Multiple myeloma patients at various cytogenetic risks benefit differently from autologous stem cell transplantation as a consolidation therapy.
ABSTRACT: Aim. To evaluate whether patients with multiple myeloma at various risks can still benefit the same from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation in the era of novel agents. We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive myeloma patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation after bortezomib and/or thalidomide based inductions. Totally 17 high-risk, 24 intermediate-risk, and 26 low-risk patients were enrolled, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and ISS stage. Meanwhile, another 67 risk-, response depth-, and age-matched patients not proceeding to autologous stem cell transplantation were chosen as controls. Our preliminary data indicated that, in the high-risk subgroup, progression-free survival and overall survival were both significantly prolonged after autologous stem cell transplantation (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015) while, in the intermediate-risk subgroup, neither progression-free survival nor overall survival was prolonged significantly after autologous stem cell transplantation (P > 0.05), and in the low-risk subgroup, only progression-free survival was extended significantly (P = 0.012) after autologous stem cell transplantation. Multiple variables analysis further indicated that autologous stem cell transplantation and risk stratification were two independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Our results indicated that myeloma patients at different risks all benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation even in the era of novel agents.
Project description:The feasibility and efficacy of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed elderly patients with multiple myeloma was analyzed prospectively. Fifty-six multiple myeloma patients, aged 65 years or over, from 6 French centers were studied. The induction therapy was bortezomib-based in combination with dexamethasone and either thalidomide, cyclophosphamide or lenalidomide, for 4-6 cycles. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after high-dose cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF or G-CSF alone, with plerixafor if needed. The conditioning regimen consisted of melphalan at 140 mg/m2 in 18 patients (36%) and 200 mg/m2 in 32 (64%). Three months post autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a 2-month consolidation phase with either lenalidomide plus dexamethasone or bortezomib-based combination therapy was allowed, but maintenance treatment was not given. All but 6 patients underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 3 had tandem transplantations. The treatment-related mortality was 0% at 100 days post transplantation. Sixty-eight percent received consolidation therapy following transplantation. The best response achieved was 40% complete response, 36% very good partial response, and 18% partial response. After a median follow up of 21 months (range 6-31), the estimated progression-free and overall survival rates at two years were 76% [95%CI: (61.6-94.1)] and 88% [95%CI: (76.7-100)], respectively. The higher dose of melphalan (200 mg/m2) afforded superior progression-free and overall survival rates. This prospective study provides evidence for the safety and efficacy of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a first-line treatment approach in elderly multiple myeloma patients. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01671826).
Project description:Despite novel therapeutic agents, most multiple myeloma (MM) patients eventually relapse. Two large phase III trials have shown significantly improved response rates (RR) of lenalidomide/dexamethasone compared with placebo/dexamethasone in relapsed MM (RMM) patients. These results have led to the approval of lenalidomide for RMM patients and lenalidomide/dexamethasone has since become a widely accepted second-line treatment. Furthermore, in RMM patients consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation has been shown to significantly increase progression free survival (PFS) as compared to cyclophosphamide in a phase III trial. The randomized prospective ReLApsE trial is designed to evaluate PFS after lenalidomide/dexamethasone induction, high-dose chemotherapy consolidation plus autologous stem cell transplantation and lenalidomide maintenance compared with the well-established lenalidomide/dexamethasone regimen in RMM patients.ReLApsE is a randomized, open, multicenter phase III trial in a planned study population of 282 RMM patients. All patients receive three lenalidomide/dexamethasone cycles and--in absence of available stem cells from earlier harvesting--undergo peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and harvesting. Subsequently, patients in arm A continue on consecutive lenalidomide/dexamethasone cycles, patients in arm B undergo high dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation followed by lenalidomide maintenance until discontinuation criteria are met. Therapeutic response is evaluated after the 3(rd) (arm A + B) and the 5(th) lenalidomide/dexamethasone cycle (arm A) or 2 months after autologous stem cell transplantation (arm B) and every 3 months thereafter (arm A + B). After finishing the study treatment, patients are followed up for survival and subsequent myeloma therapies. The expected trial duration is 6.25 years from first patient in to last patient out. The primary endpoint is PFS, secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS), RR, time to best response and the influence of early versus late salvage high dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation on OS.This phase III trial is designed to evaluate whether high dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation and lenalidomide maintenance after lenalidomide/dexamethasone induction improves PFS compared with the well-established continued lenalidomide/dexamethasone regimen in RMM patients.ISRCTN16345835 (date of registration 2010-08-24).
Project description:Over the last two decades, the utilization of various novel therapies in the upfront or salvage settings has continued to improve survival outcomes for patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM). Thus, the conventional role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MM either in the form of an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or an allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) warrants re-evaluation, given the aforementioned clinical advances. Here, we present a consensus statement of our multidisciplinary group of over 30 Mayo Clinic physicians with a special interest in the care of patients with MM and provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of HSCT in MM. We specifically address topics that include the role and timing of an ASCT for MM in the era of novel agents, eligibility for an ASCT, post-ASCT consolidation, and maintenance options, and finally the utility of an upfront tandem ASCT, salvage second ASCT, and an allo-SCT in MM.
Project description:Although multiple myeloma (MM) is still considered an incurable disease, the treatment philosophy is changing due to the introduction of novel agents. Standard treatment consists of an induction phase and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients under 65-70 years. Prolonged treatment (consolidation and/or maintenance) is being introduced in many countries. We present a review of clinical trials dedicated to consolidation treatment in multiple myeloma. Bortezomib, lenalidomide and carfilzomib in different combinations were tested in the trials mentioned below. Although they did not prolong overall survival, the data are very promising. Three very important large clinical trials are still in progress. The results might help to establish the actual value of consolidation treatment.
Project description:Survival of myeloma patients has greatly improved with the use of autologous stem cell transplantation and novel agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies. Compared to bortezomib- and lenalidomide-based regimens alone, the addition of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous transplantation significantly improves progression-free survival, although an overall survival benefit was not observed in all trials. Moreover, follow up of recent trials is still too short to show any difference in survival. In the light of these findings, novel agent-based induction followed by autologous transplantation is considered the standard upfront treatment for eligible patients (level of evidence: 1A). Post-transplant consolidation and maintenance treatment can further improve patient outcome (1A). The availability of several novel agents has led to the development of multiple combination regimens such as salvage treatment options. In this context, the role of salvage autologous transplantation and allotransplant has not been extensively evaluated. In the case of prolonged remission after upfront autologous transplantation, another autologous transplantation at relapse can be considered (2B). Patients who experience early relapse and/or have high-risk features have a poor prognosis and may be considered as candidates for clinical trials that, in young and fit patients, may also include an allograft in combination with novel agents (2B). Ongoing studies are evaluating the role of novel cellular therapies, such as inclusion of antibody-based triplets and quadruplets, and chimeric antigen receptor-T cells. Despite encouraging preliminary results, longer follow up and larger patient numbers are needed before the clinical use of these novel therapies can be widely recommended.
Project description:The role of high-dose therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) continues to evolve in the novel agent era. The choice of induction therapy has moved from conventional chemotherapy to newer regimens incorporating the immunomodulatory derivatives thalidomide or lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. These drugs combine well with traditional therapies and with one another to form various doublet, triplet, and quadruplet regimens. Up-front use of these induction treatments, in particular 3-drug combinations, has affected unprecedented rates of complete response that rival those previously seen with conventional chemotherapy and subsequent ASCT. Autotransplantation applied after novel-agent-based induction regimens provides further improvement in the depth of response, a gain that translates into extended progression-free survival and, potentially, overall survival. High activity shown by immunomodulatory derivatives and bortezomib before ASCT has recently led to their use as consolidation and maintenance therapies after autotransplantation. Novel agents and ASCT are complementary treatment strategies for MM. This article reviews the current literature and provides important perspectives and guidance on the major issues surrounding the optimal current management of younger, transplantation-eligible MM patients.
Project description:Although multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease, the advent of novel treatment paradigms has improved survival outcomes in the past two decades. This includes widespread use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) and the development of the novel agents thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib. The efficacy and tolerability of these novel agents have allowed for the exploration of continuous therapy approaches. Maintenance therapy after HDT-ASCT, for example, may help prolong progression-free survival by providing sustained control of residual disease. Trials are also under way to evaluate lenalidomide in patients with high-risk smoldering MM, with the aim of delaying progression to symptomatic MM. Other research is focusing on improving HDT-ASCT protocols and integrating novel agents, such as bortezomib, as an induction or consolidation therapy. Despite these advances, more effective strategies are needed, particularly for the management of older, less fit patients who are ineligible for HDT-ASCT. Preliminary results on the use of lenalidomide maintenance therapy in elderly patients are encouraging. Taken together, these observations indicate that in this era of novel agents, optimal treatment of MM requires a long-term perspective that focuses on providing sustained disease control while maintaining quality of life.
Project description:The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370 patients were centrally randomly assigned 3 months after ASCT to receive 20 doses of bortezomib given during 21 weeks or no consolidation. The hypothesis was that consolidation therapy would prolong progression-free survival (PFS). The PFS after randomization was 27 months for the bortezomib group compared with 20 months for the control group (P = .05). Fifty-one of 90 patients in the treatment group compared with 32 of 90 controls improved their response after randomization (P = .007). No difference in overall survival was seen. Fatigue was reported more commonly by the bortezomib-treated patients in self-reported quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires, whereas no other major differences in QOL were recorded between the groups. Consolidation therapy seemed to be beneficial for patients not achieving at least a very good partial response (VGPR) but not for patients in the ? VGPR category at randomization. Consolidation with bortezomib after ASCT in bortezomib-naive patients improves PFS without interfering with QOL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00417911.
Project description:BACKGROUND: How tandem autologous-allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be integrated in the treatment of multiple myeloma remains controversial. We examined the long-term outcome of patients with multiple myeloma managed with tandem autologous-allogeneic stem cell transplantation and present a prognostic factor analysis based on the experience of the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC). DESIGN AND METHODS: This French, retrospective, registry-based study included 146 patients who had undergone tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation for multiple myeloma at 20 SFGM-TC centers between 1998 and 2010. The patients included in the study had fully completed the two steps of a planned tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation. No treatment had to be administered between the autologous and allogeneic parts of the tandem procedure. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients (53%) underwent tandem autologous-allogeneic transplantation as part of upfront treatment, i.e. after a single line of treatment not including autologous transplantation. The median follow-up from the allogeneic transplant was 47.5 months (range, 1.2-132 months). At 4 years, the overall survival and event-free survival rates were 48% (95% CI 39-57 %) and 27% (95% CI 19-36), respectively. Eighteen patients (12%) experienced grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and 43 patients (30%) had chronic graft-versus-host disease. The transplant-related mortality rate at 1 year was 15% (95% CI 10-22). Patients receiving tandem transplantation as upfront treatment had significantly improved event-free survival (36% versus 11%; P=0.005) and overall survival (56% versus 34%; P=0.02). Donor's age ? 50 years was associated with improved event-free survival (35% versus 16%; P=0.005) and overall survival (54% versus 41%; P=0.02). In the multivariable analysis, upfront tandem transplantation, donor's age ? 50 years and full chimerism were independent prognostic factors for better outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the feasibility of tandem autologour-allogeneic transplantation in heavily treated patients with multiple myeloma. We identified younger donor's age and upfront tandem transplantation as two independent prognostic factors for survival which could be further explored in prospective studies.
Project description:On February 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval for the use of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) for patients with multiple myeloma. The approval was based on evidence from two randomized, blinded trials of maintenance lenalidomide versus placebo in patients with myeloma who had undergone auto-HSCT along with a third trial of lenalidomide versus no therapy. Each of the trials demonstrated superior progression-free survival for the patients treated with lenalidomide. The effect on overall survival was mixed, with one trial showing longer overall survival and another showing no effect. Subgroup analysis suggested better results for patients with International Staging System stage I or II disease compared with stage III disease. Safety evaluation did not reveal any new safety concerns. More second primary malignancies were observed in the lenalidomide arm compared with the placebo arm. The FDA concluded that lenalidomide maintenance showed a favorable benefit-to-risk ratio when used as maintenance therapy after auto-HSCT. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Prior to this approval, there were no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved maintenance therapies for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT). Maintenance therapy with lenalidomide after auto-HSCT in patients with MM demonstrated an approximately 15- to 18-month advantage in progression-free survival compared with placebo at the time of the primary analysis. Patients treated with lenalidomide also appeared to have a survival advantage compared with patients treated with placebo. Because of the high rate of relapse of MM in patients following auto-HSCT and because MM is a serious and often fatal disease, these results appear to be clinically meaningful.