Distinct Transcriptomic Features are Associated with Transitional and Mature B-Cell Populations in the Mouse Spleen.
ABSTRACT: Splenic transitional B-cells (T1 and T2) are selected to avoid self-reactivity and to safeguard against autoimmunity, then differentiate into mature follicular (FO-I and FO-II) and marginal zone (MZ) subsets. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq of the five B-cell subsets revealed T1 cell signature genes included RAG suggesting a potential for receptor revision. T1 to T2 B-cell differentiation was marked by a switch from Myb to Myc, increased expression of the PI3K adapter DAP10 and MHC class II. FO-II may be an intermediate in FO-I differentiation and may also become MZ B-cells as suggested by principle component analysis. MZ B-cells possessed the most distinct transcriptome including down-regulation of CD45 phosphatase-associated protein (CD45-AP/PTPRC-AP), as well as upregulation of IL-9R and innate molecules TLR3, TLR7, and bactericidal Perforin-2 (MPEG1). Among the endosomal TLRs, stimulation via TLR3 further enhanced Perforin-2 expression exclusively in MZ B-cells. Using gene-deleted and overexpressing transgenic mice we show that IL-9/IL-9R interaction resulted in rapid activation of STAT1, 3, and 5, primarily in MZ B-cells. Importantly, CD45-AP mutant mice had reduced transitional and increased mature MZ and FO B-cells, suggesting that it prevents premature entry of transitional B-cells to the mature B-cell pool or their survival and proliferation. Together, these findings suggest, developmental plasticity among splenic B-cell subsets, potential for receptor revision in peripheral tolerance whereas enhanced metabolism coincides with T2 to mature B-cell differentiation. Further, unique core transcriptional signatures in MZ B-cells may control their innate features.
Project description:Splenocytes were FACS-sorted from Wild-type and Mir146a-/- mice to isolate specific B-cell developmental stages. Utilizing high-throughput sequencing, we comparatively analyzed developmental stage-specific splenic B cell transcriptomes, including Transitional-1 (T1), Transitional-2 (T2), Marginal zone (MZ) and Follicular (FO) in both Wild-type and Mir146a-/- B cells. Two replicates of each developmental stage were submitted for high-throughput sequencing. Overall design: Transcriptomic profiles of primary B cell developmental subsets (T1, T2 MZ, FO) from Wild-type and Mir146a-/- mice in duplicate.
Project description:We have characterized a distinct, late transitional B cell subset, CD21(int) transitional 2 (T2) B cells. In contrast to early transitional B cells, CD21(int) T2 B cells exhibit augmented responses to a range of potential microenvironmental stimuli. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that this subset is an immediate precursor of both follicular mature and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. In vivo, a large percentage of CD21(int) T2 B cells has entered the cell cycle, and the cycling subpopulation exhibits further augmentation in mitogenic responses and B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) receptor expression. Consistent with these features, CD21(int) T2 cells exhibit preferential responses to BAFF-facilitated homeostatic signals in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that M167 B cell receptor (BCR) idiotypic-specific B cells are first selected within the cycling CD21(int) T2 population, ultimately leading to preferential enrichment of these cells within the MZ B cell compartment. These data, in association with the coordinate role for BAFF and microenvironmental cues in determining the mature BCR repertoire, imply that this subset functions as a unique selection point in peripheral B cell development.
Project description:Identifying cross-species similarities and differences in immune development and function is critical for maximizing the translational potential of animal models. Coexpression of CD21 and CD24 distinguishes transitional and mature B cell subsets in mice. In this study, we validate these markers for identifying analogous subsets in humans and use them to compare the nonmemory B cell pools in mice and humans, across tissues, and during fetal/neonatal and adult life. Among human CD19(+)IgM(+) B cells, the CD21/CD24 schema identifies distinct populations that correspond to transitional 1 (T1), transitional 2 (T2), follicular mature, and marginal zone subsets identified in mice. Markers specific to human B cell development validate the identity of marginal zone cells and the maturation status of human CD21/CD24 nonmemory B cell subsets. A comparison of the nonmemory B cell pools in bone marrow, blood, and spleen in mice and humans shows that transitional B cells comprise a much smaller fraction in adult humans than mice. T1 cells are a major contributor to the nonmemory B cell pool in mouse bone marrow, in which their frequency is more than twice that in humans. Conversely, in spleen, the T1:T2 ratio shows that T2 cells are proportionally ? 8-fold higher in humans than in mice. Despite the relatively small contribution of transitional B cells to the human nonmemory pool, the number of naive follicular mature cells produced per transitional B cell is 3- to 6-fold higher across tissues than in mice. These data suggest differing dynamics or mechanisms produce the nonmemory B cell compartments in mice and humans.
Project description:The capacity of immature B cells of the spleen and bone marrow to differentiate in vitro into cells representing mature end stage cells was investigated using B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and Notch pathway activators. Immature splenic and bone marrow B cells were found, in the presence of both of these activators, to mature into cells with follicular mature (FM) and marginal zone (MZ) cell phenotypes. Such cells were functionally responsive to B-cell-specific activation. The derivation in vitro of cells with an MZ phenotype was more robust from CD23(-) populations than CD23(+) immature/transitional B cells, suggesting a direct immature/T1 B cell to MZ cell differentiation pathway. Transcript analysis of the in vitro-derived B-cell populations demonstrated expression profiles similar to maturing B cells in vivo. FACS-purified populations of B220(+)CD19(+)CD21(-)CD23(-) cells from bone marrow of 2-wk-old mice gave rise to populations of CD21(+)CD23(-) cells with MZ cell phenotypes as well as CD21(+)CD23(+) cells with FM cell phenotypes in percentages similar to those found in vivo. These data suggest that the commitment to an MZ and FM B cell phenotype is set prior to immature B-cell release from the marrow.
Project description:Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in promoting the generation of marginal zone (MZ) B cells at the expense of follicular (FO) B cells during periphery B cell maturation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesize that Notch favors the generation of MZ B cells by downregulating E protein activity. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of Id2 and ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 was elevated in MZ B cells and by Notch signaling. Id2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of E proteins, whereas ankyrin-repeat SOCS box-containing protein 2 facilitates E protein ubiquitination. Next, we examined the phenotypes of splenic B cells in mice expressing constitutively active Notch1 and/or two gain-of-function mutants of E proteins that counteract Id2-mediated inhibition or Notch-induced degradation. We found that upregulation of E proteins promoted the formation of FO B cells, whereas it suppressed the maturation of MZ B cells. In contrast, excessive amounts of Notch1 stimulated the differentiation of MZ B cells and inhibited the production of FO B cells. More interestingly, the effects of Notch1 were reversed by gain of E protein function. Furthermore, high levels of Bcl-6 expression in FO B cells was shown to be diminished by Notch signaling and restored by E proteins. In addition, E proteins facilitated and Notch hindered the differentiation of transitional B cells. Taken together, it appears that Notch regulates peripheral B cell differentiation, at least in part, through opposing E protein function.
Project description:Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is required for the development of B cells in the bone marrow (BM), however very little is known about the contribution of Gal-1 to the development of B cell regulatory function. Here, we report an important role for Gal-1 in the induction of B cells regulatory function. Mice deficient of Gal-1 (Gal-1-/-) showed significant loss of Transitional-2 (T2) B cells, previously reported to include IL-10+ regulatory B cells. Gal-1-/- B cells stimulated in vitro via CD40 molecules have impaired IL-10 and Tim-1 expression, the latter reported to be required for IL-10 production in regulatory B cells, and increased TNF-? expression compared to wild type (WT) B cells. Unlike their WT counterparts, T2 and T1 Gal-1-/- B cells did not suppress TNF-? expression by CD4+ T cells activated in vitro with allogenic DCs (allo-DCs), nor were they suppressive in vivo, being unable to delay MHC-class I mismatched skin allograft rejection following adoptive transfer. Moreover, T cells stimulated with allo-DCs show an increase in their survival when co-cultured with Gal-1-/- T2 and MZ B cells compared to WT T2 and MZ B cells. Collectively, these data suggest that Gal-1 contributes to the induction of B cells regulatory function.
Project description:The kinase TAK1 is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and T-cell development. However, the role of TAK1 in B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated NF-kappaB activation and B-cell development is not clear. Here we show that B-cell-specific deletion of TAK1 impaired the transition from transitional type 2 to mature follicular (FO) B cells and caused a marked decrease of marginal zone (MZ) B cells. TAK1-deficient B cells exhibited an increase of BCR-induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation in response to BCR ligation. Importantly, TAK1-deficient B cells failed to activate NF-kappaB after BCR stimulation. Thus, TAK1 is critical for B-cell maturation and BCR-induced NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:B lymphopoiesis in bone marrow (BM) is critical for maintaining a diverse peripheral B cell pool to fight infection and establish lifelong immunity. The generation of immature B cells is reduced in Flt3-ligand (FL-/-) mice leading to deficiencies in splenic B cells. Here, we sought to understand the cellular basis of the spleen B cell deficiency in FL-/- mice. Significant reductions in transitional (TS) and follicular (FO) B cells were found in FL-/- mice, and increased frequencies, but not absolute numbers, of marginal zone (MZ) B cells. BAFF-R expression on splenic B cells and serum levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) was comparable to wildtype (WT) mice. Mixed BM chimeras revealed that the reductions in TS and FO B cells were cell extrinsic. FL administration into FL-/- mice restored the deficiency in TS B cells and normalized the MZ compartment. Ki67 analysis revealed a significant decrease in the proliferative capacity of TS B cells in FL-/- mice. A Bcl2 transgene did not rescue TS cells in FL-/- mice, uncoupling FL-deficiency to Bcl2-dependent survival pathways. Upregulation of CD1d expression and adoptive transfer experiments suggested MZ skewing in FL-/- mice. These findings support an integral role for Flt3 signaling in peripheral B cell maturation.
Project description:The peripheral B cell compartment in mice and humans is maintained by continuous production of transitional B cells in the bone marrow. In other species, however, including rabbits, B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow abates early in life, and it is unclear how the peripheral B cell compartment is maintained. We identified transitional B cells in rabbits and classified them into T1 (CD24(high)CD21(low)) and T2 (CD24(high)CD21(+)) B cell subsets. By neutralizing B cell-activating factor in vivo, we found an arrest in peripheral B cell development at the T1 B cell stage. Surprisingly, T1 B cells were present in GALT, blood, and spleen of adult rabbits, long after B lymphopoiesis was arrested. T1 B cells were distinct from their counterparts in other species because they are proliferating and the Ig genes are somatically diversified. We designate these newly described cells as T1d B cells and propose a model in which they develop in GALT, self renew, continuously differentiate into mature B cells, and thereby maintain peripheral B cell homeostasis in adults in the absence of B lymphopoiesis.
Project description:Immature B cells in spleens of mouse and human differentiate into at least two subsets of mature B cells, the follicular (FO) B cells and the marginal zone (MZ) B cells, but functions, maturation and other properties of these cells are largely unknown. To solve these questions, in this study, we performed transcriptome analyses of FO and MZ B cells sorted from spleens of normal unimmunized mice using gene chips. By comparison of gene expression profiles between FO and MZ B cells, we identified 1226 genes that are expressed higher in FO B cells than in MZ B cells. On the other hand, 1734 genes were found to be expressed higher in MZ B cells than in FO B cells. We noticed that some of differentially expressed genes have been reportedly characterized in FO and MZ B cells, suggesting the reliability of the analysis. By using FACS analyses, we confirmed that CD36, CD68, and CD49e are expressed on MZ B-cells but not on FO B-cells. These results revealed new phenotypic and functional properties of FO and MZ B cells, and set a molecular basis for further studying differentiation and functions of these mature B cells. Experiment Overall Design: one follicular B cells replicate and one marginal zone B cells replicate were analyzed.