Evaluation and costs of volunteer telephone cessation follow-up counseling for Veteran smokers discharged from inpatient units: a quasi-experimental, mixed methods study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to evaluate the volunteer telephone smoking cessation counseling follow-up program implemented as part of the inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention in a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. METHODS:This was a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design that collected data through electronic medical records (EMR), observations of telephone smoking cessation counseling calls, interviews with staff and Veterans involved in the program, and intervention costs. RESULTS:Reach: Of the 131 Veterans referred to the smoking cessation telephone follow-up program, 19% were reached 0-1 times, while 81% were reached 2-4 times. Effectiveness: Seven-day point-prevalence 60-day quit rates (abstracted from the EMR) for those who were reached 2-4 times were 26%, compared to 8% among those who were reached 0-1 times (p?=?0.06). Sixty-day 24-hour point-prevalence quit rates were 33% for those reached 2-4 times, compared to 4% of those reached 0-1 times (p?
Project description:Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable illness and mortality in the United States. Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have smoking rates higher than that of others and fewer individuals with PTSD have quit smoking. This randomized controlled trial was designed to test the effectiveness of integrating telehealth care management and smoking cessation with motivational interviewing for Veterans with PTSD.All smokers with PTSD, regardless of their desire to quit, were invited to participate. Enrollment occurred between November 2009 and April 2013. Target enrollment was 120 participants. Enrolled participants were randomized to either the control group, receiving usual care including a telehealth PTSD program, with a device that delivered PTSD information and in-home care management, or the intervention group, which included (1) a telehealth PTSD program, (2) motivational interviewing-based smoking cessation curricula via the telehealth device, and (3) weekly motivational interviewing counseling phone calls. Outcomes are self-reported 24-hour quit attempts, progression along the stages of change and 7-day point prevalence quit smoking rates for the intervention group compared to usual care alone. Secondary outcomes include participants' perception of care coordination, patient satisfaction with motivational interviewing, PTSD symptoms, pain, depression and quality of life.Motivational interviewing has been shown to increase readiness for change and smoking cessation care has been shown to be more successful when incorporated into in-person mental health care. Our study builds on previous studies. It integrates a written smoking cessation curriculum and phone-based motivational interviewing counseling into an established PTSD home telehealth care coordination program. This paper describes the design and methods of our randomized control trial.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00908882, May 22, 2009.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hospitalization offers smokers an opportunity to quit smoking. Starting cessation treatment in hospital is effective, but sustaining treatment after discharge is a challenge. Automated telephone calls with interactive voice response (IVR) technology could support treatment continuance after discharge. OBJECTIVE:To assess smokers' use of and satisfaction with an IVR-facilitated intervention and to test the relationship between intervention dose and smoking cessation. DESIGN:Analysis of pooled quantitative and qualitative data from the intervention groups of two similar randomized controlled trials with 6-month follow-up. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 878 smokers admitted to three hospitals. All received cessation counseling in hospital and planned to stop smoking after discharge. INTERVENTION:After discharge, participants received free cessation medication and five automated IVR calls over 3 months. Calls delivered messages promoting smoking cessation and medication adherence, offered medication refills, and triaged smokers to additional telephone counseling. MAIN MEASURES:Number of IVR calls answered, patient satisfaction, biochemically validated tobacco abstinence 6 months after discharge. KEY RESULTS:Participants answered a median of three of five IVR calls; 70% rated the calls as helpful, citing the social support, access to counseling and medication, and reminders to quit as positive factors. Older smokers (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.54 per decade) and smokers hospitalized for a smoking-related disease (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.21-2.23) completed more calls. Smokers who completed more calls had higher quit rates at 6-month follow-up (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.30-1.70, for each additional call) after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, education, discharge diagnosis, nicotine dependence, duration of medication use, and perceived importance of and confidence in quitting. CONCLUSIONS:Automated IVR calls to support smoking cessation after hospital discharge were viewed favorably by patients. Higher IVR utilization was associated with higher odds of tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. IVR technology offers health care systems a potentially scalable means of sustaining tobacco cessation interventions after hospital discharge. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers NCT01177176, NCT01714323.
Project description:A hospital admission offers smokers an opportunity to quit. Smoking cessation counseling provided in the hospital is effective, but only if it continues for more than one month after discharge. Providing smoking cessation medication at discharge may add benefit to counseling. A major barrier to translating this research into clinical practice is sustaining treatment during the transition to outpatient care. An evidence-based, practical, cost-effective model that facilitates the continuation of tobacco treatment after discharge is needed. This paper describes the design of a comparative effectiveness trial testing a hospital-initiated intervention against standard care.A two-arm randomized controlled trial compares the effectiveness of standard post-discharge care with a multi-component smoking cessation intervention provided for three months after discharge. Current smokers admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital who receive bedside smoking cessation counseling, intend to quit after discharge and are willing to consider smoking cessation medication are eligible. Study participants are recruited following the hospital counseling visit and randomly assigned to receive Standard Care or Extended Care after hospital discharge. Standard Care includes a recommendation for a smoking cessation medication and information about community resources. Extended Care includes up to three months of free FDA-approved smoking cessation medication and five proactive computerized telephone calls that use interactive voice response technology to provide tailored motivational messages, offer additional live telephone counseling calls from a smoking cessation counselor, and facilitate medication refills. Outcomes are assessed at one, three, and six months after hospital discharge. The primary outcomes are self-reported and validated seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at six months. Other outcomes include short-term and sustained smoking cessation, post-discharge utilization of smoking cessation treatment, hospital readmissions and emergency room visits, and program cost per quit.This study tests a disseminable smoking intervention model for hospitalized smokers. If effective and widely adopted, it could help to reduce population smoking rates and thereby reduce tobacco-related mortality, morbidity, and health care costs.United States Clinical Trials Registry NCT01177176.
Project description:Current guidelines advise providers to assess smokers' readiness to quit, then offer cessation therapies to smokers planning to quit and motivational interventions to smokers not planning to quit.We examined the relationship between baseline stage of change (SOC), treatment utilization, and smoking cessation to determine whether the effect of a proactive smoking cessation intervention was dependent on smokers' level of motivation to quit.Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial.A total of 3006 current smokers, aged 18-80 years, at four Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers.Proactive care included proactive outreach (mailed invitation followed by telephone outreach), offer of smoking cessation services (telephone or face-to-face), and access to pharmacotherapy. Usual care participants had access to VA smoking cessation services and state telephone quitlines.Baseline SOC measured with Readiness to Quit Ladder, and 6-month prolonged abstinence self-reported at 1 year.At baseline, 35.8 % of smokers were in preparation, 38.2 % in contemplation, and 26.0 % in precontemplation. The overall interaction between SOC and treatment arm was not statistically significant (p?=?0.30). Among smokers in preparation, 21.1 % of proactive care participants achieved 6-month prolonged abstinence, compared to 13.1 % of usual care participants (OR, 1.8 [95 % CI, 1.2-2.6]). Similarly, proactive care increased abstinence among smokers in contemplation (11.0 % vs. 6.5 %; OR, 1.8 [95 % CI, 1.1-2.8]). Smokers in precontemplation quit smoking at similar rates (5.3 % vs. 5.6 %; OR, 0.9 [95 % CI, 0.5-1.9]). Within each stage, uptake of smoking cessation treatments increased with higher SOC and with proactive care as compared with usual care.Mostly male participants limits generalizability. Randomization was not stratified by SOC.Proactive care increased treatment uptake compared to usual care across all SOC. Proactive care increased smoking cessation among smokers in preparation and contemplation but not in precontemplation. Proactively offering cessation therapies to smokers at all SOC will increase treatment utilization and population-level smoking cessation.
Project description:AIMS:To estimate the cost-effectiveness at population-level of the OPT-IN proactive tobacco cessation outreach program for adult smokers enrolled in publicly funded health insurance plans for low-income persons (e.g. Medicaid). DESIGN:Cost-effectiveness analysis using a state transition model based on data from the Offering Proactive Treatment Intervention (OPT-IN) randomized control trial. SETTING:The trial was conducted in Minnesota, USA, and the economic analysis was conducted from the Medicaid program perspective. PARTICIPANTS:Data were used from 2406 smokers who were randomized into the intervention or comparator groups. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR:The intervention was comprised of proactive outreach (mailed invitation and telephone calls) and free cessation treatment (nicotine replacement therapy and intensive telephone counseling). The comparator was usual care, which comprised access to a primary care physician, insurance coverage of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved smoking cessation medications and the state's telephone quitline. MEASUREMENTS:Smoking status, quality of life and health-care use at varying times, including at baseline and 1 year. FINDINGS:The OPT-IN program cost an average of $84 per participant greater than the comparator. One year after randomization, the population-level, 6-month prolonged smoking abstinence rate was 16.5% in the proactive outreach intervention group and 12.1% in the usual care group (P < 0.05). The model projected that the proactive outreach intervention added $78 in life-time cost and generated 0.005 additional quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with an expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $4231 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that the proactive outreach intervention would be cost-effective against a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50?000/QALY approximately 68% of the time. CONCLUSIONS:Population-level proactive tobacco treatment with personal telephone outreach was effective in achieving higher population-level quit rates and was cost-effective at various willingness-to-pay thresholds, compared with usual care (i.e. reactive treatment). Taken together with prior research, population-level proactive tobacco cessation outreach programs are judged to be highly cost-effective over the long term.
Project description:Telephone quit lines are accessible to many smokers and are used to engage motivated smokers to make quit attempts. Smoking cessation counselling provided via telephone can either be reactive (i.e. primarily involving the provision of evidence-based information), or proactive (i.e. primarily involving repeated, sequenced calls from and interaction with trained cessation counsellors). Some studies have found proactive telephone counselling more effective and this trial will investigate whether or not proactive telephone support for smoking cessation, delivered through the National Health Service (NHS) Smoking Helpline is more effective or cost-effective than reactive support. It will also investigate whether or not providing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), in addition to telephone counselling, has an adjunctive impact on smoking cessation rates and whether or not this is cost effective.This will be a parallel group, factorial design RCT, conducted through the English national NHS Smoking Helpline which is run from headquarters in Glasgow. Participants will be smokers who call the helpline from any location in England and who wish to stop smoking. If 644 participants are recruited to four equally-sized trial groups (total sample size = 2576), the trial will have 90% power for detecting a treatment effect (Odds Ratio) of 1.5 for each of the two interventions: i) proactive versus reactive support and ii) the offer of NRT versus no offer. The primary outcome measure for the study is self-reported, prolonged abstinence from smoking for at least six months following an agreed quit date. A concurrent health economic evaluation will investigate the cost effectiveness of the two interventions when delivered via a telephone helpline.The PORTSSS trial will provide high quality evidence to determine the most appropriate kind of counselling which should be provided via the NHS Smoking Helpline and also whether or not an additional offer of cost-free NRT is effective and cost effective for smoking cessation.
Project description:Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators.An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study.Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS). A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio?=?1.8, p?=?0.02), especially among African Americans (p?=?0.04), and recent quit attempts (OR?=?1.6, p?=?0.03) as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit more than 30 days, none quit.Nondirective coaching improved cessation rates for selected smoking employees, but less expensive directive coaching helped most smokers equally well, regardless of enrollment incentives and delays in receiving coaching. Some subgroups had very low cessation rates with either mode of quitline support.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02730260 , Registered March 31, 2016.
Project description:Incorporating effective smoking cessation interventions into lung cancer screening (LCS) programs will be essential to realizing the full benefit of screening. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a telephone-counseling (TC) smoking cessation intervention vs. usual care (UC) in the LCS setting. In collaboration with 3 geographically diverse LCS programs, we enrolled current smokers (61.5% participation rate) who were: registered to undergo LCS, 50-77 years old, and had a 20+ pack-year smoking history. Eligibility was not based on readiness to quit. Participants completed pre-LCS (T0) and post-LCS (T1) telephone assessments, were randomized to TC (N=46) vs. UC (N=46), and completed a final 3-month telephone assessment (T2). Both study arms received a list of evidence-based cessation resources. TC participants also received up to 6 brief counseling calls with a trained cessation counselor. Counseling calls incorporated motivational interviewing and utilized the screening result as a motivator for quitting. The outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at 3-months post-randomization. Participants (56.5% female) were 60.2 (SD=5.4) years old and reported 47.1 (SD=22.2) pack years; 30% were ready to stop smoking in the next 30 days. TC participants completed an average of 4.4 (SD=2.3) sessions. Using intent-to-treat analyses, biochemically verified quit rates were 17.4% (TC) vs. 4.3% (UC), p<.05. This study provides preliminary evidence that telephone-based cessation counseling is feasible and efficacious in the LCS setting. As millions of current smokers are now eligible for lung cancer screening, this setting represents an important opportunity to exert a large public health impact on cessation among smokers who are at very high risk for multiple tobacco-related diseases. If this evidence-based, brief, and scalable intervention is replicated, TC could help to improve the overall cost-effectiveness of LCS.NCT02267096, https://clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:Health care systems need effective models to manage chronic diseases like tobacco dependence across transitions in care. Hospitalizations provide opportunities for smokers to quit, but research suggests that hospital-delivered interventions are effective only if treatment continues after discharge.To determine whether an intervention to sustain tobacco treatment after hospital discharge increases smoking cessation rates compared with standard care.A randomized clinical trial compared sustained care (a postdischarge tobacco cessation intervention) with standard care among 397 hospitalized daily smokers (mean age, 53 years; 48% were males; 81% were non-Hispanic whites) who wanted to quit smoking after discharge and received a tobacco dependence intervention in the hospital; 92% of eligible patients and 44% of screened patients enrolled. The study was conducted from August 2010 through November 2012 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Sustained care participants received automated interactive voice response telephone calls and their choice of free smoking cessation medication (any type approved by the US Food and Drug Administration) for up to 90 days. The automated telephone calls promoted cessation, provided medication management, and triaged smokers for additional counseling. Standard care participants received recommendations for postdischarge pharmacotherapy and counseling.The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed past 7-day tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up after discharge from the hospital; secondary outcomes included self-reported tobacco abstinence.Smokers randomly assigned to sustained care (n = 198) used more counseling and more pharmacotherapy at each follow-up assessment than those assigned to standard care (n = 199). Biochemically validated 7-day tobacco abstinence at 6 months was higher with sustained care (26%) than with standard care (15%) (relative risk [RR], 1.71 [95% CI, 1.14-2.56], P =?.009; number needed to treat, 9.4 [95% CI, 5.4-35.5]). Using multiple imputation for missing outcomes, the RR for 7-day tobacco abstinence was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.03-2.21; P =?.04). Sustained care also resulted in higher self-reported continuous abstinence rates for 6 months after discharge (27% vs 16% for standard care; RR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.15-2.51]; P =?.007).Among hospitalized adult smokers who wanted to quit smoking, a postdischarge intervention providing automated telephone calls and free medication resulted in higher rates of smoking cessation at 6 months compared with a standard recommendation to use counseling and medication after discharge. These findings, if replicated, suggest an approach to help achieve sustained smoking cessation after a hospital stay.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177176.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the design, implementation, baseline data, and feasibility of establishing a disease management program for smoking cessation in rural primary care.<h4>Method</h4>The study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating a disease management program for smoking cessation. The intervention combined pharmacotherapy, telephone counseling, and physician feedback, and repeated intervention over two years. The program began in 2004 and was implemented in 50 primary care clinics across the State of Kansas.<h4>Results</h4>Of eligible patients, 73% were interested in study participation. 750 enrolled participants were predominantly Caucasian, female, employed, and averaged 47.2 years of age (SD=13.1). In addition to smoking, 427 (57%) had at least one additional major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease or stroke). Participants smoked on average 23.7 (SD=10.4) cigarettes per day, were contemplating (61%) or preparing to quit (30%), were highly motivated and confident of their ability to quit smoking, and reported seeing their physicians multiple times in the past twelve months (Median=3.50; Mean=5.48; SD=6.58).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Initial findings demonstrate the willingness of patients to enroll in a two-year disease management program to address nicotine dependence, even among patients not ready to make a quit attempt. These findings support the feasibility of identifying and enrolling rural smokers within the primary care setting.