Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures.
ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility.
Project description:Unregulated neuro-inflammation mediates seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our aim was to determine the effect of CD40-CD40L activation in experimental seizures. CD40 deficient mice (CD40KO) and control mice (wild type, WT) received pentenyltetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine to evaluate seizures and status epilepticus (SE) respectively. In mice, anti-CD40L antibody was administered intranasally before PTZ. Brain samples from human TLE and post-seizure mice were processed to determine CD40-CD40L expression using histological and molecular techniques. CD40 expression was higher in hippocampus from human TLE and in cortical neurons and hippocampal neural terminals after experimental seizures. CD40-CD40L levels increased after seizures in the hippocampus and in the cortex. After SE, CD40L/CD40 levels increased in cortex and showed an upward trend in the hippocampus. CD40KO mice demonstrated reduction in seizure severity and in latency compared to WT mice. Anti-CD40L antibody limited seizure susceptibility and seizure severity. CD40L-CD40 interaction can serve as a target for an immuno-therapy for TLE.
Project description:Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a widely-used convulsant used in studies of epilepsy; its subcutaneous injection generates an animal model with stable seizures. Here, we compared the ability of PTZ via the intravenous and subcutaneous routes to evoke progressive epileptiform activity in the hippocampal CA1 neurons of anesthetized rats. The involvement of the BDNF-TrkB pathway was then investigated. When PTZ was given intravenously, it induced epileptiform bursting activity at a short latency in a dose-dependent manner. However, when PTZ was given subcutaneously, it induced a slowly-developing pattern of epileptogenesis; first, generating multiple population-spike peaks, then spontaneous interictal discharge-like spike, leading to the final ictal discharge-like, highly synchronized bursting fi ring in the CA1 pyramidal layer of the hippocampus. K252a, a TrkB receptor antagonist, when given by intracerebroventricular injection, significantly reduced the probability of multiple population spike peaks induced by subcutaneous injection of PTZ, delayed the latency of spontaneous spikes, and reduced the burst frequency. Our results indicate that PTZ induces a progressive change of neuronal epileptiform activity in the hippocampus, and the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is mainly involved in the early phases of epileptogenesis, but not the synchronized neuronal burst activity associated with epileptic seizure in the PTZ animal model. These results provide basic insights into the changing pattern of hippocampal neuronal activity during the development of the PTZ seizure model, and establish an in vivo seizure model useful for future electrophysiological studies of epilepsy.
Project description:It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization. Furthermore, we exposed the fish to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin prior to PTZ, and we measured its effect on seizure latency, number of seizure behaviors, and mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. We used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2a, cox2b, and c-fos, and visual inspection was used to monitor seizure latency and the number of seizure-like behaviors.We found a short-term upregulation of il1b, and we revealed that cox2b, but not cox2a, was induced after seizures. Indomethacin treatment prior to PTZ-induced seizures downregulated the mRNA expression of il1b, cox2b, and c-fos. Moreover, we observed that in larvae exposed to indomethacin, seizure latency increased and the number of seizure-like behaviors decreased.This is the first study showing that il1b and cox-2 transcripts are upregulated following PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. In addition, we demonstrated the anticonvulsant effect of indomethacin based on (1) the inhibition of PTZ-induced c-fos transcription, (2) increase in seizure latency, and (3) decrease in the number of seizure-like behaviors. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin is clearly demonstrated by the downregulation of the mRNA expression of il1b and cox2b. Our results are supported by previous evidences suggesting that zebrafish is a suitable alternative for studying inflammation, seizures, and the effect of anti-inflammatory compounds on seizure suppression.
Project description:Both Fyn and tau have been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and neurotoxicity in many tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individual genetic ablation of <i>fyn</i> or <i>tau</i> appears to be protective against aberrant excitatory neuronal activities in AD and epilepsy models. It is, however, still unknown whether ablation of both Fyn and tau can likely elicit more profound anti-seizure and neuroprotective effects. Here, we show the effects of genetic deletion of Fyn and/or tau on seizure severity in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mouse models and neurobiological changes 24 h post-seizures. We used Fyn KO (<i>fyn</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), tau KO (<i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), double knockout (DKO) (<i>fyn</i> <sup>-/-</sup> <b>/</b> <i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup>), and wild-type (WT) mice of the same genetic background. Both tau KO and DKO showed a significant increase in latency to convulsive seizures and significantly decreased the severity of seizures post-PTZ. Although Fyn KO did not differ significantly from WT, in response to PTZ, Fyn KO still had 36 ± 8% seizure reduction and a 30% increase in seizure latency compared to WT. Surprisingly, in contrast to WT, Fyn KO mice showed higher mortality in <20 min of seizure induction; these mice had severe hydrocephalous. None of the <i>tau</i> <sup>-/-</sup> and DKO died during the study. In response to PTZ, all KO groups showed a significant reduction in neurodegeneration and gliosis, in contrast to WT, which showed increased neurodegeneration [especially, parvalbumin (PV)-GABAergic interneurons] and gliosis. DKO mice had the most reduced gliosis. Immunohistochemically, phospho-tau (AT8, pS199/S202), Fyn expression, as well as Fyn-tau interaction as measured by PLA increased in WT post-PTZ. Moreover, hippocampal Western blots revealed increased levels of AT8, tyrosine phospho-tau (pY18), and phosphorylated Src tyrosine family kinases (pSFK) in PTZ-treated WT, but not in KO, compared to respective controls. Furthermore, PV interneurons were protected from PTZ-induced seizure effects in all KO mice. The levels of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1) channels were also downregulated in astrocytes in the WT post-PTZ, while its levels did not change in KO groups. Overall, our results demonstrated the role of Fyn and tau in seizures and their impact on the mediators of early epileptogenesis in PTZ model.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sodium channel is a primary target for treating central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, was evaluated in different animal models of epilepsy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed on freely moving rats made epileptic by administration of either pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine. BmK IT2 (0.05-0.5 microg in 2 microl) was microinjected into the CA1 area and its effects on PTZ-induced widespread, seizure-like behaviour and cortex epileptiform EEG, as well as on pilocarpine-induced seizure-like behaviour and c-Fos expression were studied. KEY RESULTS: Intrahippocampal application of BmK IT2 dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviour, and reduced the numbers and duration of the high amplitude and frequency discharges (HAFDs) of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. Similarly, in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model, BmK IT2 significantly prolonged the latency to onset of the SE, reduced the severity of SE and suppressed hippocampal c-Fos expression during SE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: BmK IT2 showed anticonvulsant activity as it inhibited the widespread seizures induced by PTZ and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. This activity might be due to the modulation of sodium channels in the hippocampus. Hence, BmK IT2 could be used as a novel tool to explore the molecular and pathological mechanisms of epilepsy with regard to the involvement of sodium channels.
Project description:G1-phase cyclin D1 (cD1) expression has been documented in post-mitotic neurons undergoing apoptosis, leading others to propose that attempted cell cycle re-entry may induce cell death. Here, cD1 immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of healthy excitatory neurons throughout the brain. Most striking was the selective cD1 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, an especially vulnerable cell group. Seizure threshold, cD1 induction and CA1 neuron death were examined following application of kainate (KA) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in cD1 heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype mice to determine whether baseline cD1 correlates with pathology. cD1+/- mice displayed resistance to KA, but not PTZ-induced seizures and had reduced or equivalent cytotoxicity respectively, compared with wildtype. KA administration, but not PTZ, induced cD1 expression. These findings suggest that basal cD1 expression may render hippocampal circuits more susceptible to particular epileptogenic agents and excitotoxic cell death, though cD1 is not a direct precipitant in apoptosis.
Project description:Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg). PTZ kindling seizures were induced by repetitive intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (65 mg/kg) every 48 hours till day twenty-one. Animals received daily oral pitavastatin for twenty-one days. Latency, score and duration of the seizures were recorded. The activities of catalase (CAT) ad superoxide dismutase (SOD), and likewise the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrate were assessed in the brains of all rats. Results: There was a progressive reduction in latency of the kindled rats in the next injections of PTZ. Pitavastatin reduced this value (latency) particularly at higher dose. Seizures duration and score also decreased in treatment groups. SOD and CAT activities significantly decreased in PTZ-kindling group by 62% and 64%, respectively, but pitavastatin did not significantly change the SOD and CAT activities. Brain MDA and nitrate significantly increased in PTZ-kindling group by 53% and 30%, respectively. Pitavastatin at higher dose significantly decreased the MDA and nitrate contents of PTZ-kindling rats by 45% and 32%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that pitavastatin can improve the behavioral expression of the PTZ-kindling rats and attenuate the seizure-induced oxidative/nitrosative damage.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidemiological evidence indicates epilepsy is more common in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (20-25%) than in the general population. The aim of this project was to analyze seizure susceptibility in developing rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as autism model.<h4>Methods</h4>Pregnant females were injected with VPA during the twelfth embryonic day. Seizures were induced in fourteen-days-old rat pups using two models of convulsions: pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo).<h4>Results</h4>Two subgroups with different PTZ-induced seizure susceptibility in rats exposed to VPA were found: a high susceptibility (VPA+) (28/42, seizure severity 5) and a low susceptibility (VPA-) (14/42, seizure severity 2). The VPA+ subgroup exhibited an increased duration of the generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS; 45 ± 2.7 min), a higher number of rats showed several GTCS (14/28) and developed status epilepticus (SE) after PTZ injection (19/27) compared with control animals (36.6 ± 1.9 min; 10/39; 15/39, respectively). No differences in seizure severity, latency or duration of SE induced by Li-Pilo were detected between VPA and control animals.<h4>Discussion</h4>Prenatal VPA modifies the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures in developing rats, which may be linked to an alteration in the GABAergic transmission. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity between autism and epilepsy.
Project description:Epilepsy is a significant contributor to worldwide disability. In epilepsy, disability can be broadly divided into two components: ictal (pertaining to the burden of unpredictable seizures and associated medical complications including death) and interictal (pertaining to more pervasive debilitating changes in cognitive and emotional behavior). In this study, we objectively and noninvasively appraise aspects of ictal and interictal behavior in mice using instrumented home-cage chambers designed to assay kinematic and appetitive behavioral measures. Through daily intraperitoneal injections of the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) applied to C57BL/6J mice, we coordinately measure how "behavioral severity" (complex dynamic changes in movement and sheltering behavior) and convulsive severity (latency and occurrence of convulsive seizures) evolve or kindle with repeated injections. By closely studying long epochs between PTZ injections, we identify an interictal syndrome of nocturnal hypoactivity and increased sheltering behavior which remits with the cessation of seizure induction. We observe elements of this interictal behavioral syndrome in seizure-prone DBA/2J mice and in mice with a pathogenic Scn1a mutation (modeling Dravet syndrome). Through analyzing their responses to PTZ, we illustrate how convulsive severity and "behavioral" severity are distinct and independent aspects of the overall severity of a PTZ-induced seizure. Our results illustrate the utility of an ethologically centered automated approach to quantitatively appraise murine expressions of disability in mouse models of seizures and epilepsy. In doing so, this study highlights the very unique psychopharmacological profile of PTZ.
Project description:Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder, characterized by frequent electrical activity in brain regions. Inflammation and apoptosis cascade activation are serious neurological sequelae during seizures. Fisetin (3, 3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonoid molecule, is considered for its effective anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of fisetin on experimental epilepsy. For acute studies, increasing current electroshock (ICES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure tests were performed to evaluate the antiseizure activity of fisetin. For the chronic study, the kindling model was established by the administration of PTZ in subconvulsive dose (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice were treated with fisetin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) to study its probable antiseizure mechanism. The kindled mice were evaluated for seizure scores. Their hippocampus and cortex were assessed for neuronal damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. Histological alterations were observed in the hippocampus of the experimental mice. Levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed in the hippocampus and cortex by ELISA. The immunoreactivity and mRNA expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytochrome C, and caspase-3 were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis and real-time PCR. Phosphorylation ELISA was performed to evaluate AkT/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in the hippocampus and cortex of the kindled mice. The results showed that fisetin administration increased the seizure threshold current (STC) in the ICES test. In PTZ-induced seizures, fisetin administration increased the latency for myoclonic jerks (MJs) and generalized seizures (GSs). In the PTZ-induced kindling model, fisetin administration dose-dependently suppressed the development of kindling and the associated neuronal damage in the experimental mice. Further, fisetin administration ameliorated kindling-induced neuroinflammation as evident from decreased levels of HMGB1, TLR-4, IL-1R1, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the hippocampus and cortex of the kindled mice. Also, the immunoreactivity and mRNA expressions of inflammatory molecules, NF-κB, and COX-2 were decreased with fisetin administration in the kindled animals. Decreased phosphorylation of the AkT/mTOR pathway was reported with fisetin administration in the hippocampus and cortex of the kindled mice. The immunoreactivity and mRNA expressions of apoptotic molecules, cytochrome C, and caspase-3 were attenuated upon fisetin administration. The findings suggest that fisetin shows a neuroprotective effect by suppressing the release of inflammatory and apoptosis molecules and attenuating histological alterations during experimental epilepsy.