Key proteins of activating cell death can be predicted through a kainic acid-induced excitotoxic stress.
ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a major neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous seizures accompanied by neurophysiological changes. Repeated seizures can damage the brain as neuronal death occurs. A better understanding of the mechanisms of brain cell death could facilitate the discovery of novel treatments for neurological disorders such as epilepsy. In this study, a model of kainic acid- (KA-) induced neuronal death was established to investigate the early protein markers associated with apoptotic cell death due to excitotoxic damage in the rat cortex. The results indicated that KA induces both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the cortex. Incubation with high concentrations (5 and 500 ?M, >75%) and low concentrations (0.5 pM: 95% and 50 nM: 8%) of KA for 180 min led to necrotic and apoptotic cell death, respectively. Moreover, proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated that antiapoptotic proteins, including heat shock protein 70, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, tubulin-B-5, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, were significantly higher in apoptosis than in necrosis induced by KA. Our findings provide direct evidence that several proteins are associated with apoptotic and necrotic cell death in excitotoxicity model. The results indicate that these proteins can be apoptotic biomarkers from the early stages of cell death.
Project description:BDNF-TrkB signaling is implicated in experimental seizures and epilepsy. However, the downstream signaling involved in the epileptiform activity caused by TrkB receptor activation is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TrkB-mediated N-Shc signal transduction was involved in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptiform activity. We investigated KA-induced behavioral seizures, epileptiform activities and neuronal cell loss in hippocampus between N-Shc deficient and control mice. There was a significant reduction in seizure severity and the frequency of epileptiform discharges in N-Shc deficient mice, as compared with wild-type and C57BL/6 mice. KA-induced neuronal cell loss in the CA3 of hippocampus was also inhibited in N-Shc deficient mice. This study demonstrates that the activation of N-Shc signaling pathway contributes to an acute KA-induced epileptiform activity and neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. We propose that the N-Shc-mediated signaling pathway could provide a potential target for the novel therapeutic approaches of epilepsy.
Project description:Epilepsy is one of the most devastating neurological diseases and despite significant efforts there is no cure available. Occurrence of spontaneous seizures in epilepsy is preceded by numerous functional and structural pathophysiological reorganizations in the brain-a process called epileptogenesis. Treatment strategies targeting this process may be efficient for preventing spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in epilepsy, or for modification of disease progression. We have previously shown that (i) myoinositol (MI) pretreatment significantly decreases severity of acute seizures (status epilepticus: SE) induced by kainic acid (KA) in experimental animals and (ii) that daily post-SE administration of MI for 4 weeks prevents certain biochemical changes triggered by SE. However it was not established whether such MI treatment also exerts long-term effects on the frequency of SRS. In the present study we have shown that, in KA-induced post-SE epilepsy model in rats, MI treatment for 28 days reduces frequency and duration of behavioural SRS not only during the treatment, but also after its termination for the following 4 weeks. Moreover, MI has significant effects on molecular changes in the hippocampus, including mi-RNA expression spectrum, as well as mRNA levels of sodium-MI transporter and LRRC8A subunit of the volume regulated anionic channel. Taken together, these data suggest that molecular changes induced by MI treatment may counteract epileptogenesis. Thus, here we provide data indicating antiepileptogenic properties of MI, which further supports the idea of developing new antiepileptogenic and disease modifying drug that targets MI system.
Project description:Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by recurrent seizures. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel family of endogenous non-coding RNAs that have been proposed to regulate gene expression. However, there is a lack of data on the role of circRNA in epilepsy. In this study, the circRNA profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis. In total, 627 circRNAs were up-regulated, whereas 892 were down-regulated in the hippocampus in mice with kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizures compared with control. The expression of circHivep2 was significantly down-regulated in hippocampus tissues of mice with KA-induced epileptic seizures and BV-2 microglia cells upon KA treatment. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that circHivep2 interacts with miR-181a-5p to regulate SOCS2 expression, which was validated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, overexpression of circHivep2 significantly inhibited KA-induced microglial activation and the expression of inflammatory factors in vitro, which was blocked by miR-181a-5p, whereas circHivep2 knockdown further induced microglia cell activation and the release of pro-inflammatory proteins in BV-2 microglia cells after KA treatment. The application of circHivep2+ exosomes derived from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) exerted significant beneficial effects on the behavioural seizure scores of mice with KA-induced epilepsy compared to control exosomes. The circHivep2+ exosomes also inhibited microglial activation, the expression of inflammatory factors, and the miR-181a-5p/SOCS2 axis in vivo. Our results suggest that circHivep2 regulates microglia activation in the progression of epilepsy by interfering with miR-181a-5p to promote SOCS2 expression, indicating that circHivep2 may serve as a therapeutic tool to prevent the development of epilepsy.
Project description:Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Neuronal death process is implicated in the development of repetitive epileptic seizures. Therefore, cell death can be harnessed for ceasing seizures and epileptogenesis. Oxidative stress is regarded as a contributing factor of neuronal death activation and there is compelling evidence supporting antioxidants hold promise in abrogating seizure-related cell modality. Lapatinib, a well-known anti-cancer drug, has been traditionally reported to exert anti-tumor effect via modulating oxidative stress and a recent work illustrates the improvement of encephalomyelitis in rodent models after lapatinib treatment. However, whether lapatinib is beneficial for inhibiting neuronal death and epileptic seizure remains unknown. Here, we found that lapatinib remarkably prevented kainic acid (KA)-epileptic seizures in mice and ferroptosis, a newly defined cell death which is associated with oxidative stress, was involved in the neuroprotection of lapatinib. In the ferroptotic cell death model, lapatinib exerted neuroprotection via restoring glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Treatment with GPX4 inhibitor ras-selective lethal small molecule 3 (RSL3) abrogated its anti-ferroptotic potential. In a mouse model of KA-triggered seizure, it was also validated that lapatinib blocked GPX4-dependent ferroptosis. It is concluded that lapatinib has neuroprotective potential against epileptic seizures via suppressing GPX4-mediated ferroptosis.
Project description:Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common medically refractory epilepsy syndrome; kainic acid (KA) induced seizures have been studied as a MTLE model as limbic seizures produced by systemic injections of KA result in a distinctive pattern of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus that resembles human hippocampal sclerosis. In our "2-hit" seizure model, animals subjected to seizures during week 2 of life become more susceptible to seizures later in life and sustain extensive hippocampal neuronal injury after second KA seizures in adulthood. Using high-density oligonucleotide gene arrays, we began to elucidate the molecular basis of this priming effect of early-life seizures and of the age-specific neuroprotection against seizure-induced neuronal injury. We seek to identify target genes for epileptogenesis and cell death by selecting transcripts that are differentially regulated at various times in the P15 and P30 hippocampus. To screen for and identify candidate genes responsible for epileptogenesis and seizure-induced cell death. We hypothesize that active process of cell death signaling and long-term synaptic changes leading to chronic epilepsy is mediated by distinct transcriptional responses in mature brain that are different from those in immature brain. We will select for transcripts that are highly regulated at 1, 6, 24, 72 and 240 hours (h) after KA-induced seizures at P30 compared to P15. These differentially regulated genes will serve as potential target genes for therapeutic intervention. Highly regulated genes identified in our array analysis will then be confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Causative roles of select genes will be directly tested by gene silencing using RNA interference technology or by gene delivery using viral vectors. Keywords: time-course
Project description:Epilepsy is a common disorder of the brain characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, which develop gradually during a process called epileptogenesis. The mechanistic processes underlying the changes of brain tissue and networks toward increased seizure susceptibility are not fully understood. In rodents, injection of kainic acid (KA) ultimately leads to the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures, reflecting similar neuropathological characteristics as seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although this model has significantly contributed to increased knowledge of epileptogenesis, it is technically demanding, costly to operate and hence not suitable for high-throughput screening of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Zebrafish, a vertebrate with complementary advantages to rodents, is an established animal model for epilepsy research. Here, we generated a novel KA-induced epilepsy model in zebrafish larvae that we functionally and pharmacologically validated. KA was administered by pericardial injection at an early zebrafish larval stage. The epileptic phenotype induced was examined by quantification of seizure-like behavior using automated video recording, and of epileptiform brain activity measured via local field potential (LFP) recordings. We also assessed GFP-labeled GABAergic and RFP-labeled glutamatergic neurons in double transgenic KA-injected zebrafish larvae, and examined the GABA and glutamate levels in the larval heads by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS). Finally, KA-injected larvae were exposed to five commonly used AEDs by immersion for pharmacological characterization of the model. Shortly after injection, KA induced a massive damage and inflammation in the zebrafish brain and seizure-like locomotor behavior. An abnormal reorganization of brain circuits was observed, a decrease in both GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal population and their associated neurotransmitters. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by spontaneous and continuous epileptiform brain discharges starting after a short latency period, as seen in KA rodent models and reminiscent of human pathology. Three out of five AEDs tested rescued LFP abnormalities but did not affect the seizure-like behavior. Taken together, for the first time we describe a chemically-induced larval zebrafish epilepsy model offering unique insights into studying epileptogenic processes in vivo and suitable for high-throughput AED screening purposes and rapid genetic investigations.
Project description:Objective:Reproductive dysfunction is a comorbidity that commonly occurs with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Characterization of this comorbidity in various models of TLE in mice will greatly facilitate mechanistic investigations of the relationship between reproductive disorders and seizures initiated in the hippocampus. Here we investigate the impact on female reproductive estrous cyclicity in the intrahippocampal kainic acid mouse model of TLE and demonstrate the utility of using this model for future mechanistic studies. Methods:Kainic acid (KA) or saline vehicle was stereotaxically injected in the right dorsal hippocampus of adult female C57BL/6J mice. Development of epilepsy was assessed by video monitoring for behavioral seizures. Reproductive function was assessed by daily estrous cycle monitoring and ovarian morphology. Estrous cycles were monitored for up to 2 months after injection. Ovarian morphology was examined by histological staining and assessment of follicular and luteal development. Results:We observed spontaneous behavioral seizures in 82% of kainic-acid-treated mice. Irregular estrous cycles developed within 2 months after kainic acid injection. Sixty-seven percent of KA-treated mice showed disrupted estrous cycles, typically characterized by increased estrous cycle length, increased time spent in diestrus (nonfertile stage), and decreased time spent in estrus by 42 days post-KA injection. The estrous cycle disruption, however, was not accompanied by major changes in ovarian morphology or follicular development. KA-treated mice also displayed increased weight gain compared to control mice. Significance:These data indicate that comorbid female irregular estrous cyclicity arises in the intrahippocampal kainic acid mouse model of TLE. This is the first demonstration of disrupted reproductive endocrine function in a mouse model of TLE initially produced by an insult specifically targeted to the hippocampus. This model should thus be useful for basic studies investigating the neural mechanisms driving comorbid reproductive dysfunction in epilepsy in women.
Project description:Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common medically refractory epilepsy syndrome; kainic acid (KA) induced seizures have been studied as a MTLE model as limbic seizures produced by systemic injections of KA result in a distinctive pattern of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus that resembles human hippocampal sclerosis. In our "2-hit" seizure model, animals subjected to seizures during week 2 of life become more susceptible to seizures later in life and sustain extensive hippocampal neuronal injury after second KA seizures in adulthood. Using high-density oligonucleotide gene arrays, we began to elucidate the molecular basis of this priming effect of early-life seizures and of the age-specific neuroprotection against seizure-induced neuronal injury. We seek to identify target genes for epileptogenesis and cell death by selecting transcripts that are differentially regulated at various times in the P15 and P30 hippocampus. To screen for and identify candidate genes responsible for epileptogenesis and seizure-induced cell death. We hypothesize that active process of cell death signaling and long-term synaptic changes leading to chronic epilepsy is mediated by distinct transcriptional responses in mature brain that are different from those in immature brain. We will select for transcripts that are highly regulated at 1, 6, 24, 72 and 240 hours (h) after KA-induced seizures at P30 compared to P15. These differentially regulated genes will serve as potential target genes for therapeutic intervention. Highly regulated genes identified in our array analysis will then be confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Causative roles of select genes will be directly tested by gene silencing using RNA interference technology or by gene delivery using viral vectors.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Status epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal death, astrogliosis, and the activation of microglia are common pathological changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Neuronal death in mTLE gradually progresses and is involved in the aggravation of epilepsy and the impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. Thus, clarifying the cellular mechanisms by which neurons are protected in mTLE will significantly contribute to the treatment of epilepsy. Here, mainly using hippocampal slice cultures with or without the pharmacological depletion of microglia, we directly examined whether microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain that can act either neurotoxically or in a neuroprotective manner, accelerate or attenuate kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death in vitro.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Hippocampal slice cultures were treated with KA to induce neuronal death in vitro. Clodronate-containing liposomes or PLX3397 was used to deplete microglia in hippocampal slice cultures, and the effect on KA-induced neuronal death was immunohistochemically assessed.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The loss of microglia significantly promoted a decrease in neuronal density in KA-treated hippocampal slice cultures.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Our results suggest that microglia are neuroprotective against KA-induced neuronal death in slice cultures.
Project description:Previous studies have suggested that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) regulates the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1)/phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) pathway. Moreover, TSP-1 is closely associated with epilepsy. However, the role of the TSP-1-regulated TGF-?1/pSmad2/3 pathway in seizures remains unclear. In this study, changes in this pathway were assessed following kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in rats. The results showed that increases in the TSP-1/TGF-?1/pSmad2/3 levels spatially and temporally matched the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)/chondroitin sulfate (CS56) levels following KA administration. Inhibition of TSP-1 expression by small interfering RNA or inhibition of TGF-?1 activation with a Leu-Ser-Lys-Leu peptide significantly reduced the severity of KA-induced acute seizures. These anti-seizure effects were accompanied by decreased GFAP/CS56 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibiting Smad2/3 phosphorylation with ponatinib or SIS3 also significantly reduced seizure severity, alongside reducing GFAP/CS56 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that the TSP-1-regulated TGF-?1/pSmad2/3 pathway plays a key role in KA-induced SE and astrogliosis, and that inhibiting this pathway may be a potential anti-seizure strategy.