TLR4 genotype and environmental LPS mediate RSV bronchiolitis through Th2 polarization.
ABSTRACT: While 30%-70% of RSV-infected infants develop bronchiolitis, 2% require hospitalization. It is not clear why disease severity differs among healthy, full-term infants; however, virus titers, inflammation, and Th2 bias are proposed explanations. While TLR4 is associated with these disease phenotypes, the role of this receptor in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis is controversial. Here, we evaluated the interaction between TLR4 and environmental factors in RSV disease and defined the immune mediators associated with severe illness. Two independent populations of infants with RSV bronchiolitis revealed that the severity of RSV infection is determined by the TLR4 genotype of the individual and by environmental exposure to LPS. RSV-infected infants with severe disease exhibited a high GATA3/T-bet ratio, which manifested as a high IL-4/IFN-? ratio in respiratory secretions. The IL-4/IFN-? ratio present in infants with severe RSV is indicative of Th2 polarization. Murine models of RSV infection confirmed that LPS exposure, Tlr4 genotype, and Th2 polarization influence disease phenotypes. Together, the results of this study identify environmental and genetic factors that influence RSV pathogenesis and reveal that a high IL-4/IFN-? ratio is associated with severe disease. Moreover, these molecules should be explored as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all infants by 2 years of age, and severe bronchiolitis resulting from RSV infection is the primary cause of hospitalization in the first year of life. Among infants hospitalized due to RSV-induced bronchiolitis, those with a specific mutation in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which severely compromises binding of its ligand CX3CL1, were at a higher risk for more severe viral bronchiolitis than those without the mutation. Here, we show that RSV infection of newborn mice deficient in CX3CR1 leads to significantly greater neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs, accompanied by an increase in mucus production compared with that induced in WT mice. Analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses revealed an early increase in the number of IL-17+ ?? T cells in CX3CR1-deficient mice that outnumbered IFN-?+ ?? T cells as well as IFN-?+ NK cells, IFN-? being host protective in the context of RSV infection. This bias toward IL-17+ ?? T cells persisted at a later time. The lungs of CX3CR1-deficient mice expressed higher levels of IL-1? mRNA and protein, and blockade of IL-1? signaling using IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced the number of IL-17+ ?? T cells in the lungs of infected mice. Blockade of IL-17RC abolished RSV-induced lung pathology in infected CX3CR1-deficient mice. We propose that, in infants harboring mutant CX3CR1, targeting the IL-17R may minimize disease severity and hospitalization in early life.
Project description:Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis has been associated with a mixed "Th1" and "Th2" cytokine storm. We hypothesized that differentiation of "alternatively activated" macrophages (AA-M phi) would mediate the resolution of RSV-induced lung injury. RSV induced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 by murine lung and peritoneal macrophages, IL-4R alpha/STAT6-dependent AA-M phi differentiation, and significantly enhanced inflammation in the lungs of IL-4R alpha(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wildtype macrophages to IL-4R alpha(-/-) mice restored RSV-inducible AA-M phi phenotype and diminished lung pathology. RSV-infected Toll-like receptor (TLR)4(-/-) and interferon (IFN)-beta(-/-) macrophages and mice also failed to express AA-M phi markers, but exhibited sustained proinflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IL-12) in vitro and in vivo and epithelial damage in vivo. TLR4 signaling is required for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression, a DNA-binding protein that induces AA-M phi genes, whereas IFN-beta regulates IL-4, IL-13, IL-4R alpha, and IL-10 expression in response to RSV. RSV-infected cotton rats treated with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor increased expression of lung AA-M phi. These data suggest new treatment strategies for RSV that promote AA-M phi differentiation.
Project description:RSV is the major cause of severe bronchiolitis in infants, and severe bronchiolitis as a result of RSV is associated with subsequent asthma development. A biased Th2 immune response is thought to be responsible for neonatal RSV pathogenesis; however, molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that IL-4R? is up-regulated in vitro on human CD4(+) T cells from cord blood following RSV stimulation and in vivo on mouse pulmonary CD4(+) T cells upon reinfection of mice, initially infected as neonates. Th cell-specific deletion of Il4ra attenuated Th2 responses and abolished the immunopathophysiology upon reinfection, including airway hyper-reactivity, eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction in mice infected initially as neonates. These findings support a pathogenic role for IL-4R? on Th cells following RSV reinfection of mice initially infected as neonates; more importantly, our data from human cells suggest that the same mechanism occurs in humans.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants worldwide. Severe RSV infections in infants cause bronchiolitis, wheeze, and/or cough and significantly increase the risk for developing asthma. RSV pathogenesis is thought to be due to a Th2-type immune response initiated in response to RSV infection, specifically in the infant. Using a neonatal mouse system as an appropriate model for human infants, we sought to determine whether local inhibition of IL-4R? expression during primary RSV infection in the neonate would prevent Th2-skewed responses to secondary RSV infection and improve long-term pulmonary function. To reduce IL-4R? expression, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) specific for IL-4R? were administered intranasally to neonatal mice at the time of primary infection. Mice were initially infected with RSV at 1 wk of age and were reinfected at 6 wk of age. Administration of IL-4R? ASOs during primary RSV infection in neonatal mice abolished the pulmonary dysfunction normally observed following reinfection in the adult. This ablation of pulmonary dysfunction correlated with a persistent rebalancing of the Th cell compartment with decreased Th2 responses (i.e., reduced goblet cell hyperplasia, Th2 cells, and cytokine secretion) and increased Th1 responses (i.e., elevated Th1 cell numbers and type I Abs and cytokines). Our data support our hypothesis that a reduction in the Th2 immune response during primary infection in neonates prevents Th2-mediated pulmonary pathology initially and upon reinfection and further suggest that vaccine strategies incorporating IL-4R? ASOs may be of significant benefit to infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants during the first year of life. Most infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis do not present risk factors and are otherwise healthy. Our objective was to determine the genetic features associated with the risk and a severe course of bronchiolitis. METHODS:We prospectively evaluated 181 infants with severe bronchiolitis admitted at three hospitals over a 2-year period, who required oxygen therapy. The control group consisted of 536 healthy adults. Patients were evaluated for the presence of comorbidities (premature birth, chronic respiratory disease, and congenital heart disease), underwent nasopharyngeal aspirate testing for virus detection by multiplex-PCR, and SNPs identification in immune response genes. Patient outcomes were assessed. RESULTS:We observed association between SNP rs2107538*CCL5 and bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) and RSV-subtype-A, and between rs1060826*NOS2 and bronchiolitis caused by rhinovirus. SNPs rs4986790*TLR4, rs1898830*TLR2, and rs2228570*VDR were associated with progression to death. SNP rs7656411*TLR2 was associated with length of oxygen use; SNPs rs352162*TLR9, rs187084*TLR9, and rs2280788*CCL5 were associated with requirement for intensive care unit admission; while SNPs rs1927911*TLR4, rs352162*TLR9, and rs2107538*CCL5 were associated with the need for mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provide some evidence that SNPs in CCL5 and NOS2 are associated with presence of bronchiolitis and SNPs in TLR4, TLR2, TLR9, VDR and CCL5 are associated with severity of bronchiolitis.
Project description:Immune response after viral infection usually involves T(H)1-mediated response; however, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection appears to be associated with the development of asthma, a T(H)2-predominant phenotype.To understand the early and subsequent immunologic response to a serious RSV infection in children over time.A total of 206 previously healthy infants hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis were enrolled in a prospective cohort called the RSV Bronchiolitis in Early Life study. Peripheral blood T cells were obtained immediately after RSV infection and at 2, 4, and 6 years of age, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, and analyzed for IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-gamma by flow cytometry and real-time PCR.Of the children, 48% (n = 97) developed asthma (physician-diagnosed), and 48% (n = 97) had eczema by age 6 years; 32% (n = 48 of 150) developed allergic sensitization by 3 years of age. Children with asthma had lower IL-13 expression at 6 years of age than those without (P = .001). IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 levels did not differ by asthma or eczema status during follow-up (all P > .05). Allergic sensitization was not associated with differences in cytokine levels during follow-up (all P > .05).Severe RSV infection early in life is associated with a high incidence of asthma and eczema. Contrary to expectations, subsequent immunologic development in those who developed asthma, eczema, or allergic sensitization was not associated with a T(H)2 phenotype in the peripheral blood.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW). Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness. Previously, we showed that ex vivo monocyte IL-10 production is a predictor of PBW. Additionally, heterozygosity of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800872 in the IL10 promoter region was associated with protection against RSV bronchiolitis. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the in vivo role of IL-10 in RSV pathogenesis and recurrent wheeze in a new cohort of 235 infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. IL-10 levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were measured at the time of hospitalization and the IL10 SNP rs1800872 genotype was determined. Follow-up data were available for 185 children (79%). RESULTS: Local IL-10 levels during RSV infection turned out to be higher in infants that later developed physician diagnosed PBW as compared to infants without PBW in the first year after RSV infection (958 vs 692 pg/ml, p = 0.02). The IL10 promoter SNP rs1800872 was not associated with IL-10 concentration in NPAs. CONCLUSION: The relationship between high local IL-10 levels during the initial RSV infection and physician diagnosed PBW provides further evidence of the importance of the IL-10 response during RSV bronchiolitis.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly worldwide. Infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis tend to experience more wheezing and asthma in later childhood. Because invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are associated with the asthma pathology, we investigated whether neonatal iNKT cells are involved in the aggravation of pulmonary diseases following RSV infection in mice. Intranasal exposure to the iNKT cell ligand ?-galactosylceramide (?-GC) with RSV primary infection in neonatal mice elicited neither cytokine production (except for a slight increase of IL-5) nor pulmonary eosinophilia, despite the presence of both CD1d+ cells and NKT cells. Interestingly, in adult mice re-infected with RSV, neonatal iNKT cell sensitization by ?-GC during RSV primary infection resulted in much higher levels of pulmonary Th2 cytokines and elevated eosinophilia with airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas this was not observed in cd1d knockout mice. In contrast, ?-GC priming of adults during RSV re-infection did not induce more severe airway symptoms than RSV re-infection in the absence of ?-GC. ?-GC co-administration during RSV primary infection facilitated RSV clearance regardless of age, but viral clearance following re-infection was not iNKT cell-dependent. This study clearly demonstrates that RSV-induced immune responses can be altered by iNKT cells, suggesting that neonatal iNKT cell sensitization during RSV primary infection is associated with exacerbation of pulmonary diseases following RSV re-infection in adulthood.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants worldwide. It is recognized by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) in the innate immune response. Previous case-control studies reported the influence of TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, and CD14 C-159T polymorphisms on the risk of severe RSV infection. However, a decisive conclusion has not been achieved. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to examine the association between these three polymorphisms and the development of RSV bronchiolitis. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMbase, Google Scholar Search, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine, and Wanfang Databases. The data were extracted and pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated under six genetic models. A total of six studies with 1009 cases and 1348 controls, three studies with 473 cases and 481 controls, or four studies with 325 cases and 650 controls relating to each of the three polymorphisms were included in this meta-analysis. The analyzed data indicated that all of these polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of severe RSV infection. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the relationship of TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 Thr399Ile, and CD14 C-159T polymorphisms with the risk of severe RSV infection. Although the results of this retrospective analysis indicated a lack of the association, more extensive multicentric studies with large sample sizes are necessary to provide a more reliable estimation of the association between these three polymorphisms and RSV bronchiolitis susceptibility.
Project description:AIM:To determine the incidence and predisposing factors for severe bronchiolitis in previously healthy term infants <12?months of age experiencing their first episode of bronchiolitis. METHODS:Epidemiological, clinical and virological data were prospectively collected. Severity was assessed by the need for ventilatory support. RESULTS:Of the 310 infants enrolled, 16 (5.1%) presented with severe bronchiolitis requiring ventilatory support (11 since admission). Compared with infants with less severe bronchiolitis, infants with severe disease presented with lower birth weight, gestational age, postnatal weight and postnatal age, and were more likely to be born by cesarian section. C-reactive protein positive results (>0.8 mg/dL) and pulmonary consolidation on chest X-ray were more common among infants with severe disease. Severity was independently associated with younger age on admission <30?days, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and lymphocyte counts < 3200/?L. No significant differences were found between epidemiologic variables. CONCLUSIONS:Severe bronchiolitis is uncommon in previously healthy term infants <12?months of age and when present develops soon after disease onset. Severity is predicted by young age and RSV carriage, whereas epidemiologic variables seem less likely to intervene.