Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.
ABSTRACT: Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine might play an unrecognised crucial role in the development of depression through their activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. The aim of this research project is to evaluate whether BCAAs are altered in patients with major depression and might thus be appropriate biomarkers for major depression.<h4>Methods</h4>The concentrations of valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at the time of in-patient admittance.<h4>Results</h4>The BCAAs are significantly decreased in patients with major depression in comparison with healthy subjects (valine: Mann-Whitney-U: 968.0; p <0.0001, leucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1246.5; p = 0.013, isoleucine: Mann-Whitney-U: 1252.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, as shown by Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, there is a significant negative correlation between valine, leucine and isoleucine concentrations and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) as well as Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study results are strong evidence that in patients with major depression, BCAAs might be appropriate biomarkers for depression. Reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) due to a reduction of BCAAs might play a crucial unrecognised factor in the etiology of depression and may evoke depressive symptomatology and lower energy metabolism in patients with major depression. In the future, mTor and its up- and downstream signalling partners might be important targets for the development of novel antidepressants.
Project description:Different amino acids (AAs) may exert distinct effects on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. A quantitative comparison of the effects of AAs on glucose and insulin kinetics in humans is currently lacking. PubMed was queried to identify intervention studies reporting glucose and insulin concentrations after acute ingestion and/or intravenous infusion of AAs in healthy adults and those living with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The systematic literature search identified 55 studies that examined the effects of l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, l-arginine, l-lysine, glycine, l-proline, l-phenylalanine, l-glutamate, branched-chain AAs (i.e., l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine), and multiple individual l-AAs on glucose and insulin concentrations. Oral ingestion of most individual AAs induced an insulin response, but did not alter glucose concentrations in healthy participants. Specific AAs (i.e., leucine and isoleucine) co-ingested with glucose exerted a synergistic effect on the postprandial insulin response and attenuated the glucose response compared to glucose intake alone in healthy participants. Oral AA ingestion as well as intravenous AA infusion was able to stimulate an insulin response and decrease glucose concentrations in T2DM and obese individuals. The extracted information is publicly available and can serve multiple purposes such as computational modeling.
Project description:1. The reciprocal interference between l-leucine, l-isoleucine and l-valine during absorption was studied in rats both in vivo and with an everted-sac preparation in vitro. 2. After feeding with the amino acids alone there was a considerable increase in their concentration in the intestinal lumen followed by a rapid disappearance, indicating efficient absorption. Absorption was reflected by a high concentration of the respective amino acids in the portal plasma. Isoleucine and valine inhibited the absorption of leucine, and leucine inhibited the absorption of isoleucine and valine. Inhibition of absorption by the interfering amino acid was generally partly overcome after 30-60min., probably through the absorption of the interfering amino acid. At that time the rise in the concentration of the amino acid in portal plasma began. 3. These results were confirmed by experiments in vitro: isoleucine and valine inhibited the absorption rate of leucine, and leucine that of isoleucine and valine. 4. Active absorption of amino acids was rapid at low concentrations and depressed at higher concentrations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, including leucine, isoleucine and valine) were recently related to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Dietary intake is the only source of BCAAs; however, little is known about whether habitual dietary intake of BCAAs affects risk of T2D.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed associations between cumulative consumption of BCAAs and risk of T2D among participants from three prospective cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; followed from 1980 to 2012); NHS II (followed from 1991 to 2011); and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; followed from 1986 to 2010).<h4>Results</h4>We documented 16 097 incident T2D events during up to 32 years of follow-up. After adjustment for demographics and traditional risk factors, higher total BCAA intake was associated with an increased risk of T2D in men and women. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, comparing participants in the highest quintile with those in the lowest quintile of intake, hazard ratios (95%confidence intervals) were for leucine 1.13 (1.07-1.19), for isoleucine 1.13 (1.07-1.19) and for valine 1.11 (1.05-1.17) (all P for trend < 0.001). In a healthy subsample, higher dietary BCAAs were significantly associated with higher plasma levels of these amino acids (P for trend = 0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that high consumption of BCAAs is associated with an increased risk of T2D.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Life-extending dietary restriction increases energy demands. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), at high levels, may be detrimental to healthspan by activating the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Whether organismal oxidation of BCAAs increases upon dietary restriction is unknown. OBJECTIVE:Test whether dietary restriction (DR, which creates an energy deficit) or supplemental dietary BCAAs (superfluous BCAAs) increases oxidation of BCAAs, potentially reducing their levels to improve healthspan. METHODS:Grasshoppers were reared to middle-age on one of four diets, each a level of lettuce feeding and a force-fed solution: 1) ad libitum lettuce & buffer, 2) ad libitum lettuce & supplemental BCAAs, 3) DR lettuce & buffer, and 4) DR lettuce & supplemental BCAAs. On trial days, grasshoppers were force-fed one 13C-1-BCAA (isoleucine, leucine, or valine). Breath was collected and tested for 13CO2, which represents organismal oxidation of the amino acid. Additional trials re-tested oxidation of leucine (the most potent activator of mTOR) in both females and males on dietary restriction. RESULTS:Dietary restriction generally increased cumulative oxidation of each BCAA in females and hungry males over ?8 hr. Results were consistent for isoleucine and valine, but less so for leucine. Supplementation of BCAAs, in combination with dietary restriction, increased isoleucine in hemolymph, with similar trends for leucine and valine. Despite this, supplementation of BCAAs did not alter oxidation of any BCAAs. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary restriction can increase oxidation of BCAAs, likely due to an energy deficit. The increased oxidation may decrease available BCAAs for activation of mTOR and improve healthspan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that baseline BCAA concentrations predict future risk of CVD and that a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention may counteract this effect. METHODS:We developed a case-cohort study within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED), with 226 incident CVD cases and 744 noncases. We used LC-MS/MS to measure plasma BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), both at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite of incident stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS:After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline leucine and isoleucine concentrations were associated with higher CVD risk: the hazard ratios (HRs) for the highest vs lowest quartile were 1.70 (95% CI, 1.05-2.76) and 2.09 (1.27-3.44), respectively. Stronger associations were found for stroke. For both CVD and stroke, we found higher HRs across successive quartiles of BCAAs in the control group than in the MedDiet groups. With stroke as the outcome, a significant interaction (P = 0.009) between baseline BCAA score and intervention with MedDiet was observed. No significant effect of the intervention on 1-year changes in BCAAs or any association between 1-year changes in BCAAs and CVD were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Higher concentrations of baseline BCAAs were associated with increased risk of CVD, especially stroke, in a high cardiovascular risk population. A Mediterranean-style diet had a negligible effect on 1-year changes in BCAAs, but it may counteract the harmful effects of BCAAs on stroke.
Project description:Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasma BCAA and other metabolites were assessed in lean control Sprague-Dawley rats (LC) and temporally during diabetes development in the UCD-T2DM rat model, i.e., prediabetic (PD) and 2 wk (D2W), 3 mo (D3M), and 6 mo (D6M) post-onset of diabetes. Plasma leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were elevated only in D6M rats compared with D2W rats (by 28, 29, and 30%, respectively). This was in contrast to decreased plasma concentrations of several other amino acids in D3M and/or D6M relative to LC rats (Ala, Arg, Glu, Gln, Met, Ser, Thr, and Trp). BCAAs were positively correlated with fasting glucose and negatively correlated with plasma insulin, total body weight, total adipose tissue weight, and gastrocnemius muscle weight in the D3M and D6M groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that D3M and D6M UCD-T2DM rats had lower concentrations of amino acids, amino acid derivatives, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and conduritol-?-opoxide and higher concentrations of uronic acids, pantothenic acids, aconitate, benzoic acid, lactate, and monopalmitin-2-glyceride relative to PD and D2W UCD-T2DM rats. The UCD-T2DM rat does not display elevated plasma BCAA concentrations until 6 mo post-onset of diabetes. With the acknowledgement that this is a rodent model of T2DM, the results indicate that elevated plasma BCAA concentrations are not necessary or sufficient to elicit an insulin resistance or T2DM onset.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) are consistently associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but the relationship with dietary intake of BCAAs is less clear. METHODS:The longitudinal Nurses' Health Study II cohort conducted a blood collection from 1996 to 1999. We profiled plasma metabolites among 172 incident T2D cases and 175 age-matched controls from women reporting a history of gestational diabetes before blood draw. We estimated dietary energy-adjusted BCAAs from food frequency questionnaires. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of T2D risk across quartiles (Q1-Q4) of BCAAs, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, family history, and other established risk factors. We also assessed joint exposure to below/above medians of diet and plasma concentrations, with lower diet/lower plasma as reference. RESULTS:Dietary and plasma BCAA concentrations were positively associated with incident T2D (diet Q4 vs Q1 OR = 4.6, CI = 1.6, 13.4; plasma Q4 vs Q1 OR = 4.4, CI = 1.4, 13.4). Modeling the joint association indicated that higher diet BCAAs were associated with T2D when plasma concentrations were also higher (OR = 6.0, CI = 2.1, 17.2) but not when concentrations were lower (OR = 1.6, CI = 0.61, 4.1). Conversely, higher plasma BCAAs were associated with increased T2D for either lower or higher diet. CONCLUSIONS:Independent of BMI and other risk factors, higher diet and plasma BCAA concentrations were associated with an increased incident T2D risk among high-risk women with a history of gestational diabetes, supporting impaired BCAA metabolism as conferring T2D risk.
Project description:The early diagnosis of mastitis is an essential factor for the prompt detection of the animal for further actions. In fact, if not culled, infected cows must be segregated from the milking herd and milked last, or milked with separate milking units. Besides microbiological analysis, the somatic cell count (SCC) commonly used as predictor of intramammary infection, frequently lead to a misclassification of milk samples. To overcome these limitations, more specific biomarkers are continuously evaluated. The total amino acid content increases significantly in mastitic milk compared to normal milk. S. aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs-isoleucine, leucine, and valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acids synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via transcriptional regulators. The increase of BCAAs in composite milk has been postulated to be linked to mammary infection by S. aureus. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, by a direct ion-pairing reversed-phase method, based on the use of the evaporative light-scattering detector (IP-RP-HPLC-ELSD), applied to 65 composite cow milk samples, a correlation between the concentration of isoleucine and leucine, and S. aureus load. The correlation coefficient, r, was found to be 0.102 for SCC (p = 0.096), 0.622 for isoleucine (p < 0.0001), 0.586 for leucine (p < 0.0001), 0.013 for valine (p = 0.381), and 0.07 for tyrosine (p = 0.034), standing for a positive correlation between S. aureus and isoleucine and leucine concentration. The link between the content of BCAAs, isoleucine and leucine, and udder infection by S. aureus demonstrated with our study has an important clinical value for the rapid diagnosis of S. aureus mastitis in cows.
Project description:Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are involved in immune system's metabolic pathways and play fundamental role in gut health. Our aim was to assess BCAA plasma levels in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and associations of plasma BCAAs with disease-related parameters. This was a case-control study in adult patients with UC and BMI-matched controls. A total of 150 volunteers were screened between May 2016 and June 2017; 43 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled. Medical and dietary history (3 × 24 h recalls, MedDiet score), anthropometric measurements, blood and fecal samples were collected. We measured BCAAs in plasma with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In patients, fecal calprotectin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and defensin were quantified. Dietary pattern was similar in patients and controls. Plasma-free BCAA profiles did not differ between groups. Regression analysis showed that i) valine was inversely associated with calprotectin (p = 0.007) and ii) isoleucine with age (p = 0.031), after adjusting for age, sex, PMS and smoking. Leucine was negatively associated with age (p = 0.015) after adjusting for age, sex and PMS, but this association vanished when smoking was introduced. No correlation was observed between total BCAAs with any of the parameters. Plasma-free valine is negatively associated with calprotectin in patients with UC.