Electron transfer and reaction mechanism of laccases.
ABSTRACT: Laccases are part of the family of multicopper oxidases (MCOs), which couple the oxidation of substrates to the four electron reduction of O2 to H2O. MCOs contain a minimum of four Cu's divided into Type 1 (T1), Type 2 (T2), and binuclear Type 3 (T3) Cu sites that are distinguished based on unique spectroscopic features. Substrate oxidation occurs near the T1, and electrons are transferred approximately 13 Å through the protein via the Cys-His pathway to the T2/T3 trinuclear copper cluster (TNC), where dioxygen reduction occurs. This review outlines the electron transfer (ET) process in laccases, and the mechanism of O2 reduction as elucidated through spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational data. Marcus theory is used to describe the relevant factors which impact ET rates including the driving force, reorganization energy, and electronic coupling matrix element. Then, the mechanism of O2 reaction is detailed with particular focus on the intermediates formed during the two 2e(-) reduction steps. The first 2e(-) step forms the peroxide intermediate, followed by the second 2e(-) step to form the native intermediate, which has been shown to be the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the enzyme.
Project description:Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) utilize an electron shuttling Type 1 Cu (T1) site in conjunction with a mononuclear Type 2 (T2) and a binuclear Type 3 (T3) site, arranged in a trinuclear copper cluster (TNC), to reduce O2 to H2O. Reduction of O2 occurs with limited overpotential indicating that all the coppers in the active site can be reduced via high-potential electron donors. Two forms of the resting enzyme have been observed in MCOs: the alternative resting form (AR), where only one of the three TNC Cu's is oxidized, and the resting oxidized form (RO), where all three TNC Cu's are oxidized. In contrast to the AR form, we show that in the RO form of a high-potential MCO, the binuclear T3 Cu(II) site can be reduced via the 700 mV T1 Cu. Systematic spectroscopic evaluation reveals that this proceeds by a two-electron process, where delivery of the first electron, forming a high energy, metastable half reduced T3 state, is followed by the rapid delivery of a second energetically favorable electron to fully reduce the T3 site. Alternatively, when this fully reduced binuclear T3 site is oxidized via the T1 Cu, a different thermodynamically favored half oxidized T3 form, i.e., the AR site, is generated. This behavior is evaluated by DFT calculations, which reveal that the protein backbone plays a significant role in controlling the environment of the active site coppers. This allows for the formation of the metastable, half reduced state and thus the complete reductive activation of the enzyme for catalysis.
Project description:Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) carry out the most energy efficient reduction of O2 to H2O known, i.e., with the lowest overpotential. This four-electron process requires an electron mediating type 1 (T1) Cu site and an oxygen reducing trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC), consisting of a binuclear type 3 (T3)- and a mononuclear type 2 (T2) Cu center. The rate-determining step in O2 reduction is the first two-electron transfer from one of the T3 Cu's (T3?) and the T2 Cu, forming a bridged peroxide intermediate (PI). This reaction has been investigated in T3? Cu variants of the Fet3p, where a first shell His ligand is mutated to Glu or Gln. This converts the fast two-electron reaction of the wild-type (WT) enzyme to a slow one-electron oxidation of the TNC. Both variants initially react to form a common T3? Cu(II) intermediate that converts to the Glu or Gln bound resting state. From spectroscopic evaluation, the nonmutated His ligands coordinate linearly to the T3? Cu in the reduced TNCs in the two variants, in contrast to the trigonal arrangement observed in the WT enzyme. This structural perturbation is found to significantly alter the electronic structure of the reduced TNC, which is no longer capable of rapidly transferring two electrons to the two perpendicular half occupied ?*-orbitals of O2, in contrast to the WT enzyme. This study provides new insight into the geometric and electronic structure requirements of a fully functional TNC for the rate determining two-electron reduction of O2 in the MCOs.
Project description:The multicopper oxidase Fet3p catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water, coupled to the one-electron oxidation of four equivalents of substrate. To carry out this process, the enzyme utilizes four Cu atoms: a type 1, a type 2, and a coupled binuclear, type 3 site. Substrates are oxidized at the T1 Cu, which rapidly transfers electrons, 13 A away, to a trinuclear copper cluster composed of the T2 and T3 sites, where dioxygen is reduced to water in two sequential 2e(-) steps. This study focuses on two variants of Fet3p, H126Q and H483Q, that perturb the two T3 Cu's, T3alpha and T3beta, respectively. The variants have been isolated in both holo and type 1 depleted (T1D) forms, T1DT3alphaQ and T1DT3betaQ, and their trinuclear copper clusters have been characterized in their oxidized and reduced states. While the variants are only mildly perturbed relative to T1D in the resting oxidized state, in contrast to T1D they are both found to have lost a ligand in their reduced states. Importantly, T1DT3alphaQ reacts with O(2), but T1DT3betaQ does not. Thus loss of a ligand at T3beta, but not at T3alpha, turns off O(2) reactivity, indicating that T3beta and T2 are required for the 2e(-) reduction of O(2) to form the peroxide intermediate (PI), whereas T3alpha remains reduced. This is supported by the spectroscopic features of PI in T1DT3alphaQ, which are identical to T1D PI. This selective redox activity of one edge of the trinuclear cluster demonstrates its asymmetry in O(2) reactivity. The structural origin of this asymmetry between the T3alpha and T3beta is discussed, as is its contribution to reactivity.
Project description:The multicopper oxidases (MCOs) utilize a blue type 1 (T1) copper site and a trinuclear Cu cluster composed of a type 2 (T2) and a binuclear type 3 (T3) site that together catalyze the four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Reaction of the fully reduced enzyme with O2 proceeds via two sequential two-electron steps generating the peroxy intermediate (PI) and the native intermediate (NI). While a detailed description of the geometric and electronic structure of NI has been developed, this has been more elusive for PI largely due to the diamagnetic nature of its ground state. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to correlate to spectroscopic data to generate a description of the geometric and electronic structure of PI. A highly conserved carboxylate residue near the T2 site is found to play a critical role in stabilizing the PI structure, which induces oxidation of the T2 and one T3 Cu center and strong superexchange stabilization via the peroxide bridge, allowing irreversible binding of O2 at the trinuclear Cu site. Correlation of PI to NI is achieved using a two-dimensional potential energy surface generated to describe the catalytic two-electron reduction of the peroxide O-O bond by the MCOs. It is found that the reaction is thermodynamically driven by the relative stability of NI and the involvement of the simultaneous two-electron-transfer process. A low activation barrier (calculated approximately 5-6 kcal/mol and experimental approximately 3-5 kcal/mol) is produced by the triangular topology of the trinuclear Cu cluster site, as this symmetry provides good donor-acceptor frontier molecular orbital (FMO) overlap. Finally, the O-O bond cleavage in the trinuclear Cu cluster can be achieved via either a proton-assisted or a proton-unassisted process, allowing the MCOs to function over a wide range of pH. It is found that while the proton helps to stabilize the acceptor O22- sigma* orbital in the proton-assisted process for better donor-acceptor FMO overlap, the third oxidized Cu center in the trinuclear site assumes the role as a Lewis acid in the proton-unassisted process for similarly efficient O-O bond cleavage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1) site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2), and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3) which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. RESULTS:The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 A. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B). The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, micro-eta 1:eta 1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (micro3-oxo bridge) together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. CONCLUSION:This is the first structure of a multicopper oxidase which allowed the detection of two intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction and splitting. The observed features allow to positively substantiate an accurate mechanism of dioxygen reduction catalyzed by multicopper oxidases providing general insights into the reductive cleavage of the O-O bonds, a leading problem in many areas of biology.
Project description:High potential multicopper oxidases (MCOs) have T1 reduction potentials >600 mV (vs normal hydrogen electrode), making them important catalysts for O2 reduction in various biotechnological applications. The oxygen reduction mechanism for the low potential MCOs is well-characterized; however, O2 reactivity of high potential MCOs is not well understood. In this study, we have shown that laccase from Trametes versicolor, where the T1 redox potential is increased by ?350 mV over that of the low potential MCOs corresponding to an 8 kcal/mol decrease in the driving force, exhibits a slower intramolecular electron transfer (IET) rate to the trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC) in the native intermediate (NI), relative to the low potential MCO from Rhus vernicifera laccase. This IET rate is, however, >102 times faster than the decay rate of the NI, demonstrating that this intermediate form of the enzyme is catalytically relevant enabling fast turnover. However, in contrast to the low potential MCOs where T1 reduction by substrate is rate limiting, the rate limiting step in turnover of high potential MCOs is the first IET to NI. Part of the reduction potential difference of the T1 sites in high vs low potential MCOs is balanced by an ?100 mV higher reduction potential of NI due to the more positive protein environment in the vicinity of the TNC.
Project description:The multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are the family of enzymes that catalyze the 4-electron reduction of O2 to H2O coupled to the four 1-electron oxidations of substrate. In the catalytic cycle electrons are transferred intramolecularly over ?13 Å from a Type 1 (T1) Cu site that accepts electrons from substrate to a trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC) where O2 is reduced to H2O at rapid rates consistent with turnover (560 s(-1)). The oxygen reduction mechanism for the MCOs is well-characterized, whereas the rereduction is less understood. Our initial study of Rhus vernicifera Laccase (Heppner et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 12212) experimentally established that the native intermediate (NI), the species formed upon O-O bond cleavage, is reduced with an IET rate >700 s(-1) and is the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the enzyme, rather than the resting state. In this report, we present kinetic and spectroscopic results coupled to DFT calculations that evaluate the mechanism of the 3 e(-)/3 H(+) reduction of NI, where all three catalytically relevant intramolecular electron transfer (IET) steps are rapid and involve three different structural changes. These three rapid IET processes reflect the sophisticated mechanistic control of the TNC to enable rapid turnover. All three IET processes are fast due to the associated protonation of the bridging oxo and hydroxo ligands, generated by O-O cleavage, to form water products that are extruded from the TNC upon full reduction, thereby defining a unifying mechanism for oxygen reduction and rapid IET by the TNC in the catalytic cycle of the MCOs.
Project description:In nature the four electron reduction of O2 to H2O is carried out by Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) and the multicopper oxidases (MCOs). In the former, Cytochrome c provides electrons for pumping protons to produce a gradient for ATP synthesis, while in the MCOs the function is the oxidation of substrates, either organic or metal ions. In the MCOs the reduction of O2 is carried out at a trinuclear Cu cluster (TNC). Oxygen intermediates have been trapped which exhibit unique spectroscopic features that reflect novel geometric and electronic structures. These intermediates have both intact and cleaved O-O bonds, allowing the reductive cleavage of the O-O bond to be studied in detail both experimentally and computationally. These studies show that the topology of the TNC provides a unique geometric and electronic structure particularly suited to carry out this key reaction in nature.
Project description:Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7?Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E0 = 720 and 580?mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.
Project description:Laccases (EC 18.104.22.168) are multicopper oxidoreductases acting on diphenols and related substances. Laccases are highly important for biotechnology and environmental remediation. These enzymes contain mononuclear one T2 copper ion and two T3 copper ions (Cu3? and Cu3?), which form the so-called trinuclear center (TNC). Along with the typical three-domain laccases Bacteria produce two-domain (2D) enzymes, which are active at neutral and basic pH, thermostable, and resistant to inhibitors. In this work we present the comparative analysis of crystal structures and catalytic properties of recombinant 2D laccase from Streptomyces griseoflavus Ac-993 (SgfSL) and its four mutant forms with replacements of two amino acid residues, located at the narrowing of the presumable T3-solvent tunnels. We obtained inactive enzymes with substitutions of His165, with Phe, and Ile170 with Ala or Phe. His165Ala variant was more active than the wild type. We suggest that His165 is a "gateway" at the O2-tunnel leading from solvent to the Cu3? of the enzyme. The side chain of Ile170 could be indirectly involved in the coordination of copper ions at the T3 center by maintaining the position of the imidazole ring of His157 that belongs to the first coordination sphere of Cu3?.