Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of Paenibacillus barcinonensis xylanase 10C containing the CBM22-1-CBM22-2 tandem.
ABSTRACT: A construct containing the CBM22-1-CBM22-2 tandem forming the N-terminal domain of Paenibacillus barcinonensis xylanase 10C (Xyn10C) has been purified and crystallized. A xylan-binding function and an affinity for mixed ?-1,3/?-1,4 glucans have previously been demonstrated for some members of the CBM22 family. The sequence of the tandem is homologous to the N-terminal domains found in several thermophilic enzymes. Crystals of this tandem were grown by the streak-seeding method after a long optimization strategy. The structure has been determined by molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.43 Å and refinement is under way. This study represents the first structure containing two contiguous CBM22 modules, which will contribute to a better understanding of the role that this multiplicity plays in fine-tuning substrate affinity.
Project description:Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating multimodularity is a challenging task. Paenibacillus barcinonensis Xyn10C is a 120-kDa modular enzyme that presents the CBM22/GH10/CBM9 architecture found in a subset of large xylanases. We report here the three-dimensional structure of the Xyn10C N-terminal region, containing the xylan-binding CBM22-1-CBM22-2 tandem (Xyn10C-XBD), which represents the first solved crystal structure of two contiguous CBM22 modules. Xyn10C-XBD is folded into two separate CBM22 modules linked by a flexible segment that endows the tandem with extraordinary plasticity. Each isolated domain has been expressed and crystallized, and their binding abilities have been investigated. Both domains contain the R(W/Y)YYE motif required for xylan binding. However, crystallographic analysis of CBM22-2 complexes shows Trp-308 as an additional binding determinant. The long loop containing Trp-308 creates a platform that possibly contributes to the recognition of precise decorations at subsite S2. CBM22-2 may thus define a subset of xylan-binding CBM22 modules directed to particular regions of the polysaccharide. Affinity electrophoresis reveals that Xyn10C-XBD binds arabinoxylans more tightly, which is more apparent when CBM22-2 is tested against highly substituted xylan. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain, also reported, shows the capacity of the active site to accommodate xylan substitutions at almost all subsites. The structural differences found at both Xyn10C-XBD domains are consistent with the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showing two sites with different affinities in the tandem. On the basis of the distinct characteristics of CBM22, a delivery strategy of Xyn10C mediated by Xyn10C-XBD is proposed.
Project description:A new xylanase gene, xyn10B, was isolated from the ruminal protozoan Polyplastron multivesiculatum and the gene product was characterized. XYN10B is the first protozoan family 10 glycoside hydrolase characterized so far and is a modular enzyme comprising a family 22 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) preceding the catalytic domain. The CBM22 was shown to be a true CBM. It showed high affinity for soluble arabinoxylan and is the first example of a CBM22 that binds strongly to celluloses of various crystallinities. The enzymic properties of XYN10B were also analysed. Its optimal temperature and pH for activity were 39 degrees C and 7.0 respectively; these values being close to those of the ruminal ecosystem. The phylogenetic relationships between the XYN10B CBM22 or catalytic domain and related sequences from ruminal and non-ruminal bacteria and eukaryotes are reported. The xyn10B gene is shown to lack introns.
Project description:The axy43A gene encoding the intracellular trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli Recombinant PcAxy43A consisting of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 and a family 6 carbohydrate-binding module exhibited endo-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, and arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase activities. PcAxy43A hydrolyzed xylohexaose and birch wood xylan to release a series of xylooligosaccharides, indicating that PcAxy43A contained endo-xylanase activity. PcAxy43A exhibited ?-xylosidase activity toward a chromogenic substrate, p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xylopyranoside, and xylobiose, while it preferred to hydrolyze long-chain xylooligosaccharides rather than xylobiose. In addition, surprisingly, PcAxy43A showed arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase activity; that is, it released arabinose from both singly and doubly arabinosylated xylose, ?-l-Araf-(1?2)-d-Xylp or ?-l-Araf-(1?3)-d-Xylp and ?-l-Araf-(1?2)-[?-l-Araf-(1?3)]-?-d-Xylp Moreover, the combination of PcAxy43A and P. curdlanolyticus B-6 endo-xylanase Xyn10C greatly improved the efficiency of xylose and arabinose production from the highly substituted rye arabinoxylan, suggesting that these two enzymes function synergistically to depolymerize arabinoxylan. Therefore, PcAxy43A has the potential for the saccharification of arabinoxylan into simple sugars for many applications. IMPORTANCE In this study, the glycoside hydrolase 43 (GH43) intracellular multifunctional endo-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, and arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXH) from P. curdlanolyticus B-6 were characterized. Interestingly, PcAxy43A AXH showed a new property that acted on both the C(O)-2 and C(O)-3 positions of xylose residues doubly substituted with arabinosyl, which usually obstruct the action of xylanolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the studies here show interesting properties for the processing of xylans from cereal grains, particularly rye arabinoxylan, and show a novel relationship between PcAxy43A and endo-xylanase Xyn10C from strain B-6, providing novel metabolic potential for processing arabinoxylans into xylose and arabinose.
Project description:Background:The extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus can degrade and metabolize untreated lignocellulosic biomass containing xylan. The mechanism of the bacterium for degradation of insoluble xylan in untreated biomass has not been revealed. Results:In the present study, the only annotated extracellular endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Xyn10B) with multidomain structures in C. lactoaceticus genome was biochemically characterized. Xyn10B contains three N-terminal consecutive family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), one GH10 catalytic domain (CD), two family 9 CBMs and two S-layer homology (SLH) modules in the C-terminal. CBM22a shares 27.1% and 27.2% sequence homology with CBM22b and CBM22c, respectively. The sequence homology between two CBM9 s and two SLHs is 26.8% and 25.6%, respectively. To elucidate the effect of multiple domains on the enzymatic properties of Xyn10B, the truncated variants of which (Xyn10B-TM1: CBM22a-CBM22b-CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM2: CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM3: CBM22c-CD10-CBM9a; and Xyn10B-TM4: CD10-CBM9a) were separately reconstructed, recombinantly expressed and biochemically characterized. Enzymatic properties studies showed that the optimal temperature for all four Xyn10B truncations was 65 °C. Compared to Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4, Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 had higher hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates. It is noteworthy that Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 have higher enzymatic activity on insoluble xylan than the soluble counterparts, whereas Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4 showed opposite characteristics. The kinetic parameters analysis of Xyn10B-TM1 on xylan showed V max was 5740, 1300, 1033, and 3925 U/μmol on insoluble oat spelt xylan (OSX), soluble beechwood xylan (BWX), soluble sugar cane xylan (SCX), and soluble corncob xylan (CCX), respectively. The results indicated that CBM22s especially CBM22c promoted the hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates of the Xyn10B truncations. The functions of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH are different, while contribute synergetically to the thermostability, protein structure integrity, substrate binding, and high hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan of untreated lignocellulosic biomass. The domains of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH have different characteristics, which synergistically promote the thermostability, protein structure integrity, affinity on insoluble substrates and enzymatic activity properties of Xyn10B. Conclusions:The extracellular endo-β-1,4-xylanase with multidomain structures of CBM, CD and SLH promote the biodegradation of insoluble xylan in untreated lignocellulosic biomass by thermophilic C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Xyn30D from the xylanolytic strain Paenibacillus barcinonensis has been identified and characterized. The enzyme shows a modular structure comprising a catalytic module family 30 (GH30) and a carbohydrate-binding module family 35 (CBM35). Like GH30 xylanases, recombinant Xyn30D efficiently hydrolyzed glucuronoxylans and methyl-glucuronic acid branched xylooligosaccharides but showed no catalytic activity on arabinose-substituted xylans. Kinetic parameters of Xyn30D were determined on beechwood xylan, showing a K(m) of 14.72 mg/ml and a k(cat) value of 1,510 min(-1). The multidomain structure of Xyn30D clearly distinguishes it from the GH30 xylanases characterized to date, which are single-domain enzymes. The modules of the enzyme were individually expressed in a recombinant host and characterized. The isolated GH30 catalytic module showed specific activity, mode of action on xylan, and kinetic parameters that were similar to those of the full-length enzyme. Computer modeling of the three-dimensional structure of Xyn30D showed that the catalytic module is comprised of a common (?/?)(8) barrel linked to a side-associated ?-structure. Several derivatives of the catalytic module with decreasing deletions of this associated structure were constructed. None of them showed catalytic activity, indicating the importance of the side ?-structure in the catalysis of Xyn30D. Binding properties of the isolated carbohydrate-binding module were analyzed by affinity gel electrophoresis, which showed that the CBM35 of the enzyme binds to soluble glucuronoxylans and arabinoxylans. Analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry showed that CBM35 binds to glucuronic acid and requires calcium ions for binding. Occurrence of a CBM35 in a glucuronoxylan-specific xylanase is a differential trait of the enzyme characterized.
Project description:The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases involved in the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The bifunctional multi-modular xylanase Xyn10B is one of the hemicellulase components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains an internal glycoside hydrolase family 10 catalytic domain (GH10) and a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate esterase domain (CE1). The N-terminal moiety of Xyn10B (residues 32-551), comprising a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM22-1) and the GH10 E337A mutant, was crystallized in complex with xylohexaose. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3(2)21 and contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2.0 A resolution.
Project description:Bj-BPP-10c is a bioactive proline-rich decapeptide, part of the C-type natriuretic peptide precursor, expressed in the brain and in the venom gland of Bothrops jararaca. We recently showed that Bj-BPP-10c displays a strong, sustained anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), without causing any effect in normotensive rats, by a pharmacological effect independent of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesized that another mechanism should be involved in the peptide activity. Here we used affinity chromatography to search for kidney cytosolic proteins with affinity for Bj-BPP-10c and demonstrate that argininosuccinate synthetase (AsS) is the major protein binding to the peptide. More importantly, this interaction activates the catalytic activity of AsS in a dose-de pend ent manner. AsS is recognized as an important player of the citrulline-NO cycle that represents a potential limiting step in NO synthesis. Accordingly, the functional interaction of Bj-BPP-10c and AsS was evidenced by the following effects promoted by the peptide: (i) increase of NO metabolite production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell culture and of arginine in human embryonic kidney cells and (ii) increase of arginine plasma concentration in SHR. Moreover, alpha-methyl-dl-aspartic acid, a specific AsS inhibitor, significantly reduced the anti-hypertensive activity of Bj-BPP-10c in SHR. Taken together, these results suggest that AsS plays a role in the anti-hypertensive action of Bj-BPP-10c. Therefore, we propose the activation of AsS as a new mechanism for the anti-hypertensive effect of Bj-BPP-10c in SHR and AsS as a novel target for the therapy of hypertension-related diseases.
Project description:Background:Improving the hydrolytic performance of hemicellulases to degrade lignocellulosic biomass is of considerable importance for second-generation biorefinery. Xylanase, as the crucial hemicellulase, must be thermostable and have high activity for its potential use in the bioethanol industry. To obtain excellent xylanase candidates, it is necessary to understand the structure-function relationships to provide a meaningful reference to improve the enzyme properties. This study aimed to investigate the catalytic mechanism of a highly active hyperthermophilic xylanase variant, XYL10C-?N, for hemicellulose degradation. Results:By removing the N-terminal 66 amino acids, the variant XYL10C-?N showed a 1.8-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency and could hydrolyze corn stover more efficiently in hydrolysis of corn stover; however, it retained similar thermostability to the wild-type XYL10C. Based on the crystal structures of XYL10C-?N and its complex with xylobiose, Glu175 located on loop 3 was found to be specific to GH10 xylanases and probably accounts for the excellent enzyme properties by interacting with Lys135 and Met137 on loop 2. Site-saturation mutagenesis confirmed that XYL10C-?N with glutamate acid at position 175 had the highest catalytic efficiency, specific activity, and the broadest pH-activity profile. The functional roles of Glu175 were also verified in the mutants of another two GH10 xylanases, XylE and XynE2, which showed increased catalytic efficiencies and wider pH-activity profiles. Conclusions:XYL10C-?N, with excellent thermostability, high catalytic efficiency, and great lignocellulose-degrading capability, is a valuable candidate xylanase for the biofuel industry. The mechanism underlying improved activity of XYN10C-?N was thus investigated through structural analysis and functional verification, and Glu175 was identified to play the key role in the improved catalytic efficiency. This study revealed the importance of a key residue (Glu175) in XYN10C-?N and provides a reference to modify GH10 xylanases for improved catalytic performance.
Project description:Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 Xyn10D is a xylanase containing a family 3 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3). Biochemical analyses using recombinant proteins derived from Xyn10D suggested that the CBM3 polypeptide has an affinity for cellulose and xylan and that CBM3 in Xyn10D is important for hydrolysis of insoluble arabinoxylan and natural biomass.