Adherence influencing factors - a systematic review of systematic reviews.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-adherence is widespread problem. Adherence is a crucial point for the success and the safe use of therapies. The objective of this overview (review of reviews) was to identify factors that influence adherence in chronic physical conditions. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline and Embase (1990 to July 2013). Publications were screened according to predefined inclusion criteria. The study quality was assessed using AMSTAR. Both process steps were carried out independently by two reviewers. Relevant data on study characteristics and results were extracted in piloted standardized tables by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data were synthesized using a standardized quantitative approach by two reviewers. RESULTS: Seven systematic reviews were included. Higher education and employment seem to have a positive effect on adherence. Ethnic minorities seem to be less adherent. Co-payments and higher medication cost seems to have negative effect on adherence. In contrast financial status/income and marital status seem to have no influence on adherence. The effect of therapy related factors was mostly unclear or had no effect. Only the number of different medications in heart failure patients showed the tendency of an effect. Indicators of regime complexity showed consistently a negative effect direction. Duration of disease seems to have no effect on adherence. There is the tendency that higher or middle age is associated with higher adherence. But in more than half of the reviews the effect was unclear. There is no clear effect of physical as well as mental comorbidity. Only one review showed the tendency of an effect for mental comorbidity. Also for gender the effect is not clear because the effect direction was heterogenic between and within the systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: The presented overview shows factors than can potentially have influence on adherence. Only for a few factors the influence on adherence was consistent. Most factors showed heterogeneous results regarding statistical significance and/or effect direction. However, belonging to an ethnic minority, unemployment and cost for the patient for their medications showed consistently a negative effect on adherence which indicates that there is a social gradient.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adherence is a crucial point for the successful treatment of a hepatitis-C virus infection. Studies have shown that especially adherence to ribavirin is important.The objective of this systematic review was to identify factors that influence adherence in hepatitis-C infected patients taking regimes that containing ribavirin. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Medline and Embase in March 2014 without limits for publication date. Titles and abstracts and in case of relevance, full-texts were screened according to predefined inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed. Both process steps were carried out independently by two reviewers. Relevant data on study characteristics and results were extracted in standardized tables by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data were synthesized in a narrative way using a standardized procedure. RESULTS: Nine relevant studies were identified. The number of analyzed patients ranged between 12 and 5706 patients. The study quality was moderate. Especially the risk of bias regarding the measurement of influencing factors was mostly unclear."Psychiatric disorders" (N?=?5) and having to take "higher doses of ribavirin" (N?=?3) showed a negative influence on adherence. In contrast, a "HIV co-infection" (N?=?2) and the "hemoglobin level" (N?=?2) were associated with a positive influence on adherence. Furthermore, there is the tendency that male patients are more adherent than female patients (N?=?6). "Alcohol consumption" (N?=?2), "education", "employment status", "ethnic group","hepatitis-C virus RNA" (N?=?4), "genotype" (N?=?5), "metavir activity" (N?=?1) and "weight" (N?=?3) showed mostly no effect on adherence. Although, some studies showed statistically significant results for "age", "drug use" , "genotype", "medication dose interferon", and "treatment experience" the effect is unclear because effect directions were partly conflicting.The other factors were heterogeneous regarding the effect direction and/or statistical significance. CONCLUSION: There are some factors that seem to show an influence on adherence. However, due to the heterogeneity (e.g. patient characteristics, regimes, settings, countries) no general conclusions can be made. The results should rather be considered as indications for factors that can have an influence on adherence in hepatitis-C infected patients taking regimes that containing ribavirin.
Project description:A systematic review was conducted to investigate whether bilingualism has a protective effect against cognitive decline in aging and can protect against dementia. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of 31 March, 2019, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Our search resulted in 34 eligible studies. Mixed results were found with respect to the protective effect of bilingualism against cognitive decline. Several studies showed a protective effect whereas other studies failed to find it. Moreover, evidence for a delay of the onset of dementia of between 4 and 5.5 years in bilingual individuals compared to monolinguals was found in several studies, but not in all. Methodological differences in the set-up of the studies seem to explain these mixed results. Lifelong bilingualism is a complex individual process, and many factors seem to influence this and need to be further investigated. This can be best achieved through large longitudinal studies with objective behavioral and neuroimaging measurements. In conclusion, although some evidence was found for a cognitive reserve-enhancing effect of lifelong bilingualism and protection against dementia, to date, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Use of cardiovascular medication has increased over time, especially for primary and secondary prevention, with polypharmacy common. METHODS:Review of published systematic reviews of the factors and outcomes associated with adherence to cardiovascular medication using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. Quality was assessed using the AMSTAR tool. RESULTS:Of 789 systematic reviews identified, 45 met the inclusion criteria and passed the quality assessment; 34 focused on factors associated with adherence, and 11 on outcomes. High heterogeneity, both between and within reviews, precluded meta-analysis and so a pooled estimate of adherence levels could not be derived. Adherence was associated with disease factors, therapy factors, healthcare factors, patient factors and social factors, though with some inconsistencies. In total, 91% of reviews addressing outcomes reported that low adherence was associated with poorer clinical and economic endpoints. CONCLUSIONS:Factors from across five key domains relate to non-adherence to cardiovascular medications, and may contribute to poorer clinical outcomes. Interventions to improve adherence should be developed to address modifiable factors and targeted at those at highest risk of non-adherence. Adherence research is highly heterogeneous to-date and efforts to standardize this should be implemented to improve comparability.
Project description:PURPOSE: A number of potential determinants of medication non-adherence have been described so far. However, the heterogenic quality of existing publications poses the need for the use of a rigorous methodology in building a list of such determinants. The purpose of this study was a systematic review of current research on determinants of patient adherence on the basis of a recently agreed European consensus taxonomy and terminology. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, IPA, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for systematic reviews published between 2000/01/01 and 2009/12/31 that provided determinants on non-adherence to medication. The searches were limited to reviews having adherence to medication prescribed by health professionals for outpatient as a major topic. RESULTS: Fifty-one reviews were included in this review, covering 19 different disease categories. In these reviews, exclusively assessing non-adherence to chronic therapies, 771 individual factor items were identified, of which most were determinants of implementation, and only 47-determinants of persistence with medication. Factors with an unambiguous effect on adherence were further grouped into 8 clusters of socio-economic-related factors, 6 of healthcare team- and system-related factors, 6 of condition-related factors, 6 of therapy-related factors, and 14 of patient-related factors. The lack of standardized definitions and use of poor measurement methods resulted in many inconsistencies. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides clear evidence that medication non-adherence is affected by multiple determinants. Therefore, the prediction of non-adherence of individual patients is difficult, and suitable measurement and multifaceted interventions may be the most effective answer toward unsatisfactory adherence. The limited number of publications assessing determinants of persistence with medication, and lack of those providing determinants of adherence to short-term treatment identify areas for future research.
Project description:The extent to which therapist adherence to guidelines and clinician skill or competence may play a role in the prediction of therapeutic outcomes remains inconclusive. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis considers whether adherence or competence predicts youth outcome in child and adolescent psychotherapy, and whether there are any identifiable factors which moderate the strength or direction of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies in 52 papers. The studies contained 29 effect sizes for the relationship between adherence and outcome, while nine effect sizes were extracted for competence, and a further five effects measured a composite of adherence and competence constructs, referred to as fidelity in this report. The meta-analysis indicated a small but significant relationship between therapist adherence and outcome, although the small size of effect suggests that outcomes are likely to be more strongly associated with factors other than adherence. No significant relationship was identified between competence or composite fidelity and outcome. Although variance was observed in effect sizes, no significant moderation by client group, intervention type, or implementation measure informant was identified. Further study is needed to understand the specific circumstances under which adherence and outcome are related.
Project description:Immunosuppressive drugs have to be taken through the whole duration of kidney transplant survival to avoid rejection. Low adherence can increase the risk of allograft rejection. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing interventions (AEI) in kidney transplantation recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs.A search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The search was performed in May 2016. We included comparative studies on AEI for kidney transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs. The primary outcome was medication adherence. All identified articles were screened according to the predefined inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Study selection and risk of bias assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. Data were extracted in standardized tables. Data extraction was verified by a second reviewer. All discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Data were synthesized in a structured narrative way. There is no registered or published protocol for this systematic review.We identified 12 studies. The number of participants ranged from 24 to 1830. Nine studies included adults, two children, and one adults and children. Risk of bias was high. The main reasons for high risk of bias were inadequate allocation sequence (confounding) and that studies were not blinded. Eleven studies evaluated AEI consisting of educational and/or behavioral components. All these studies showed an effect direction in favor of the intervention. Intervention effect was only moderate. Most adherence measures in studies on educational and behavioral interventions showed statistically significant differences. Studies that combined educational and behavioral intervention components showed larger effects. All studies that were statistically significant were multimodal. Studies that included an individualized component and more intensive interventions showed larger effects. One study evaluated a reminder system. Effect size was not reported. This study showed no statistical significant difference (p >?0.05).Educational and behavioral AEI can increase adherence. In particular, multimodal and individualized interventions seem promising. However, because of the small effect, the high risk of bias, and the invalidity of adherence measures, the actual benefit of adherence interventions for an unselected patient population (i.e., including also adherent patients) seems limited. No conclusion is possible for interventions combining adherence-enhancing components that address intentional (behavioral) as well as unintentional adherence (reminder).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim of our study. METHODS: The study is a review of 38 systematic reviews of the effectiveness of adherence interventions published between 1990 and 2005. Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline, Psychinfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The scope of the study is patient adherence to medical treatment in the cure and care sector. RESULTS: Significant differences in the effectiveness of adherence interventions were found in 23 of the 38 systematic reviews. Effective interventions were found in each of four theoretical approaches to adherence interventions: technical, behavioural, educational and multi-faceted or complex interventions. Technical solutions, such as a simplification of the regimen, were often found to be effective, although that does not count for every therapeutic regimen.Overall, our results show that, firstly, there are effective adherence interventions without an explicit theoretical explanation of the operating mechanisms, for example technical solutions. Secondly, there are effective adherence interventions, which clearly stem from the behavioural theories, for example incentives and reminders. Thirdly, there are other theoretical models that seem plausible for explaining non-adherence, but not very effective in improving adherence behaviour. Fourthly, effective components within promising theories could not be identified because of the complexity of many adherence interventions and the lack of studies that explicitly compare theoretical components. CONCLUSION: There is a scarcity of comparative studies explicitly contrasting theoretical models or their components. The relative weight of these theories and the effective components in the interventions designed to improve adherence, need to be assessed in future studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-adherence negatively affects the efficacy, safety and costs of therapies. Non-adherence is a multifactorial problem. This systematic review (SR) of SRs (overview) aims to identify factors that can influence the adherence of adult patients with chronic physical diseases. METHODS:We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE and Embase on June 13, 2018. We included SRs on the factors that can influence adherence in adult patients taking oral medications for treating physical chronic diseases. Two reviewers independently selected studies according to pre-defined inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias with the ROBIS tool. Data were extracted in standardized tables previously piloted by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. We synthesized data in tables in a structured narrative manner. RESULTS:We included 21 SRs on eight different conditions. We rated eight SRs to be at low risk of bias and 13 to be at high risk of bias. Although higher education, employment, higher financial status and marriage/partnership mostly showed a positive effect on adherence, the impact was unclear because of the high uncertainty of the underlying evidence. The evidence indicates that socioeconomic status and social support might have a positive impact on adherence and that belonging to an ethnic minority might have a negative impact on adherence. Therapy-related factors (e.g., intake regime) and disease-related factors (e.g., duration) mostly showed no impact on adherence. Analysis of gender showed inconsistent results. Age might have a concave relation to adherence, i.e., adherence is lowest in very young and very old people. Depression has a negative impact on adherence. Impacts of other mental and physical comorbidities were uncertain. Co-payments (any or higher) have a negative impact on adherence. In contrast, the impacts of medication costs and insurance status were uncertain. CONCLUSION:This overview analyses factors that might impact adherence to oral therapies in adult patients with physical chronic diseases. Our overview suggests that there is a social gradient in adherence. However, for most factors, the evidence was not conclusive due to the risk of bias, inconsistency or imprecision.
Project description:Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal's impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087-1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018-1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Treatment adherence is crucial to obtain optimal outcomes such as cure or improvement in quality of life. Older adults have numerous comorbidites as well as cognitive and sensory impairments that may affect adherence. The aim of this systematic review was to examine factors that influence adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Systematic review of the literature published between inception of the databases and February 2013. English, Dutch, French and German-language articles reporting cross-sectional or longitudinal, intervention or observational studies of cancer treatment adherence were included. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Web of Science, ASSIA, Ageline, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), SocAbstracts and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers reviewed abstracts and abstracted data using standardized forms. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011. RESULTS:Twenty-two manuscripts were identified reporting on 18 unique studies. The quality of most studies was good. Most studies focused on women with breast cancer and adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy. More than half of the studies used data from administrative or clinical databases or chart reviews. The adherence rate varied from 52% to 100%. Only one qualitative study asked older adults about reasons for non-adherence. Factors associated with non-adherence varied widely across studies. CONCLUSION:Non-adherence was common across studies but little is known about the factors influencing non-adherence. More research is needed to investigate why older adults choose to adhere or not adhere to their treatment regimens taking into account their multimorbidity.