Ranking the impact of human health disorders on gut metabolism: systemic lupus erythematosus and obesity as study cases.
ABSTRACT: Multiple factors have been shown to alter intestinal microbial diversity. It remains to be seen, however, how multiple collective pressures impact the activity in the gut environment and which, if any, is positioned as a dominant driving factor determining the final metabolic outcomes. Here, we describe the results of a metabolome-wide scan of gut microbiota in 18 subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 17 healthy control subjects and demonstrate a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups. Healthy controls could be categorized (p < 0.05) based on their body mass index (BMI), whereas individuals with SLE could not. We discuss the prevalence of SLE compared with BMI as the dominant factor that regulates gastrointestinal microbial metabolism and provide plausible explanatory causes. Our results uncover novel perspectives with clinical relevance for human biology. In particular, we rank the importance of various pathophysiologies for gut homeostasis.
Project description:A growing corpus of evidence implicates the involvement of the commensal microbiota and immune cytokines in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Glucocorticoids have been widely used in the treatment of SLE patients, however, glucocorticoid treatment carries a higher risk of other diseases. Using the 16S rRNA technique, we investigated the differences between the gut microbiota associated with the immune cytokines of SLE and relevant glucocorticoid treatment in a female cohort of 20 healthy control subjects (HC), 17 subjects with SLE (SLE-G), and 20 SLE patients having undergone glucocorticoid treatment (SLE+G). We observed that the diversity and structure of the microbial community in SLE+G patients were significantly changed compared to that of SLE-G patients, whereas the gut microbial community of the SLE+G group showed a similarity with the HC group, which implicate that the shift in the gut microbiome could represent a return to homeostasis. Furthermore, the up-regulations of immune cytokines in SLE-G were identified as closely related to gut dysbiosis, which indicates that the overrepresented genera in SLE patients may play roles in regulating expression level of these immune cytokines. This associated analysis of gut microbiota, glucocorticoid therapy, and immune factors might provide novel and insightful clues revealing the pathogenesis of SLE patients.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypical systemic autoimmune disease in humans and is characterized by the presence of hyperactive immune cells and aberrant antibody responses to nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens, including characteristic anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. We performed a cross-sectional study in order to determine if an SLE-associated gut dysbiosis exists in patients without active disease. A group of 20 SLE patients in remission, for which there was strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, was recruited, and we used an optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis protocol to decipher the fecal microbial profiles of these patients and compare them with those of 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We found diversity to be comparable based on Shannon's index. However, we saw a significantly lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in SLE individuals (median ratio, 1.97) than in healthy subjects (median ratio, 4.86; P < 0.002). A lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in SLE individuals was corroborated by quantitative PCR analysis. Notably, a decrease of some Firmicutes families was also detected. This dysbiosis is reflected, based on in silico functional inference, in an overrepresentation of oxidative phosphorylation and glycan utilization pathways in SLE patient microbiota. IMPORTANCE:Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota might impact symptoms and progression of some autoimmune diseases. However, how and why this microbial community influences SLE remains to be elucidated. This is the first report describing an SLE-associated intestinal dysbiosis, and it contributes to the understanding of the interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the host in autoimmune disorders.
Project description:Adequate calorie restriction (CR) as a healthy lifestyle is recommended not only for people with metabolic disorders but also for healthy adults. Previous studies have mainly focused on the beneficial metabolic effects of CR on obese subjects, while its effects on non-obese subjects are still scarce. Here, we conducted a three-week non-controlled CR intervention in 41 subjects, with approximately 40% fewer calories than the recommended daily energy intake. We measured BMI, and applied targeted metabolic profiling on fasting blood samples and shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples, before and after intervention. Subjects were stratified into two enterotypes according to their baseline microbial composition, including 28 enterotype Bacteroides (ETB) subjects and 13 enterotype Prevotella (ETP) subjects. CR decreased BMI in most subjects, and ETP subjects exhibited a significantly higher BMI loss ratio than the ETB subjects. Additionally, CR induced limited changes in gut microbial composition but substantial microbial-independent changes in blood AAs, including a significant increase in 3-methylhistidine, a biomarker of the skeletal muscle protein turnover. Finally, baseline abundances of seven microbial species, rather than baseline AA levels, could well predict CR-induced BMI loss. This non-controlled intervention study revealed associations between baseline gut microbiota and CR-induced BMI loss and provided evidence to accelerate the application of microbiome stratification in future personalized nutrition intervention.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) were reported to have milder disease. To test this observation, we used sandwich arrays containing 98 autoantigens to compare autoantibody profiles of SLE subjects without DLE (DLE-SLE+) (N=9), SLE subjects with DLE (DLE+SLE+) (N=10), DLE subjects without SLE (DLE+SLE-) (N=11), and healthy controls (N=11). We validated differentially expressed autoantibodies using immunoassays in DLE-SLE+ (N=18), DLE+SLE+ (N=17), DLE+SLE- (N=23), and healthy subjects (N=22). Arrays showed 15 IgG autoantibodies (10 against nuclear antigens) and 4 IgM autoantibodies that were differentially expressed (q-value<0.05). DLE-SLE+ subjects had higher IgG autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), histone H2A and H2B, and SS-A (52 kDa) compared with all other groups including DLE+SLE+ subjects (P<0.05). Immunoassays measuring anti-dsDNA, -ssDNA, and -SS-A (52 kDa) IgG autoantibodies showed similar trends (P<0.05). Healthy and DLE+SLE- subjects expressed higher IgM autoantibodies against alpha beta crystallin, lipopolysaccharide, heat-shock cognate 70, and desmoglein-3 compared with DLE+SLE+ and DLE-SLE+ subjects. IgG:IgM ratios of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens progressively rose from healthy to DLE-SLE+ subjects. In conclusion, lower IgG autoantibodies against nuclear antigens in DLE+SLE+ versus DLE-SLE+ subjects suggest that DLE indicates lower disease severity. Higher IgM autoantibodies against selected antigens in healthy and DLE+SLE- subjects may be nonpathogenic.
Project description:The gut microbiome has been implicated in multiple human chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Determining its mechanistic role in disease pathogenesis has been difficult due to the apparent disconnect between animal and human studies and a lack of an integrated multi-omics view in the context of disease-specific physiological changes. We integrated longitudinal multi-omics data from the gut microbiome, metabolome, host epigenome and transcriptome in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) host physiology. We identified IBS subtype-specific and symptom-related variation in microbial composition and function. A subset of identified changes in microbial metabolites correspond to host physiological mechanisms that are relevant to IBS. By integrating multiple data layers, we identified purine metabolism as a novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS with translational potential. Our study highlights the importance of longitudinal sampling and integrating complementary multi-omics data to identify functional mechanisms that can serve as therapeutic targets in a comprehensive treatment strategy for chronic GI diseases. Overall design: We performed a longitudinal multi-omics study in humans, in an attempt to elucidate mechanistic roles for the gut microbiome in the pathophysiology of IBS. Healthy subjects and IBS-C and IBS-D patients between 18-65 years old who expressed interest were invited to undergo screening to assess eligibility. Participants were given the option of undergoing two flexible sigmoidoscopies. All IBS-C and IBS-D subjects fulfilled Rome III criteria. Recruitment of healthy subjects was matched with IBS subjects for age, sex and BMI.
Project description:Purpose:Visceral fat is an independent risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to investigate the associations between gut microbiome and visceral fat. Methods:We recruited 32 obese adults and 30 healthy controls at baseline. Among the obese subjects, 14 subjects underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and were followed 6 months after surgery. Abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Waist, hipline, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) were included as simple obese parameters. Gut microbiome was analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Results:Among the obese parameters, VFA had the largest number of correlations with the species that were differentially enriched between obese and healthy subjects, following by waist, WHR, BMI, hipline, and SFA. Within the species negatively correlated with VFA, Eubacterium eligens had the strongest correlation, following by Clostridium citroniae, C. symbiosum, Bacteroides uniformis, E. ventriosum, Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16, C. hathewayi, etc. C. hathewayi and C. citroniae were increased after LSG. Functional analyses showed that among all the obese parameters, VFA had strongest correlation coefficients with the obesity-related microbial pathways. Microbial pathways involved in carbohydrate fermentation and biosynthesis of L-glutamate and L-glutamine might contribute to visceral fat accumulation. Conclusions:Visceral fat was more closely correlated with gut microbiome compared with subcutaneous fat, suggesting an intrinsic connection between gut microbiome and metabolic cardiovascular diseases. Specific microbial species and pathways which were closely associated with visceral fat accumulation might contribute to new targeted therapies for metabolic disorders.
Project description:Immunoglobulin A is the dominant antibody isotype found in mucosal secretions and enforces host-microbiota symbiosis in mice, yet selective IgA-deficiency (sIgAd) in humans is often described as asymptomatic. Here, we determined the effects of IgA deficiency on human gut microbiota composition and evaluated the possibility that mucosal secretion of IgM can compensate for a lack of secretory IgA. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial cell sorting to evaluate gut microbiota composition and taxa-specific antibody coating of the gut microbiota in 15 sIgAd subjects and matched controls. Despite the secretion of compensatory IgM into the gut lumen, sIgAd subjects displayed an altered gut microbiota composition as compared to healthy controls. These alterations were characterized by a trend towards decreased overall microbial diversity as well as significant shifts in the relative abundances of specific microbial taxa. While secretory IgA in healthy controls targeted a defined subset of the microbiota via high-level coating, compensatory IgM in sIgAd subjects showed less specificity than IgA and bound a broader subset of the microbiota. We conclude that IgA plays a critical and non-redundant role in controlling gut microbiota composition in humans and that secretory IgA has evolved to maintain a diverse and stable gut microbial community.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease affecting multiorgans of human body. Independent studies show that SLE patients had higher caries prevalence compared to non-SLE individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In present study, we enrolled SLE patients to explore potential factors contributing to the susceptibility of SLE patients to dental caries (such as oral hygiene, salivary function, and oral microbial community). Dental examination confirmed SLE patients were more vulnerable to caries. Although subjects in both groups announced similar oral hygiene habits, more dental plaque was found on tooth surfaces of SLE patents as revealed by plaque index. In addition, the salivary function was impaired in SLE group as salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, and pH were lower among SLE subjects compared to healthy controls. Importantly, disturbed microbial community with lower richness and diversity was observed in SLE group, as well as disequilibrium between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal bacteria. Our data suggest that SLE increases patients' sensitivity to dental caries through imposing stress to both host and oral microbes.
Project description:Alterations in the microbiome of the gut and oral cavity are involved in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to assess whether both microbiome compositions in feces and saliva were specific in patients with SLE. A total of 35 patients with SLE, as well as sex- and age-matched asymptomatic subjects as healthy control (HC) group were recruited. Fecal swabs and saliva samples were collected from the participants. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the samples. Compared with the HC group, reduced bacterial richness and diversity were detected in the feces of patients with SLE, and increased bacterial diversity in their saliva. Both feces and saliva samples explained the cohort variation. The feces were characterized by enrichment of <i>Lactobacillus</i>, and depletion of an unclassified bacterium in the Ruminococcaceae family and <i>Bifidobacterium</i>. Lack of <i>Bifidobacterium</i> was observed in patients with arthritis. <i>Akkermansia</i> and <i>Ruminococcus</i> negatively correlated with the serum levels of C3. In saliva, <i>Veillonella</i>, <i>Streptococcus</i>, and <i>Prevotella</i> were dominant, and <i>Bacteroides</i> was negatively associated with disease activity. These findings can assist us to comprehensively understand the bacterial profiles of different body niches in SLE patients.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aimed to determine the relationships among gut microbiota, primary aldosteronism (PA), and related metabolic disorders.<h4>Methods</h4>The study enrolled 13 PA patients, 26 sex-matched primary hypertension patients, and 26 sex-matched healthy controls. Demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI), blood aldosterone-renin ratio, blood potassium, blood glucose, blood lipid parameters, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM) were compared between the three groups. The gut microbiota of each participant was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to demonstrate the relationship between gut microbiota and clinical characteristics.<h4>Results</h4>BMI and the percentage of DM in PA patients were higher than those in healthy controls (<i>p</i> < 0.05), but not higher than those in primary hypertension patients (<i>p</i> > 0.05). The gut microbiota of healthy controls and primary hypertension patients had a higher alpha diversity level than that of PA patients. PA patients had fewer short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing genera (<i>Prevotella</i>, <i>Blautia</i>, <i>Coprococcus</i>, <i>Anaerostipes</i>, and <i>Ruminococcus</i>) and more inflammation-associated genera (<i>Megamonas</i>, <i>Sutterella</i>, and <i>Streptococcus</i>) than healthy controls (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The gut microbiota of PA patients was more inclined to encode microbial pathways involved in sugar metabolism, such as starch and sucrose metabolism and fructose and mannose metabolism. Blood potassium was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of <i>Romboutsia</i> (<i>R</i> = -0.364, <i>q</i> = 0.023). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was positively correlated with <i>Romboutsia</i> (<i>R</i> = 0.386, <i>q</i> = 0.015). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was negatively correlated with <i>Blautia</i> (<i>R</i> = -0.349, <i>q</i> = 0.030).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The alteration of gut microbiota in PA patients, especially bacteria and pathways involved in inflammation, SCFAs, and sugar metabolism, may be associated with chronic metabolic disorders.