Crystal structure and biophysical characterization of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Leishmania braziliensis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a housekeeping enzyme that plays key roles in nucleotide recycling and homeostasis in trypanosomatids. It is also secreted by the intracellular parasite Leishmania to modulate the host response. These functions make NDK an attractive target for drug design and for studies aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms mediating host-pathogen interactions. RESULTS:We report the crystal structure and biophysical characterization of the NDK from Leishmania braziliensis (LbNDK). The subunit consists of six ?-helices along with a core of four ?-strands arranged in a ?2?3?1?4 antiparallel topology order. In contrast to the NDK from L. major, the LbNDK C-terminal extension is partially unfolded. SAXS data showed that LbNDK forms hexamers in solution in the pH range from 7.0 to 4.0, a hydrodynamic behavior conserved in most eukaryotic NDKs. However, DSF assays show that acidification and alkalization decrease the hexamer stability. CONCLUSIONS:Our results support that LbNDK remains hexameric in pH conditions akin to that faced by this enzyme when secreted by Leishmania amastigotes in the parasitophorous vacuoles (pH 4.7 to 5.3). The unusual unfolded conformation of LbNDK C-terminus decreases the surface buried in the trimer interface exposing new regions that might be explored for the development of compounds designed to disturb enzyme oligomerization, which may impair the important nucleotide salvage pathway in these parasites.
Project description:The analysis of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus genome revealed the first virus-encoded nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), an enzyme that is central to the synthesis of RNA and DNA, ubiquitous in cellular organisms, and well conserved among the three domains of life. In contrast with the broad specificity of cellular NDKs for all types of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a strongly preferential affinity for deoxypyrimidines. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of this unique substrate specificity, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK alone and in complex with various nucleotides. As predicted from a sequence comparison with cellular NDKs, the 3D structure of the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a shorter Kpn loop, previously recognized as a main feature of the NDK active site. The structure of the viral enzyme in complex with various nucleotides also pinpointed two residue changes, both located near the active site and specific to the viral NDK, which could explain its stronger affinity for deoxynucleotides and pyrimidine nucleotides. The role of these residues was explored by building a set of viral NDK variants, assaying their enzymatic activities, and determining their 3D structures in complex with various nucleotides. A total of 26 crystallographic structures were determined at resolutions ranging from 2.8 A to 1.5 A. Our results suggest that the mimivirus enzyme progressively evolved from an ancestral NDK under the constraints of optimizing its efficiency for the replication of an AT-rich (73%) viral genome in a thymidine-limited host environment.
Project description:Nucleoside-diphosphate-kinases (NDKs) are leaderless, multifunctional enzymes. The mode(s) of NDK secretion is currently undefined, while extracellular translocation of bacterial NDKs is critical for avoidance of host pathogen clearance by opportunistic pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis-NDK during infection inhibits extracellular-ATP (eATP)/P2X<sub>7</sub>-receptor mediated cell death in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) via eATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, depletion of pannexin-1-hemichannel (PNX1) coupled with P2X<sub>7</sub>-receptor blocks the infection-induced eATP release in GECs, and P. gingivalis-NDK impacts this pathway. Ultrastructural and confocal microscopy of P. gingivalis-co-cultured GECs or green-fluorescent-protein (GFP)-P. gingivalis-NDK transfected GECs revealed a perinuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NDK. eATP stimulation induced NDK recruitment to the cell periphery. Depletion of PNX1 by siRNA or inhibition by probenecid resulted in significant blocking of extracellular NDK activity and secretion using ATPase and ELISA assays. Co-immunoprecipitation-coupled Mass-spectrometry method revealed association of P. gingivalis-NDK to the myosin-9 motor molecule. Interestingly, inhibition of myosin-9, actin, and lipid-rafts, shown to be involved in PNX1-hemichannel function, resulted in marked intracellular accumulation of NDK and decreased NDK secretion from infected GECs. These results elucidate for the first time PNX1-hemichannels as potentially main extracellular translocation pathway for NDKs from an intracellular pathogen, suggesting that PNX1-hemichannels may represent a therapeutic target for chronic opportunistic infections.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs; EC 126.96.36.199) play an essential role in the synthesis of nucleotides from intermediates in the salvage pathway in all parasitic trypanosomatids and their structural studies will be instrumental in shedding light on the biochemical machinery involved in the parasite life cycle and host-parasite interactions. In this work, NDKb from Leishmania major was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The NDK crystal diffracted to 2.2 angstrom resolution and belonged to the trigonal crystal system, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.2, c = 93.9 angstrom. Translation-function calculations yielded an unambiguous solution in the enantiomorphic space group P3(2)21.
Project description:Leishmania amazonensis was found to release nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NdK)-a stable enzyme capable of decreasing extracellular ATP. The release of this enzyme from Leishmania results in its progressive accumulation extracellularly as they replicate, peaking at the stationary phase in vitro. The released NdK is immunoprecipitable and constitutes approximately 40% of its total activities and proteins. The retention of a known cytosolic protein by wild type cells and a fluorescent protein by DsRed transfectants at stationary phase, which release NdK, indicates that this is a spontaneous event, independent of inadvertent cytolysis. Recombinant products of Leishmania NdK prepared were enzymatically and immunologically active. Both recombinant and native Leishmania NdK utilized ATP to produce expected nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of nucleoside diphosphates in excess. Both native and recombinant Leishmania NdK were also found to prevent ATP-induced cytolysis of J774 macrophages in vitro, as determined by assays for lactate dehydrogenase release from these cells and for their mitochondrial membrane potential changes. The results obtained thus suggest that Leishmania NdK not only serves its normal house-keeping and other important functions true to all cells, but also prevents ATP-mediated lysis of macrophages, thereby preserving the integrity of the host cells to the benefit of the parasite.
Project description:We have previously shown that a homologue of a conserved nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase (Ndk) family of multifunctional enzymes and secreted molecule in Porphyromonas gingivalis can modulate select host molecular pathways including downregulation of reactive-oxygen-species generation to promote bacterial survival in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). In this study, we describe a novel kinase function for bacterial effector, P. gingivalis-Ndk, in abrogating epithelial cell death by phosphorylating heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) in GECs. Infection by P. gingivalis was recently suggested to increase phosphorylation of HSP27 in cancer-epithelial cells; however, the mechanism and biological significance of antiapoptotic phospho-HSP27 during infection has never been characterised. Interestingly, using glutathione S-transferase-rNdk pull-down analysed by mass spectrometry, we identified HSP27 in GECs as a strong binder of P. gingivalis-Ndk and further verified using confocal microscopy and ELISA. Therefore, we hypothesised P. gingivalis-Ndk can phosphorylate HSP27 for inhibition of apoptosis in GECs. We further employed P. gingivalis-Ndk protein constructs and an isogenic P. gingivalis-ndk-deficient-mutant strain for functional examination. P. gingivalis-infected GECs displayed significantly increased phospho-HSP27 compared with ndk-deficient-strain during 24 hr infection. Phospho-HSP27 was significantly increased by transfection of GFP-tagged-Ndk into uninfected-GECs, and in vitro phosphorylation assays revealed direct phosphorylation of HSP27 at serines 78 and 82 by P. gingivalis-Ndk. Depletion of HSP27 via siRNA significantly reversed resistance against staurosporine-mediated-apoptosis during infection. Transfection of recombinant P. gingivalis-Ndk protein into GECs substantially decreased staurosporine-induced-apoptosis. Finally, ndk-deficient-mutant strain was unable to inhibit staurosporine-induced Cytochrome C release/Caspase-9 activation. Thus, we show for the first time the phosphorylation of HSP27 by a bacterial effector-P. gingivalis-Ndk-and a novel function of Ndks that is directly involved in inhibition of host cell apoptosis and the subsequent bacterial survival.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinases from haloarchaea Haloarcula quadrata (NDK-q) and H. sinaiiensis (NDK-s) are identical except for one out of 154 residues, i.e., Arg(31) in NDK-q and Cys(31) in NDK-s. However, the salt-dependent activity profiles of NDK-q and NDK-s are quite different: the optimal NaCl concentrations of NDK-q and NDK-s are 1 M and 2 M, respectively. We analyzed the relationships of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and NDK activity of these NDKs at various salt concentrations, and revealed that 1), NDK-q is present as a hexamer under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.2-4 M NaCl), whereas NDK-s is present as a hexamer at an NaCl concentration above 2 M and as a dimer at NaCl concentrations below 1 M; 2), dimeric NDK-s has lower activity than hexameric NDK-s; and 3), dimeric NDK-s has higher helicity than hexameric NDK-s. We also determined the crystal structure of hexameric NDK-q, and revealed that Arg(31) plays an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. Thus the substitution of Arg (as in NDK-q) to Cys (as in NDK-s) at position 31 destabilizes the hexameric assembly, and causes dissociation to less active dimers at low salt concentrations.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are implicated in a wide variety of cellular functions owing to their enzymatic conversion of NDP to NTP. NDK from Borrelia burgdorferi (BbNDK) was selected for functional and structural analysis to determine whether its activity is required for infection and to assess its potential for therapeutic inhibition. The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Diseases (SSGCID) expressed recombinant BbNDK protein. The protein was crystallized and structures were solved of both the apoenzyme and a liganded form with ADP and vanadate ligands. This provided two structures and allowed the elucidation of changes between the apo and ligand-bound enzymes. Infectivity studies with ndk transposon mutants demonstrated that NDK function was important for establishing a robust infection in mice, and provided a rationale for therapeutic targeting of BbNDK. The protein structure was compared with other NDK structures found in the Protein Data Bank and was found to have similar primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures, with conserved residues acting as the catalytic pocket, primarily using His132 as the phosphohistidine-transfer residue. Vanadate and ADP complexes model the transition state of this phosphoryl-transfer reaction, demonstrating that the pocket closes when bound to ADP, while allowing the addition or removal of a ?-phosphate. This analysis provides a framework for the design of potential therapeutics targeting BbNDK inhibition.
Project description:The temperature-sensitive swoH1 mutant of Aspergillus nidulans was previously identified in a screen for mutants with defects in polar growth. In the present work, we found that the swoH1 mutant swelled, lysed, and did not produce conidia during extended incubation at the restrictive temperature. When shifted from the permissive to the restrictive temperature, swoH1 showed the temperature-sensitive swelling phenotype only after 8 h at the higher temperature. The swoH gene was mapped to chromosome II and cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive phenotype. The sequence showed that swoH encodes a homologue of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) from other organisms. Deletion experiments showed that the swoH gene is essential. A hemagglutinin-SwoHp fusion complemented the mutant phenotype, and the purified fusion protein possessed phosphate transferase activity in thin-layer chromatography assays. Sequencing of the mutant allele showed a predicted V83F change. Structural modeling suggested that the swoH1 mutation would lead to perturbation of the NDK active site. Crude cell extracts from the swoH1 mutant grown at the permissive temperature had approximately 20% of the NDK activity seen in the wild type and did not show any decrease in activity when assayed at higher temperatures. Though the data are not conclusive, the lack of temperature-sensitive NDK activity in the swoH1 mutant raises the intriguing possibility that the SwoH NDK is required for growth at elevated temperatures rather than for polarity maintenance.
Project description:The increase of leishmaniasis cases worldwide and the emergence of Leishmania strains resistant to current treatments make necessary to find new therapeutic targets. Proteases are appealing drug targets because they play pivotal roles in facilitating parasite survival and promoting pathogenesis. Enzymes belonging to the dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) group have been described in different organisms such as mammals, insects and yeast, in which these enzymes have been involved in both protein turnover and protection against oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to characterize the structure and function of the Leishmania braziliensis DPP3 (LbDPP3) protein as the first step to elucidate its suitability as a potential drug target. Sequence alignment showed 43% of identity between LbDPP3 and its human orthologous (hDPP3) enzyme. Although the modeled protein adopted a globally conserved three-dimensional (3D) structure, structural differences were found in the vicinity of the active site and the substrate binding-cleft. In addition, the Leishmania protein was expressed as a soluble recombinant protein and its kinetics parameters were determined using the z-Arginine-Arginine-AMC substrate. The LbDPP3 activity was maximal at pH values between 8.0-8.5. Interestingly, classical enzyme inhibitors such as the tynorphin and its derivative peptide IVYPW were found to actively inhibit the LbDPP3 activity. Moreover, these DPP3 inhibitors showed a detrimental effect upon parasite survival, decreasing the viability of promastigotes by up to 29%. Finally, it was observed that LbDPP3 was equally expressed along the in vitro differentiation from promastigotes to axenic amastigotes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the L. brazileinsis DPP3 could be a promising drug target.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostaglandins (PG) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolism. They are involved in cellular processes such as inflammation and tissue homeostasis. PG production is not restricted to multicellular organisms. Trypanosomatids also synthesize several metabolites of arachidonic acid. Nevertheless, their biological role in these early-branching parasites and their role in host-parasite interaction are not well elucidated. Prostaglandin F2? synthase (PGF2S) has been observed in the Leishmania braziliensis secreted proteome and in L. donovani extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, we previously reported a positive correlation between L. braziliensis PGF2S (LbrPGF2S) expression and pathogenicity in mice. METHODS:LbrPGF2S gene expression and PGF2? synthesis in promastigotes were detected and quantified by western blotting and EIA assay kit, respectively. To investigate LbrPGF2S localization in amastigotes during bone marrow-derived macrophage infection, parasites expressing mCherry-LbrPGF2S were generated and followed by time-lapse imaging for 48 h post-infection. PGF2S homolog sequences from Leishmania and humans were analyzed in silico using ClustalW on Geneious v6 and EMBOSS Needle. RESULTS:Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes synthesize prostaglandin F2? in the presence of arachidonic acid, with peak production in the stationary growth phase under heat stress. LbrPGF2S is a cytoplasmic protein enriched in the secretory site of the parasite cell body, the flagellar pocket. It is an enzyme constitutively expressed throughout promastigote development, but overexpression of LbrPGF2S leads to an increase of infectivity in vitro. The data suggest that LbrPGF2S may be released from intracellular amastigotes into the cytoplasm of bone marrow-derived macrophages over a 48-hour infection period, using time-lapse microscopy and mCherry-PGF2S (mChPGF2S)-expressing parasites. CONCLUSIONS:LbrPGF2S, a parasite-derived protein, is targeted to the host cell cytoplasm. The putative transfer of this enzyme, involved in pro-inflammatory lipid mediator synthesis, to the host cell suggests a potential role in host-parasite interaction and may partially explain the increased pathogenicity associated with overexpression of LbrPGF2S in L. braziliensis. Our data provide valuable insights to help understand the importance of parasite-derived lipid mediators in pathogenesis.