High-resolution genomic copy number profiling of primary intraocular lymphoma by single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.
ABSTRACT: Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is a rare lymphoma. Because of difficulties in obtaining tissue samples, little is known about the disease's genetic features. In order to clarify these features, we carried out single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping of IOL using genomic DNA extracted from vitreous fluid. We analyzed 33 samples of IOLs consisting of 16 PIOLs, 12 IOLs with a central nervous system (CNS) lesion at diagnosis (IOCNSL), and five secondary IOLs following systemic lymphoma. All were B-cell type. We identified recurrent copy number (CN) gain regions in PIOLs, most frequently on chromosome 1q followed by 18q and 19q. Chromosome 6q was the most frequent loss region. Although these CN gain regions of PIOL were in common with those of IOCNSL, loss of 6q22.33 containing PTPRK and 9p21.3 containing CDKN2A were more frequently deleted in IOCNSL. Large CN loss in 6q was detected in three of four PIOL patients who had early CNS development and short survival periods, whereas long-term survivors did not have such deletions. There was a correlation between gain of the IL-10 gene located on 1q and intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration, which was higher in IOL than in benign uveitis. The results suggest that IOCNSL is a highly malignant form of PIOL that infiltrates into the CNS at an early stage. They also indicate that genetic differences between PIOL and primary CNS lymphoma need to be clarified.
Project description:In order to prevent central nervous system (CNS) involvement and improve the prognosis of primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL), we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of combined therapy using intravitreal methotrexate (MTX) and systemic high-dose MTX on treatment-naïve PIOL. Patients with newly diagnosed PIOL whose lymphoma was limited to the eyes were enrolled. The patients were treated with weekly intravitreal MTX until the ocular lesions were resolved, followed by five cycles of systemic high-dose MTX (3.5 g/m<sup>2</sup> ) every other week. Ten patients were enrolled in this study and completed the treatment. All patients achieved complete response for their ocular lesions with rapid decrease of intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration. Adverse events of intravitreal and systemic high-dose MTX were mild and tolerable. With a median follow-up of 29.5 months, four patients (40%) experienced the CNS disease development and the mean CNS lymphoma-free survival (CLFS) time was 51.1 months. Two-year CLFS, which was the primary end-point of the study, was 58.3% (95% confidence interval, 23.0-82.1%). In contrast, eight patients were treated with intravitreal MTX alone in our institute, and their 2-year CLFS was 37.5% (95% confidence interval, 8.7-67.4%). In conclusion, systemic high-dose MTX following intravitreal MTX is feasible and might be effective in preventing CNS involvement of PIOL. Further arrangements are worth considering in order to improve the effects. This study was registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000003921).
Project description:To compare the in-the-bag stability and visual function of single-piece intraocular lenses (IOLs) and three-piece IOLs.A total of 65 patients with age-related cataracts (80 eyes) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive in-the-bag implantation of either a single-piece IOL (40 eyes) or a three-piece IOL (40 eyes). Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. Visual acuity, refraction and total aberration were examined. IOL position stability (including axial movement, decentration and tilt) was measured using a Scheimpflug imaging system.At the 3-month follow-up visit, single-piece IOLs did not exhibit significant axial movement (0.07?±?0.30 mm, p?=?0.13) compared with their axial position at 1 week postoperatively, whereas three-piece IOLs displayed forward axial movement of -0.22?±?0.23 mm (p?<?0.0001). The mean manifest spherical equivalence (SE) of eyes with single-piece IOL was 0.15?±?0.18D, whereas in eyes with three-piece IOLs, the mean manifest SE was -0.34?±?0.15D (p?<?0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in IOL decentration, tilt, uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity or total spherical aberration between the two groups.Three months after implantation, single-piece IOLs exhibit better axial stability and more stable refractive outcome than three-piece IOLs, but both IOLs perform equally well in terms of decentration, tilt, visual acuity and total aberration.ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT02609997 , 11/18/2015, retrospectively registered.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate and compare the effect of misalignment and tilt on the optical performance of different aspheric intraocular lens (IOL) designs. METHODS:Three aspheric IOLs with a different quantity of spherical aberration (SA) have been designed and the effect of IOL misalignment and tilt on the imaging quality of an eye model has been numerically assessed using a commercial optical design software. The prototypes have been manufactured by lathe turning and tested in vitro using the same optical bench (PMTF, Lambda-X) that complies with International Organization for Standardization standard 11979-2 requirements. Image quality was evaluated from the modulation transfer functions (MTFs), through-focus modulation transfer functions (TF-MTFs), root mean square (RMS) values of defocus, astigmatism and coma, and images of the United States Air Force (USAF) target were taken. A comparison with the optical performance of spherical IOLs has also been performed. RESULTS:Intraocular lens misalignment and tilt increased wavefront aberrations; the effect of misalignment on root mean square (RMS) astigmatism and coma was positively correlated with the spherical aberration of the IOL. Aberration-free IOLs showed the highest MTF for all misalignment values and for IOLs with negative SA correction the MTF decays below 0.43 when they are decentered 0.50 mm. CONCLUSIONS:Aspherical IOLs are more sensitive than spherical IOLs to misalignment or tilt, depending on their SA correction. The optical degradation caused by IOL misalignment had a greater effect on IOL designs with a higher amount of negative spherical aberration. In contrast, the effect of tilt on the optical performance was less sensitive to the IOL design.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the influence of capsular tension ring (CTR) on surgical outcomes of toric and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) in eyes at high risk of zonular instability. METHODS:Fifty-five eyes of 43 patients who had undergone phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were included in the analysis. They had some risk of zonular weakness, such as pseudoexfoliation, shallow anterior chamber, high myopia, and phacodonesis, or were judged to have unstable zonules during surgery. Toric IOL was implanted in 9 eyes with CTR and 22 eyes without CTR, while multifocal IOL was used in 9 eyes with CTR and 15 eyes without CTR. Manifest refraction, refractive astigmatism, visual acuity, and degree of IOL decentration and tilt measured using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography were analyzed. Axis misalignment of toric IOLs were also evaluated. RESULTS:In toric IOLs, co-implantation of CTR significantly reduced decentration and axis misalignment of IOL, resulting in better uncorrected and corrected visual acuity after surgery. In multifocal IOLs, combined use of CTR significantly prevented IOL tilt, leading to better intermediate visual acuity. Spherical equivalent and residual astigmatism were not significantly affected by the use of CTR. CONCLUSIONS:CTR reduces decentration and axis misalignment of toric IOL and tilt of multifocal IOL, achieving improvement of postoperative visual function in eyes with suspected zonular instability.
Project description:Purpose:To determine if the rates of toric and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) are affected by patient cost or physician reimbursement. Methods:At Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) there is no increased patient cost or physician reimbursement for toric or multifocal IOLs. The medical records of all patients who underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation at NMCSD between 2013 and September 2016 were reviewed. The type of IOL implanted was identified. The rates of toric and multifocal IOL usage were compared to the rates reported in the 2016 American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) Clinical Survey. Results:The inclusion criterion was met for 2585 cataract surgeries. The percentage of toric IOLs at NMCSD in 2016 was 10%. If the patients that received 3 piece or anterior chamber IOLs were excluded, the percentage of single piece IOLs that were toric was 12%. The percentage of multifocal IOLs at NMCSD ranged from 0.8% in 2013 to 0.3% in 2016. The rates of toric and multifocal IOLs reported in the ASCRS clinical survey were 10% and 9%, respectively. Conclusions and Importance:The rate of toric IOLs usage was not significantly affected by patient cost or physician reimbursement. The rate of multifocal IOLs usage was significantly lower at NMCSD.
Project description:PURPOSE:To discuss the impact of intraocular lens-(IOL)-power, IOL-thickness, IOL-shape, corneal power and effective lens position (ELP) on the distance between the anterior IOL vertex (ALP) of a thick IOL and the ELP of its thin lens equivalent. METHODS:We calculated the ALP of a thick IOL in a model eye, which results in the same focal plane as a thin IOL placed at the ELP using paraxial approximation. The model eye included IOL-power (P), ELP, IOL-thickness (Th), IOL-shape-factor (X), and corneal power (DC). The initial values were P = 10 D (diopter: 1 D = 1 m-1), 20 D, 30 D, Th = 0.9 mm, ELP = 5 mm, X = 0, DC = 43 D. The difference between ALP and the ELP was illustrated as a function of each of the model parameters. RESULTS:The ALP of a thick lens has to be placed in front of the ELP for P>0 IOLs to achieve the same optical effect as the thin lens equivalent. The difference ALP-ELP for the initial values is -0.57 mm. Minus power IOLs (ALP-ELP = -0.07 mm, for IOL-power = -5 D) and convex-concave IOLs (ALP-ELP = -0.16 mm, for X = 1) have to be placed further posterior. The corneal power and ELP have less influence, but corneal power cannot be neglected. CONCLUSION:The distance between ELP and ALP primarily depends on IOL-power, IOL-thickness, and shape-factor.
Project description:Purpose:To compare the visual performance and astigmatism tolerance of 3 intraocular lens (IOL) groups: monofocal, bifocal, and extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) IOLs targeting slight myopia. Methods:Overall, there were 60 cataract surgery eyes from 60 patients with implantation of a monofocal, bifocal, or EDOF IOL (20 eyes in each IOL group). The EDOF IOLs targeted slight myopia (-0.25 D to -0.75 D). Intragroup comparison of visual acuity, defocus curve, objective optical quality, contrast sensitivity, visual function questionnaire scores, patients' overall satisfaction, and the astigmatism tolerance was performed 3 months after surgery. Results:The EDOF group provided equivalently excellent distance visual outcomes (0.06?±?0.12) as the monofocal (0.06?±?0.09) and bifocal (0.03?±?0.09) groups (P=0.554), better intermediate vision than the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and similarly satisfactory near visual outcomes (0.23?±?0.16 at 20?cm, and 0.17?±?0.14 at 33?cm) as the bifocal group (0.28?±?0.14 at 20?cm and 0.08?±?0.10 at 33?cm) (P > 0.05). The contrast sensitivity of EDOF IOL was slightly decreased compared to that of monofocal IOL, but it was better than that of bifocal IOL. The EDOF group showed significantly higher satisfaction than the bifocal group did when preoperative corneal astigmatism was 0.75 D or greater (P=0.009). A significant negative correlation between the corneal astigmatism and patient satisfaction was observed in only the bifocal group. Conclusions:The EDOF IOLs targeting slight myopia offered satisfactory visual outcomes at an extended range from far to near distances. The EDOF and monofocal IOLs showed a better tolerance to astigmatism than did the bifocal IOL.
Project description:Foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) are most commonly used in modern-day cataract surgery. Explantation of these IOLs is not frequently encountered, but sometimes extreme situations may demand the same. Commonly explantation is achieved by bisecting the IOL inside the anterior chamber with a cutter and delivering the pieces out one by one. This may require corneal wound extension with associated damage and endothelial loss leading to visual deterioration. We devised a simple, innovative IOL explantation technique utilizing a modified Alcon A cartridge and snare. This can successfully refold the IOL to be explanted inside the eye and deliver it out through the same wound. The device has limitations with very thick optic lenses, multipiece, and silicon IOLs. In conclusion, we describe a simple, innovative, and reproducible technique to explant almost any single piece IOL without compromising the original surgery and yielding very satisfactory outcomes.
Project description:To compare biofilm formations of two Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) isolates with known biofilm formation capacities on four different intraocular lenses (IOL) that have not been studied before.Two isolates obtained from ocular surfaces and identified in previous studies and stored at -86 °C in 15% glycerol in the microbiology laboratory of the Anadolu University Department of Biology were purified and used in the study. The isolates were S. epidermidis KA 15.8 (ICA+), a known biofilm producer isolate positive for icaA, icaD and bap genes, and S. epidermidis KA 14.5 (ICA-), known as a non-biofilm producer isolate negative for icaA, icaD and bap genes. The biofilm formation capacities of the 2 isolates on 4 different IOLs were compared. Two of the IOLs were acrylic (UD613 [IOL A], Turkey; SA60AT [IOL B], USA), and the other two were polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (B60130C [IOL C], India; B55125C [IOL D], India). Bacterial enumeration and optical density measurements were done from biofilms that formed on the IOLs. Biofilms were imaged using scanning electron microscopy.Mean bacterial counts on the IOLs were 7.1±0.4 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA+ isolate, and 6.7±0.8 log10 CFU/mL with the ICA- isolate; there were no statistically significant differences. Biofilm formation was lower with acrylic lenses than PMMA lenses with both isolates (p=0.009 and p=0.013). The highest biofilm production was obtained on IOL C (PMMA) (p<0.001) and the lowest was obtained on IOL A (hydrophilic acrylic) (p<0.001).Bacterial counts after biofilm formation were lower on acrylic lenses, especially hydrophilic acrylic with hydrophobic properties. Further animal and in vivo studies are required to support the findings of this study.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ray propagation visualization and optical performance analysis of four different intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS:In this laboratory study, four IOLs with different optical designs were assessed: a monofocal AcrySof IQ SN60WF [Alcon], a diffractive-refractive bifocal AcrySof IQ Restor SN6AD1 [Alcon], a diffractive trifocal AcrySof IQ PanOptix TFNT00 [Alcon], and a diffractive extended-depth-of-focus (EDOF) Symfony ZXR00 [Johnson&Johnson]. An experimental set-up with a water bath containing 0.01% fluorescein solution and monochromatic green laser light (532 nm) was used to visualize the propagation of light rays. Also, the optical performance of the IOLs was evaluated by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) values at a pupil sizes of 3.0 and 4.5 mm on the optical bench OptiSpheric® IOL PRO II (Trioptics GmbH, Germany). RESULTS:Both the diffractive-refractive bifocal IOL and the EDOF IOL showed two defined foci for distance and near vision. In the diffractive trifocal IOL, three distinct foci for distance, intermediate, and near vision could be visualized. CONCLUSIONS:The ray propagation visualization technique allows a qualitative assessment and comparison of light energy distribution between different IOL models. The measured Through-Focus Response (TFR) quantitatively confirmed the evaluated ray propagation behavior.