Size- and shape-dependent pleural translocation, deposition, fibrogenesis, and mesothelial proliferation by multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
ABSTRACT: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have a fibrous structure similar to asbestos, raising concern that MWCNT exposure may lead to asbestos-like diseases. Previously we showed that MWCNT translocated from the lung alveoli into the pleural cavity and caused mesothelial proliferation and fibrosis in the visceral pleura. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were not found in the parietal pleura, the initial site of development of asbestos-caused pleural diseases in humans, probably due to the short exposure period of the study. In the present study, we extended the exposure period to 24 weeks to determine whether the size and shape of MWCNT impact on deposition and lesion development in the pleura and lung. Two different MWCNTs were chosen for this study: a larger sized needle-like MWCNT (MWCNT-L; l = 8 ?m, d = 150 nm), and a smaller sized MWCNT (MWCNT-S; l = 3 ?m, d = 15 nm), which forms cotton candy-like aggregates. Both MWCNT-L and MWCNT-S suspensions were administered to the rat lung once every 2 weeks for 24 weeks by transtracheal intrapulmonary spraying. It was found that MWCNT-L, but not MWCNT-S, translocated into the pleural cavity, deposited in the parietal pleura, and induced fibrosis and patchy parietal mesothelial proliferation lesions. In addition, MWCNT-L induced stronger inflammatory reactions including increased inflammatory cell number and cytokine/chemokine levels in the pleural cavity lavage than MWCNT-S. In contrast, MWCNT-S induced stronger inflammation and higher 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level in the lung tissue than MWCNT-L. These results suggest that MWCNT-L has higher risk of causing asbestos-like pleural lesions relevant to mesothelioma development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be divided into two general subtypes: tangled and straight. MWCNT-N (60?nm in diameter) and MWCNT-7 (80-90?nm in diameter) are straight-type MWCNTs, and similarly to asbestos, both are carcinogenic to the lung and pleura when administered to rats via the airway. Injection of straight-type MWCNTs into the peritoneal cavity also induces the development of mesothelioma, however, injection of tangled-type MWCNTs into the peritoneal cavity does not induce carcinogenesis. To investigate these effects in the lung we conducted a 2-year comparative study of the potential carcinogenicities of a straight-type MWCNT, MWCNT-A (approximately 150?nm in diameter), and a tangled-type MWCNT, MWCNT-B (7.4?nm in diameter) after administration into the rat lung. Crocidolite asbestos was used as the reference material, and rats administered vehicle were used as the controls. Test materials were administered by intra-Tracheal Intra-Pulmonary Spraying (TIPS) once a week over a 7?week period (8 administrations from day 1 to day 50), followed by a 2-year observation period without further treatment. Rats were administered total doses of 0.5 or 1.0?mg MWCNT-A and MWCNT-B or 1.0?mg asbestos. RESULTS:There was no difference in survival between any of the groups. The rats administered MWCNT-A or asbestos did not have a significant increase in bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia or tumors in the lung. However, the rats administered MWCNT-B did have significantly elevated incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia and tumors in the lung: the incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia was 0/20, 6/20, and 9/20 in the vehicle, 0.5?mg MWCNT-B, and 1.0?mg MWCNT-B groups, respectively, and the incidence of adenoma and adenocarcinoma combined was 1/19, 5/20, and 7/20 in the vehicle, 0.5?mg MWCNT-B, and 1.0?mg MWCNT-B groups, respectively. Malignant pleural mesothelioma was not induced in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this initial study indicate that tangled-type MWCNT-B is carcinogenic to the rat lung when administered via the airway, and that straight-type MWCNT-A did not have higher carcinogenic potential in the rat lung than tangled-type MWCNT-B.
Project description:Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have a fibrous structure similar to asbestos and induce mesothelioma when injected into the peritoneal cavity. In the present study, we investigated whether carbon nanotubes administered into the lung through the trachea induce mesothelial lesions. Male F344 rats were treated with 0.5 mL of 500 ?g/mL suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes or crocidolite five times over a 9-day period by intrapulmonary spraying. Pleural cavity lavage fluid, lung and chest wall were then collected. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and crocidolite were found mainly in alveolar macrophages and mediastinal lymph nodes. Importantly, the fibers were also found in the cell pellets of the pleural cavity lavage, mostly in macrophages. Both multi-walled carbon nanotube and crocidolite treatment induced hyperplastic proliferative lesions of the visceral mesothelium, with their proliferating cell nuclear antigen indices approximately 10-fold that of the vehicle control. The hyperplastic lesions were associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammation-induced fibrotic lesions of the pleural tissues. The fibers were not found in the mesothelial proliferative lesions themselves. In the pleural cavity, abundant inflammatory cell infiltration, mainly composed of macrophages, was observed. Conditioned cell culture media of macrophages treated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and crocidolite and the supernatants of pleural cavity lavage fluid from the dosed rats increased mesothelial cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting that mesothelial proliferative lesions were induced by inflammatory events in the lung and pleural cavity and likely mediated by macrophages. In conclusion, intrapulmonary administration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, like asbestos, induced mesothelial proliferation potentially associated with mesothelioma development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Potassium octatitanate fibers (K2O•8TiO2, POT fibers) are used as an asbestos substitute. Their physical characteristics suggest that respirable POT fibers are likely to be carcinogenic in the lung and pleura. However, previous 2-year inhalation studies reported that respired POT fibers had little or no carcinogenic potential. In the present study ten-week old male F344 rats were left untreated or were administered vehicle, 0.25 or 0.5 mg rutile-type nano TiO2 (r-nTiO2), 0.25 or 0.5 mg POT fibers, or 0.5 mg MWCNT-7 by intra-tracheal intra-pulmonary spraying (TIPS), and then observed for 2 years. RESULTS:There were no differences between the r-nTiO2 and control groups. The incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar cell hyperplasia was significantly increased in the groups treated with 0.50 mg POT and 0.50 mg MWCNT-7. The overall incidence of lung tumors, however, was not increased in either the POT or MWCNT-7 treated groups. Notably, the carcinomas that developed in the POT and MWCNT-7 treated rats were accompanied by proliferative fibrous connective tissue while the carcinomas that developed in the untreated rats and the r-nTiO2 treated rats were not (carcinomas did not develop in the vehicle control rats). In addition, the carcinoma that developed in the rat treated with 0.25 mg POT was a squamous cell carcinoma, a tumor that develops spontaneously in about 1 per 1700 rats. The incidence of mesothelial cell hyperplasia was 4/17, 7/16, and 10/14 and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma was 3/17, 1/16, and 2/14 in the 0.25 mg POT, 0.5 mg POT, and MWCNT-7 treated groups, respectively. Neither mesothelial cell hyperplasia nor mesothelioma developed in control rats or the rats treated with r-nTiO2. Since the incidence of spontaneously occurring malignant mesothelioma in rats is extremely low, approximately 1 per 1000 animals (Japan Bioassay Research Center [JBRC] historical control data), the development of multiple malignant mesotheliomas in the POT and MWCNT-7 treated groups was biologically significant. CONCLUSION:The incidence of pleural mesotheliomas in male F344 rats administered POT fibers and MWCNT-7 was significantly higher than the JBRC historical control data, indicating that the incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the groups administered POT fibers and MWCNT-7 fibers via the airway using TIPS was biologically significant. The incidence of type II epithelial cell hyperplasia and the histology of the carcinomas that developed in the POT treated rats also indicates that respirable POT fibers are highly likely to be carcinogenic in the lungs of male F344 rats.
Project description:Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induces an inflammatory and rapid fibrotic response, although the long-term signaling mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 1, 10, 40, or 80 ?g MWCNT administered by pharyngeal aspiration on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and lung histopathology for inflammatory and fibrotic responses in mouse lungs 1 mo, 6 mo, and 1 yr postexposure. Further, a 120-?g crocidolite asbestos group was incorporated as a positive control for comparative purposes. Results showed that MWCNT increased BAL fluid LDH activity and PMN infiltration in a dose-dependent manner at all three postexposure times. Asbestos exposure elevated LDH activity at all 3 postexposure times and PMN infiltration at 1 mo and 6 mo postexposure. Pathological changes in the lung, the presence of MWCNT or asbestos, and fibrosis were noted at 40 and 80 ?g MWCNT and in asbestos-exposed mice at 1 yr postexposure. To determine potential signaling pathways involved with MWCNT-associated pathological changes in comparison to asbestos, up- and down-regulated gene expression was determined in lung tissue at 1 yr postexposure. Exposure to MWCNT tended to favor those pathways involved in immune responses, specifically T-cell responses, whereas exposure to asbestos tended to favor pathways involved in oxygen species production, electron transport, and cancer. Data indicate that MWCNT are biopersistent in the lung and induce inflammatory and fibrotic pathological alterations similar to those of crocidolite asbestos, but may reach these endpoints by different mechanisms.
Project description:Malignant mesothelioma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer known. Recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are biopersistent and induce mesothelioma in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we investigate the effect of long-term exposure to high aspect ratio CNTs on the aggressive behaviors of human pleural mesothelial cells, the primary cellular target of human lung mesothelioma. We show that chronic exposure (4 months) to single- and multiwalled CNTs induced proliferation, migration, and invasion of the cells similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed cells. An up-regulation of several key genes known to be important in cell invasion, notably matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), was observed in the exposed mesothelial cells as determined by real-time PCR. Western blot and enzyme activity assays confirmed the increased expression and activity of MMP-2. Whole genome microarray analysis further indicated the importance of MMP-2 in the invasion gene signaling network of the exposed cells. Knockdown of MMP-2 in CNT and asbestos-exposed cells by shRNA-mediated gene silencing effectively inhibited the aggressive phenotypes. This study demonstrates CNT-induced cell invasion and indicates the role of MMP-2 in the process.
Project description:Exposure to asbestos fibres causes profound pathological changes in the pleural cavity and can result in the development of a fatal tumour, malignant mesothelioma (MM). Due to their structural similarities there is concern that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may present a similar inhalation hazard. However the underlying mechanisms leading to fibre-mediated mesothelioma development are not yet fully understood. To investigate the molecular changes which occur at the mesothelium as a consequence of direct exposure to fibres, short and long asbestos fibres (SFA and LFA) and short and long CNTs (NTS and NTL) were instilled directly into the pleural cavity in mice. After 12 weeks RNA was extracted from the diaphragm and microarray analysis was performed on all of the treatment groups compared to a 0.5% BSA/saline control. Concurrent histopatholgical investigations were performed and revealed that exposure to fibres resulted in responses that were dependent upon the length of the fibres, but not on fibre type. In response to NTL and LFA there was acute inflammation and fibrosis on the parietal pleura; no inflammatory changes were detected histologically after exposure to SFA and NTS. Furthermore, changes in the mTOR signalling pathway were observed. Thus, this study served to illustrate which pathways are involved in the development of fibre-mediated toxicity, and demonstrated that pleural lesions induced by long asbestos fibres and long CNT exhibit a common pro-oncogenic molecular signature. Overall design: Single channel microarrays were performed on n=4 samples. There was one control (0.5% BSA/saline) group and 4 treatment groups; SFA (short asbestos fibres), LFA (long asbestos fibres), NTS (short carbon nanotubes) and NTL (long carbon nanotubes).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is considered an almost incurable tumour with increasing incidence worldwide. It usually develops in the parietal pleura, from mesothelial lining or submesothelial cells, subsequently invading the visceral pleura. Chromosomal and genomic aberrations of mesothelioma are diverse and heterogenous. Genome-wide profiling of mesothelioma versus parietal and visceral normal pleural tissue could thus reveal novel genes and pathways explaining its aggressive phenotype. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Well-characterised tissue from five mesothelioma patients and normal parietal and visceral pleural samples from six non-cancer patients were profiled by Affymetrix oligoarray of 38 500 genes. The lists of differentially expressed genes tested for overrepresentation in KEGG PATHWAYS (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and GO (gene ontology) terms revealed large differences of expression between visceral and parietal pleura, and both tissues differed from mesothelioma. Cell growth and intrinsic resistance in tumour versus parietal pleura was reflected in highly overexpressed cell cycle, mitosis, replication, DNA repair and anti-apoptosis genes. Several genes of the "salvage pathway" that recycle nucleobases were overexpressed, among them TYMS, encoding thymidylate synthase, the main target of the antifolate drug pemetrexed that is active in mesothelioma. Circadian rhythm genes were expressed in favour of tumour growth. The local invasive, non-metastatic phenotype of mesothelioma, could partly be due to overexpression of the known metastasis suppressors NME1 and NME2. Down-regulation of several tumour suppressor genes could contribute to mesothelioma progression. Genes involved in cell communication were down-regulated, indicating that mesothelioma may shield itself from the immune system. Similarly, in non-cancer parietal versus visceral pleura signal transduction, soluble transporter and adhesion genes were down-regulated. This could represent a genetical platform of the parietal pleura propensity to develop mesothelioma. CONCLUSIONS: Genome-wide microarray approach using complex human tissue samples revealed novel expression patterns, reflecting some important features of mesothelioma biology that should be further explored.
Project description:Bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelial cells are crucial targets for the safety assessment of inhalation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which resemble asbestos particles in shape. Intrinsic properties of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are known to cause potentially hazardous effects on intracellular and extracellular pathways. These interactions alter cellular signaling and affect major cell functions, resulting in cell death, lysosome injury, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, and cytokine release. Furthermore, CNTs are emerging as a novel class of autophagy inducers. Thus, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms of MWCNT uptake into the human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and human mesothelial cells (HMCs). We verified that MWCNTs are actively internalized into HBECs and HMCs and were accumulated in the lysosomes of the cells after 24-hour treatment. Next, we determined which endocytosis pathways (clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis) were associated with MWCNT internalization by using corresponding endocytosis inhibitors, in two nonphagocytic cell lines derived from bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelioma cells. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors significantly suppressed MWCNT uptake, whereas caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were also found to be involved in MWCNT uptake. Thus, MWCNTs were positively taken up by nonphagocytic cells, and their cytotoxicity was closely related to these three endocytosis pathways.
Project description:Mechanisms of action of nonmutagenic carcinogens such as asbestos remain poorly characterized. As pleural mesothelioma is known to have limited numbers of genetic mutations, we aimed to characterize the relationships among gene-locus-specific methylation alterations, disease status, asbestos burden, and survival in this rapidly fatal asbestos-associated tumor. Methylation of 1505 CpG loci associated with 803 cancer-related genes were studied in 158 pleural mesotheliomas and 18 normal pleura. After false-discovery rate correction, 969 CpG loci were independently associated with disease status (Q < 0.05). Classifying samples based on CpG methylation profile with a mixture model approach, methylation classes discriminated tumor from normal pleura (permutation P < 0.0001). In a random forests classification, the overall misclassification error rate was 3.4%, with <1% (n = 1) of tumors misclassified as normal (P < 0.0001). Among tumors, methylation class membership was significantly associated with lung tissue asbestos body burden (P < 0.03), and significantly predicted survival (likelihood ratio P < 0.01). Consistent with prior work, asbestos burden was associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.8). Our results have shown that methylation profiles powerfully differentiate diseased pleura from nontumor pleura and that asbestos burden and methylation profiles are independent predictors of mesothelioma patient survival. We have added to the growing body of evidence that cellular epigenetic dysregulation is a critical mode of action for asbestos in the induction of pleural mesothelioma. Importantly, these findings hold great promise for using epigenetic profiling in the diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are high aspect ratio nanoparticles with diameters in the nanometre range but lengths extending up to hundreds of microns. The structural similarities between CNT and asbestos have raised concern that they may pose a similar inhalation hazard. Recently CNT have been shown to elicit a length-dependent, asbestos-like inflammatory response in the pleural cavity of mice, where long fibres caused inflammation but short fibres did not. However the cellular mechanisms governing this response have yet to be elucidated. This study examined the in vitro effects of a range of CNT for their ability to stimulate the release of the acute phase cytokines; IL-1?, TNF?, IL-6 and the chemokine, IL-8 from both Met5a mesothelial cells and THP-1 macrophages. Results showed that direct exposure to CNT resulted in significant cytokine release from the macrophages but not mesothelial cells. This pro-inflammatory response was length dependent but modest and was shown to be a result of frustrated phagocytosis. Furthermore the indirect actions of the CNT were examined by treating the mesothelial cells with conditioned media from CNT-treated macrophages. This resulted in a dramatic amplification of the cytokine release from the mesothelial cells, a response which could be attenuated by inhibition of phagocytosis during the initial macrophage CNT treatments. We therefore hypothesise that long fibres elicit an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity via frustrated phagocytosis in pleural macrophages. The activated macrophages then stimulate an amplified pro-inflammatory cytokine response from the adjacent pleural mesothelial cells. This mechanism for producing a pro-inflammatory environment in the pleural space exposed to long CNT has implications for the general understanding of fibre-related pleural disease and design of safe nanofibres.