Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 signals through antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1 to regulate redox homeostasis and tumor growth.
ABSTRACT: How mitochondrial glutaminolysis contributes to redox homeostasis in cancer cells remains unclear. Here we report that the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) is commonly upregulated in human cancers. GDH1 is important for redox homeostasis in cancer cells by controlling the intracellular levels of its product alpha-ketoglutarate and subsequent metabolite fumarate. Mechanistically, fumarate binds to and activates a reactive oxygen species scavenging enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1. Targeting GDH1 by shRNA or a small molecule inhibitor R162 resulted in imbalanced redox homeostasis, leading to attenuated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth.
Project description:Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to ?-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)? to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates ?-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human) that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1) is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth. In addition, deregulation of hGDH1/2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human disorders.
Project description:Loss of LKB1 is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in lung cancer, but the development of targeted agents is in its infancy. Here we report that a glutaminolytic enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1), upregulated upon detachment via pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), provides anti-anoikis and pro-metastatic signals in LKB1-deficient lung cancer. Mechanistically, the GDH1 product ?-KG activates CamKK2 by enhancing its substrate AMPK binding, which contributes to energy production that confers anoikis resistance. The effect of GDH1 on AMPK is evident in LKB1-deficient lung cancer, where AMPK activation predominantly depends on CamKK2. Targeting GDH1 with R162 attenuated tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenograft model and correlation studies in lung cancer patients further validated the clinical relevance of our finding. Our study provides insight into the molecular mechanism by which GDH1-mediated metabolic reprogramming of glutaminolysis mediates lung cancer metastasis and offers a therapeutic strategy for patients with LKB1-deficient lung cancer.
Project description:Lung cancer cells are well-documented to rewire their metabolism and energy production networks to support rapid survival and proliferation. This metabolic reorganization has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The increased uptake of glucose and the increased activity of the glycolytic pathway have been extensively described. However, over the past years, increasing evidence has shown that lung cancer cells also require glutamine to fulfill their metabolic needs. As a nitrogen source, glutamine contributes directly (or indirectly upon conversion to glutamate) to many anabolic processes in cancer, such as the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleobases, and hexosamines. It plays also an important role in the redox homeostasis, and last but not least, upon conversion to ?-ketoglutarate, glutamine is an energy and anaplerotic carbon source that replenishes tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The latter is generally indicated as glutaminolysis. In this review, we explore the role of glutamine metabolism in lung cancer. Because lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death with limited curative treatment options, we focus on the potential therapeutic approaches targeting the glutamine metabolism in cancer.
Project description:Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), even in normoxia, is a common feature of solid malignancies. However, the mechanisms of increased HIF-1? abundance, and its role in regulating breast cancer plasticity are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate (DKG), a widely used cell membrane-permeable ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) analogue, transiently stabilizes HIF-1? by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylase 2. Here, we report that breast cancer tumorigenicity can be acquired through prolonged treatment with DKG. Our results indicate that, in response to prolonged DKG treatment, mitochondrial respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to the accumulation of succinate and fumarate in breast cancer cells. Further, we found that an early increase in the oxygen flux rate was accompanied by a delayed enhancement of glycolysis. Together, our results indicate that these events trigger a dynamic enrichment for cells with pluripotent/stem-like cell markers and tumorsphere-forming capacity. Moreover, DKG-mediated metabolic reprogramming results in HIF-1? induction and reductive carboxylation pathway activation. Both HIF-1? accumulation and the tumor-promoting metabolic state are required for DKG-promoted tumor repopulation capacity in vivo. Our data suggest that mitochondrial adaptation to DKG elevates the ratio of succinate or fumarate to ?-KG, which in turn stabilizes HIF-1? and reprograms breast cancer cells into a stem-like state. Therefore, our results demonstrate that metabolic regulation, with succinate and/or fumarate accumulation, governs the dynamic transition of breast cancer tumorigenic states and we suggest that HIF-1? is indispensable for breast cancer tumorigenicity.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Glutaminolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle are involved in ferroptosis, but the underlying metabolic process remains unclear. We examined the role of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in ferroptosis induction in head and neck cancer (HNC). The effects of cystine deprivation or sulfasalazine treatment and of DLD gene silencing/overexpression were tested on HNC cell lines and mouse tumor xenograft models. These effects were analyzed with regard to cell death, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial iron production, mitochondrial membrane potential, mRNA/protein expression, and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH)/succinate/aconitase activities. Cystine deprivation induced ferroptosis via glutaminolysis. Cystine deprivation or import inhibition using sulfasalazine induced cancer cell death and increased lipid ROS and mitochondrial iron levels, which had been significantly decreased by short-interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting DLD (P < 0.01) but not by dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase. The same results were noted in an in vivo mouse model transplanted with vector or shDLD-transduced HN9 cells. After cystine deprivation or sulfasalazine treatment, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial free iron level, KGDH activity, and succinate content significantly increased (P < 0.001), which had been blocked by DLD siRNA or shRNA and were consequently rescued by resistant DLD cDNA. Cystine deprivation caused iron starvation response and mitochondrial iron accumulation for Fenton reaction and ferroptosis. Our data suggest a close association of DLD with cystine deprivation- or import inhibition-induced ferroptosis.
Project description:Myofibroblasts participate in physiological wound healing and pathological fibrosis. Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins and is dependent on metabolic reprogramming. In this study, we explored the role of glutaminolysis and metabolites of TCA in supporting myofibroblast differentiation. Glutaminolysis converts Gln into ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG), a critical intermediate in the TCA cycle. Increases in the steady-state concentrations of TCA cycle metabolites including ?-KG, succinate, fumarate, malate, and citrate were observed in TGF-?1-differentiated myofibroblasts. The concentration of glutamate was also increased in TGF-?1-differentiated myofibroblasts compared with controls, whereas glutamine levels were decreased, suggesting enhanced glutaminolysis. This was associated with TGF-?1-induced expression of the glutaminase (GLS) isoform, GLS1, which converts Gln into glutamate, at both the mRNA and protein levels. The stimulation of GLS1 expression by TGF-?1 was dependent on both SMAD3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Depletion of extracellular Gln prevented TGF-?1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. The removal of extracellular Gln postmyofibroblast differentiation decreased the expression of the profibrotic markers fibronectin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and reversed TGF-?1-induced metabolic reprogramming. Silencing of GLS1 expression, in the presence of Gln, abrogated TGF-?1-induced expression of profibrotic markers. Treatment of GLS1-deficient myofibroblasts with exogenous glutamate or ?-KG restored TGF-?1-induced expression of profibrotic markers in GLS1-deficient myofibroblasts. Together, these data demonstrate that glutaminolysis is a critical component of myofibroblast metabolic reprogramming that regulates myofibroblast differentiation.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>The regenerative capacity of the liver plays a protective role against hepatotoxins and impaired regeneration exacerbates liver dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mitochondrial bioenergetic and -synthetic functions are important contributory factors in hepatic regeneration, and the control of mitochondrial protein acetylation is implicated in the mitochondrial susceptibility to liver stressors. Here, we evaluated the role of general control of amino acid synthesis 5 like 1 (GCN5L1), a mediator of mitochondrial metabolism and acetylation, in modulating murine liver regeneration (LR) in response to acute CCl<sub>4</sub> -induced hepatotoxicity.<h4>Approach and results</h4>Initial metabolomic screening found that liver GCN5L1 knockout (LKO) mice have augmented glutaminolysis. Absence of GCN5L1 modified enzyme activity of liver-enriched glutaminase enzyme (glutaminase 2; GLS2), and GCN5L1 levels modulated GLS2 oligomerization and acetylation. This metabolic remodeling resulted in the elevation of ?-ketoglutarate levels, which are known to activate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). This signaling pathway was induced with increased phosphorylation of S6 kinase in LKO hepatocytes, and inhibition of glutaminolysis reversed aberrant mTORC1 signaling. At the same time, glutaminolysis, activity of GLS2, and activation of mTORC1 signaling were reversed by the genetic reintroduction of the mitochondrial isoform of GCN5L1 into LKO primary hepatocytes. Finally, LKO mice had a more robust regenerative capacity in response to CCl<sub>4</sub> hepatoxicity, and this response was blunted by both the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, and by pharmacological blunting of glutaminolysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data point to a central role of glutaminolysis in modulating the regenerative capacity in the liver. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial GCN5L1 to augment LR may be a useful strategy in disease states linked to hepatotoxicity.
Project description:Fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) that either generate NADPH (oxidative) or do not (non-oxidative), we utilized [U-(13)C]-glucose, [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13)C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived ?-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13)C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66%) that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of ?-ketoglutarate and fatty acid synthesis for rapid proliferation and is essential for defense against increased oxidative stress. This increased NADPH producing PPP activity was shown to be a strong consistent feature in both fumarate hydratase deficient tumors and cell line models.
Project description:Thiol peroxidases are conserved hydrogen peroxide scavenging and signaling molecules that contain redox-active cysteine residues. We show here that Gpx3, the major H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> sensor in yeast, is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS), where it serves a compartment-specific role in oxidative metabolism. The IMS-localized Gpx3 contains an 18-amino acid N-terminally extended form encoded from a non-AUG codon. This acts as a mitochondrial targeting signal in a pathway independent of the hitherto known IMS-import pathways. Mitochondrial Gpx3 interacts with the Mia40 oxidoreductase in a redox-dependent manner and promotes efficient Mia40-dependent oxidative protein folding. We show that cells lacking Gpx3 have aberrant mitochondrial morphology, defective protein import capacity, and lower inner membrane potential, all of which can be rescued by expression of a mitochondrial-only form of Gpx3. Together, our data reveal a novel role for Gpx3 in mitochondrial redox regulation and protein homeostasis.
Project description:We previously reported that glutamine was a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid synthesis in a brown adipocyte cell line. The pathway for fatty acid synthesis from glutamine may follow either of two distinct pathways after it enters the citric acid cycle. The glutaminolysis pathway follows the citric acid cycle, whereas the reductive carboxylation pathway travels in reverse of the citric acid cycle from alpha-ketoglutarate to citrate. To quantify fluxes in these pathways we incubated brown adipocyte cells in [U-(13)C]glutamine or [5-(13)C]glutamine and analyzed the mass isotopomer distribution of key metabolites using models that fit the isotopomer distribution to fluxes. We also investigated inhibitors of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial citrate export. The results indicated that one third of glutamine entering the citric acid cycle travels to citrate via reductive carboxylation while the remainder is oxidized through succinate. The reductive carboxylation flux accounted for 90% of all flux of glutamine to lipid. The inhibitor studies were compatible with reductive carboxylation flux through mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase. Total cell citrate and alpha-ketoglutarate were near isotopic equilibrium as expected if rapid cycling exists between these compounds involving the mitochondrial membrane NAD/NADP transhydrogenase. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a new role for glutamine as a lipogenic precursor and propose an alternative to the glutaminolysis pathway where flux of glutamine to lipogenic acetyl-CoA occurs via reductive carboxylation. These findings were enabled by a new modeling tool and software implementation (Metran) for global flux estimation.