The cognition and emotional well-being indices of the Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39: what do they really measure?
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) is a common measure of health related quality of life (HRQoL) that is widely used with Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Previous evidence suggests that the PDQ-39 reflects at least 8 dimensions (i.e., Emotion, Cognitions, Mobility, etc). To date, little research has examined the external/convergent validity of the Cognitions and Emotional Well-being domains of the PDQ-39. METHODS:A convenience sample of 303 PD patients underwent a comprehensive multi-domain neuropsychological evaluation, including tests of execution function, episodic verbal memory, processing speed, language and working memory, as well as completing measures of depression, apathy, state and trait anxiety and HRQoL (PDQ-39). Hierarchical regressions were conducted in order to examine the relationship between scores on neuropsychological tests and the Cognitions index, as well as mood measures and the Emotional Well-being index of the PDQ-39. RESULTS:Neuropsychological test performance did not account for a significant amount of variance in the PDQ-39 Cognitions index scores. Instead, it was depression that significantly contributed to the Cognitions index, above and beyond neuropsychological performance. The PDQ-39 Emotional Well-being index was also related to mood measures, primarily depression and trait anxiety. CONCLUSIONS:The PDQ-39 Cognition index may be more related to mood functioning, as opposed to cognitive functioning, and should not be considered a "proxy" for cognitive functioning. Future studies are needed to better explain the construct of this index.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The prevalence of non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported inconsistently among different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the NMSs and HRQoL profiles and their correlation in Egyptian PD patients, using a culturally adapted Arabic version of the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39).<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety-seven PD patients were rated using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), the non-motor symptoms scales (NMSS), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the Arabic version of PDQ-39. We used the Spearman's rank correlation and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the relationship between NMSs domains and HRQoL dimensions.<h4>Results</h4>Fatigue/sleep (91.3%) and mood/cognitive disturbances (87%) were the most frequently and severely affected NMSS domains. Other common NMSs included urinary (75.9%), memory/attention (72.4%), gastrointestinal (67.8%), and cardiovascular problems (64.8%). The total NMSS scores were positively correlated with UPDRS I, II, and III scores. Depression was prevalent in 76.7% of PD patients. Moreover, all enrolled PD patients reported impairment in different HRQoL dimensions, especially mobility (98.9%), activities of daily living (97.8%), and emotional well-being (95.5%). The summary index of PDQ-39 was correlated to the total NMSS, UPDRS-I, UPDRS-II Off, UPDRS-III (Off and On states), and BDI scores.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed the high prevalence of NMSs and the value of NMSS and BDI scores as predictors of HRQoL in Egyptian PD patients. Therefore, characterizing the NMSs profile is essential for tailoring management strategies for PD patients.
Project description:The most frequently used instrument to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39). However, both the dimensionality of the eight PDQ-39 subscales and their summary score recently faced criticism. Furthermore, data on disease-related and neuropsychological determinants and the role of gender on HrQoL in PD are inconclusive yet. Therefore, our aim was to reevaluate the PDQ-39 structure and to further explore determinants of HrQoL in PD. 245 PD patients (age: M?=?69.64, SD?=?8.43; 62.9% male; H&Y: Md?=?3.00; cognitive assessment with PANDA: M?=?24.82, SD?=?3.57) from the baseline database of the Cologne Parkinson Network were used to reevaluate the dimensionality of the PDQ-39 with a principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to clarify general and domain-specific relationships between clinical, (neuro)psychological, and sociodemographic variables, gender in particular, and HrQoL. The PCA identified three HrQoL domains: physical-functioning, cognition, and socioemotional HrQoL. Depressive symptoms were identified as the most important determinant of HrQoL across all models. Disease-related HrQoL determinants (UPDRS-III, H&Y stage, and LEDD) were less strong and consistent HrQoL determinants than nonmotor symptoms. Analyses did not reveal a global gender effect; however, female gender was a negative predictor for physical-functioning and socioemotional HrQoL, whereas male gender was a negative predictor for cognition HrQoL. Our analyses suggest the consideration of a reevaluation of the PDQ-39. Only the full understanding of HrQoL, its determinants, and their interrelationships will allow the development of PD intervention strategies focusing on what matters the most for patients' HrQoL. Gender is one relevant variable that should be considered in this context.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), depression has a strong impact on quality of life (QoL). However, little is known about the influence of subthreshold depression (STD) on QoL in PD patients.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 230 hospitalized PD patients with normal and impaired cognitive status were included in this observational study. We collected the following data for analysis: Beck Depression Inventory level, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) score, non-motor symptoms questionnaire score, PD questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) score, Hoehn-Yahr stage, and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the unified PD rating scale III (MDS-UPDRS III) score. To study the impact of STD on the PDQ-39 summary index (SI) and its domains, we used multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of covariance.<h4>Results</h4>In this cohort, 80 (34.8%) patients had STD [44 (32.3%) with high MOCA score (> 21) and 36 (38.3%) with low MOCA score (< 21)]. In PDQ-39 SI, there was a significant effect on depression level. In patients with higher MOCA score, STD was associated with worse PDQ-39 domains emotional well-being and cognition, whereas in patients with lower MOCA score, STD had no significant effect on PDQ-39 SI or its subdomains.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In PD patients, QoL is significantly affected by STD, and thus, more attention in medical care should be focused on treating STD. However, the impact is only observable in PD patients with normal cognitive function. STD patients show more reduced QoL than non-depressed patients, indicating that STD should be treated as a transition zone between normal mood and depression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Identifying the factors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is of great scientific interest, but a potential causal relationship between treatment and HRQoL has yet to be fully elucidated. Japanese patients reported better HRQoL outcomes on the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) emotional well-being domain, a 6-question subset of the PDQ-39 which is considered to reflect the emotional aspects of the disease-specific HRQoL, when treated with rasagiline, than placebo, in both a monotherapy clinical trial (NCT02337725) and an adjunctive therapy clinical trial in patients with wearing-off phenomena (NCT02337738).<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate how rasagiline exerts its effect on the PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease.<h4>Methods</h4>A path analysis was performed to assess the direct treatment effects of rasagiline on the PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain and the effects mediated indirectly through the influence on items related to motor symptoms by a post-hoc analysis of two clinical trials in Japan.<h4>Results</h4>In the monotherapy trial, the PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain was mainly affected indirectly through items related to motor symptoms (80.7%) composed of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part II (67.2%) and Part III (13.5%). In the adjunctive therapy trial, the PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain was also mainly influenced indirectly through effects on items related to motor symptoms (1 mg/day: 54.7%, 0.5 mg/day: 57.6%) composed of MDS-UPDRS Part II (1 mg/day: 35.6%, 0.5 mg/day: 40.9%), Part III (1 mg/day: 8.0%, 0.5 mg/day: 8.3%) and mean daily OFF-time (1 mg/day: 11.1%, 0.5 mg/day: 8.4%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The effects of rasagiline on the PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain were mediated primarily by influence on the subjective aspects of motor experiences of daily living.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Mood disorders are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and a favorable effect of safinamide on mood has been observed. We aimed to analyze the effectiveness of safinamide on mood as a secondary objective from the SAFINONMOTOR (an open-label study of the effectiveness of SAFInamide on NON-MOTOR symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease) study.<h4>Methods</h4>SAFINONMOTOR is a prospective open-label single-arm study conducted in five centers from Spain. Patients with PD were required to have at baseline a Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) total score of at least 40. In this analysis, the changes from V1 (baseline) to V4 (6 months ± 1 month) in the BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory-II), NMSS mood/apathy domain, and PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39) emotional well-being domain were analyzed. Depression was identified and classified (DSM-IV and Judd criteria) at baseline and at the end of follow-up as major depression (MD), minor depression (mD), subthreshold depression (subD), and non-depression (nonD).<h4>Results</h4>Fifty patients with PD were included (age 68.5 ± 9.12 years; 58% women; 6.4 ± 5.1 years from diagnosis) and 44 patients (88%) completed the follow-up at 6 months. The BDI-II total score was reduced by 35.9% (from 15.88 ± 10.46 at V1 to 10.18 ± 6.76 at V4; p < 0.0001). A significant decrease in the NMSS mood/apathy domain and PDQ-39 emotional well-being domain was observed as well (p < 0.0001). At baseline, 52% of the patients presented MD, 34% mD, 12% subD, and 2% nonD whereas at V4 the percentages were 31.8%, 34.1%, 22.7%, and 11.4%, respectively (p = 0.029).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Safinamide improves mood in patients with PD at 6 months.
Project description:Quality of life (QOL) plays an important role in independent living in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, being crucial to know what factors impact QoL throughout the course of the disease. Here we identified predictors of QoL impairment in PD patients from a Spanish cohort. PD patients recruited from 35 centers of Spain from the COPPADIS cohort from January 2016, to November 2017, were followed up during 2 years. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) and global QoL (GQoL) were assessed with the 39-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index (EUROHIS-QOL8), respectively, at baseline (V0) and at 24 months ± 1 month (V2). Clinically significant QoL impairment was defined as presenting an increase (PDQ-39SI) or decrement (EUROHIS-QOL8) at V2 ≥ 10% of the score at baseline (V0). A comparison with a control group was conducted for GQoL. GQoL did not change significantly in PD patients (N = 507; p = 0.686) or in the control group (N = 119; p = 0.192). The mean PDQ-39SI was significantly increased in PD patients (62.7 ± 8.5 years old; 58.8% males; N = 500) by 21.6% (from 16.7 ± 13 to 20.3 ± 16.4; p < 0.0001) at V2. Ninety-three patients (18.6%) presented a clinically significant HRQoL impairment at V2. To be younger (OR = 0.896; 95% CI 0.829-0.968; p = 0.006), to be a female (OR = 4.181; 95% CI 1.422-12.290; p = 0.009), and to have a greater increase in BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory-II) (OR = 1.139; 95% CI 1.053-1.231; p = 0.001) and NMSS (Non-Motor Symptoms Scale) (OR = 1.052; 95% CI 1.027-1.113; p < 0.0001) total scores from V0 to V2 were associated with clinically significant HRQoL impairment at the 2-year follow-up (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p = 0.665; R<sup>2</sup> = 0.655). An increase in ≥5 and ≥10 points of BDI-II and NMSS total score at V2 multiplied the probability of presenting clinically significant HRQoL impairment by 5 (OR = 5.453; 95% CI 1.663-17.876; p = 0.005) and 8 (OR = 8.217; 95% CI, 2.975-22.696; p = 0.002), respectively. In conclusion, age, gender, mood, and non-motor impairment were associated with clinically significant HRQoL impairment after the 2-year follow-up in PD patients.
Project description:The impact of motor- and non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received increasing attention.To address this, the study explored a large cohort of patients enrolled in the PD Biomarker Program.The PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) measured HRQOL, whereas the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessed motor and non-motor symptoms. Determinants of HRQOL in PD patients were identified by stepwise linear regression analysis. The relationship between the PDQ-39 and UPDRS subscale scores then was explored through structural equation modeling.The mean disease duration was 6.8 years and the mean PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39SI) was 18.4. UPDRS-I (non-motor function) and UPDRS-II (motor questionnaire) scores demonstrated the strongest correlations with PDQ-39SI (r???0.4, P?<?0.05), whereas UPDRS-III (motor exam) and UPDRS-IV (motor complications) scores were correlated moderately with PDQ-39SI (0.3?<?r?<?0.4, P?<?0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses showed that age (?=?-0.13, P?<?0.001), education (?=?-0.07, P?=?0.008), UPDRS-I (?=?0.32, P?=?0.000), and UPDRS-II (?=?0.44, P?<?0.001) significantly contributed to HRQOL, and cumulatively accounted for 69.1% of the PDQ-39SI variance. UPDRS-II score was the primary predictor of PDQ-39SI, accounting for 57.3% of the variance, whereas UPDRS-I score accounted for 7.5%. UPDRS-III and -IV and other factors measured did not survive stepwise regression. Structural equation modeling confirmed the association of UPDRS-II (?=?0.67, P?<?0.001) and UPDRS-I (?=?0.35, P?<?0.001) with the PDQ-39SI.Both motor and non-motor function scores impacted significantly HRQOL in PD. UPDRS-III, however, has limited contributions to HRQOL although it is used as a main outcome in many clinical trials.
Project description:Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered a very important outcome indicator in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A broad list of motor and non-motor features have been shown to affect HRQoL in PD, however, there is a dearth of information about the complexity of interrelationships between determinants of HRQoL in different PD phenotypes. We aimed to find independent determinates and the best structural model for HRQoL, also to investigate the heterogeneity in HRQoL between PD patients with different phenotypes regarding onset-age, progression rate and dominant symptom.A broad spectrum of demographic, motor and non-motor characteristics were collected in 157 idiopathic PD patients, namely comorbidity profile, nutritional status, UPDRS (total items), psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety), fatigue and psychosocial functioning through physical examination, validated questionnaires and scales. Structural equation model (SEM) and multivariate regressions were applied to find determinants of Parkinson's disease summary index (PDSI) and different domains of HRQoL (PDQ-39).Female sex, anxiety, depression and UPDRS-part II scores were the significant independent determinants of PDSI. A structural model consisting of global motor, global non-motor and co-morbidity indicator as three main components was able to predict 89% of the variance in HRQoL. In older-onset and slow-progression phenotypes, the motor domain showed smaller contribution on HRQoL and the majority of its effects were mediated through non-motor features. Comorbidity component was a significant determinant of HRQoL only among older-onset and non-tremor-dominant PD patients. Fatigue was not a significant indicator of non-motor component to affect HRQoL in rapid-progression PD.Our findings showed outstanding heterogeneities in the pattern and determinants of HRQoL among PD phenotypes. These factors should be considered during the assessments and developing personalized interventions to improve HRQOL in PD patients with different phenotypes or prominent feature.
Project description:Fatigue after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (post-aSAH fatigue) is a frequent, often long-lasting, but still poorly studied sequel. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of post-aSAH fatigue with an itemized analysis of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS). We further wanted to assess the association of fatigue with other commonly observed problems after aSAH: mood disorders, cognitive problems, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), weight gain, and return to work (RTW). Ninety-six good outcome aSAH patients with fatigue completed questionnaires measuring fatigue, depression, anxiety, and HRQoL. All patients underwent a physical and neurological examination. Cognitive functioning was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. We also registered prior history of fatigue and mood disorders as well as occupational status and RTW. The patients experienced fatigue as being among their three most disabling symptoms and when characterizing their fatigue they emphasized the questionnaire items "low motivation," "mental fatigue," and "sensitivity to stress." Fatigue due to exercise was their least bothersome aspect of fatigue and weight gain was associated with depressive symptoms rather than the severity of fatigue. Although there was a strong association between fatigue and mood disorders, especially for depression, the overlap was incomplete. Post-aSAH fatigue related to reduced HRQoL. RTW was remarkably low with only 10.3% of patients returning to their previous workload. Fatigue was not related to cognitive functioning or neurological status. Although there was a strong association between fatigue and depression, the incomplete overlap supports the notion of these two being distinct constructs. Moreover, post-aSAH fatigue can exist without significant neurological or cognitive impairments, but is related to reduced HRQoL and contributes to the low rate of RTW.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who receive carbidopa/levodopa experience symptom reemergence or worsening, or "OFF" episodes. This study assessed the association of "OFF" episodes with health-related quality of life (HRQoL).<h4>Methods</h4>US-specific data from the 2017 and 2019 Adelphi Real World Disease Specific Programme for PD, a real-world cross-sectional survey, were used. Neurologists provided data for 10-12 consecutive patients with PD who completed the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and the EuroQol 5-Dimension (EQ-5D). Data were grouped by patients who experienced "OFF" episodes versus those who did not and by average hours of daily "OFF" time. Differences between patient groups were assessed for demographics and clinical characteristics; regression analyses were used to model the relationship between HRQoL and "OFF" episodes with age, sex, body mass index, current PD stage on the Hoehn and Yahr scale, and number of concomitant conditions related and unrelated to mobility as covariates.<h4>Results</h4>Data from 722 patients were analyzed. Overall, 321 patients (44%) had "OFF" episodes (mean of 2.9?h of daily "OFF" time). Patients who experienced "OFF" episodes were less likely to work full-time and more likely to live with family members other than their spouse/partner or reside in a long-term care facility than those without "OFF" episodes. The presence of "OFF" episodes, regardless of the average hours of daily "OFF" time, was significantly associated with high scores (reflecting poor HRQoL) on most PDQ-39 dimensions and the summary index and low scores (reflecting poor health status) on the EQ-5D health utility index, visual analog scale (VAS), and all dimensions. Furthermore, increased average hours of daily "OFF" time was significantly correlated with higher scores for all PDQ-39 dimensions and the summary index, as well as with the EQ-5D health utility index and VAS scores. Patients with "OFF" episodes experienced reduced HRQoL even after correcting for potentially confounding variables.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrated that the occurrence of "OFF" episodes in patients with PD is associated with reduced HRQoL and that the impact on HRQoL increased incrementally with increasing average hours of daily "OFF" time.