureus from hog workers showed a greater lineage diversity than nasal S. aureus from community residents. Hog worker isolates were less likely to carry the ?Sa3 prophage and human-specific immune evasion cluster genes than community resident isolates (?Sa3 prophage: 54.5% vs. 91.7%, Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) corrected p = 0.035; immune evasion cluster genes: 66.7% vs. 100%, BH p = 0.021). Hog worker isolates had a lower prevalence and diversity of enterotoxins than community resident isolates, particularly lacking the enterotoxin gene cluster (39.4% vs. 70.8%, BH p = 0.125). Moreover, hog worker isolates harbored more diverse antibiotic resistance genes, with a higher prevalence of carriage of multiple resistance genes, than community resident isolates (75.8% vs. 29.2%, BH p = 0.021). Phylogenetic analysis of all ST5 isolates, the most abundant lineage in the collection, further supported separation of isolates from hog workers and non-workers. Together, our observations suggest impact of occupational contact with livestock on nasal S. aureus colonization and highlight the need for further research on the complex epidemiology of S. aureus at the livestock-human interface.
Project description:Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored.