Biosynthesis and possible functions of inositol pyrophosphates in plants.
ABSTRACT: Inositol phosphates (InsPs) are intricately tied to lipid signaling, as at least one portion of the inositol phosphate signaling pool is derived from hydrolysis of the lipid precursor, phosphatidyl inositol (4,5) bisphosphate. The focus of this review is on the inositol pyrophosphates, which are a novel group of InsP signaling molecules containing diphosphate or triphosphate chains (i.e., PPx) attached to the inositol ring. These PPx-InsPs are emerging as critical players in the integration of cellular metabolism and stress signaling in non-plant eukaryotes. Most eukaryotes synthesize the precursor molecule, myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which can serve as a signaling molecule or as storage compound of inositol, phosphorus, and minerals (referred to as phytic acid). Even though plants produce huge amounts of precursor InsP6 in seeds, almost no attention has been paid to whether PPx-InsPs exist in plants, and if so, what roles these molecules play. Recent work has delineated that Arabidopsis has two genes capable of PP-InsP5 synthesis, and PPx-InsPs have been detected across the plant kingdom. This review will detail the known roles of PPx-InsPs in yeast and animal systems, and provide a description of recent data on the synthesis and accumulation of these novel molecules in plants, and potential roles in signaling.
Project description:Inositol poly- and pyrophosphates (InsPs and PP-InsPs) are an important group of metabolites and mediate a wide range of processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of these molecules, robust techniques for the characterization of inositol phosphate metabolism are required, both at the biochemical and the cellular level. Here, a new tool-set is reported, which employs uniformly 13C-labeled compounds ([13C6]myo-inositol, [13C6]InsP5, [13C6]InsP6, and [13C6]5PP-InsP5), in combination with commonly accessible NMR technology. This approach permitted the detection and quantification of InsPs and PP-InsPs within complex mixtures and at physiological concentrations. Specifically, the enzymatic activity of IP6K1 could be monitored in vitro in real time. Metabolic labeling of mammalian cells with [13C6]myo-inositol enabled the analysis of cellular pools of InsPs and PP-InsPs, and uncovered high concentrations of 5PP-InsP5 in HCT116 cells, especially in response to genetic and pharmacological perturbation. The reported method greatly facilitates the analysis of this otherwise spectroscopically silent group of molecules, and holds great promise to comprehensively analyze inositol-based signaling molecules under normal and pathological conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the urinary levels of inositol phosphates (InsPs) in rats that received different salts of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6) by gavage or by oral administration. METHODS:Thirty rats received AIN-76A diet (in which InsPs are undetectable) for 15 days. Then, 12 rats received InsP6 by gavage as a Na salt or a Ca/Mg salt; after 4 days, the Na or Ca/Mg InsP6 was administered with water containing 15 g/L sucrose and urine samples were collected. The other 18 rats received oral InsP6, in which 0.5 g of sugar was combined with InsP6 as a Na salt, a Ca/Mg salt, or a Na salt with CaCO3; daily urine samples were collected. Urine levels of InsPs were determined using a nonspecific method and a specific method (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PAGE), and different InsPs were identified by mass spectroscopy (MS). RESULTS:After 15 days of the InsP6-free diet, the non-specific method detected no urinary InsPs, and MS detected only InsP2. After administration of Na-InsP6 by gavage, the non-specific method indicated more urinary InsPs than the amount of InsP6 determined by PAGE. MS indicated the presence of urinary InsP2, InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6 in these rats, with notable variations among animals. Use of the same treatment to administer Ca/Mg-InsP6 led to a lower overall content of urinary InsPs and a lower level of InsP6. Oral administration of InsP6 as a sugar pill led to lower urinary levels of InsPs than administration of InsP6 by gavage, and administration as a Ca/Mg pill or a Ca/Mg pill with CaCO3 led to lower levels than administration as a Na pill. CONCLUSION:Administration of InsP6 to rats leads to the excretion of a mixture of different InsPs. Rats more effectively absorb InsP6 when supplied without dietary components that interfere with its uptake, such as the Ca ion and sugar.
Project description:Inositol-based signaling molecules are central eukaryotic messengers and include the highly phosphorylated, diffusible inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) and inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs). Despite the essential cellular regulatory functions of InsPs and PP-InsPs (including telomere maintenance, phosphate sensing, cell migration, and insulin secretion), the majority of their protein targets remain unknown. Here, the development of InsP and PP-InsP affinity reagents is described to comprehensively annotate the interactome of these messenger molecules. By using the reagents as bait, >150 putative protein targets were discovered from a eukaryotic cell lysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Gene Ontology analysis of the binding partners revealed a significant overrepresentation of proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, glucose metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, and phosphorylation-based signal transduction pathways. Notably, we isolated and characterized additional substrates of protein pyrophosphorylation, a unique posttranslational modification mediated by the PP-InsPs. Our findings not only demonstrate that the PP-InsPs provide a central line of communication between signaling and metabolic networks, but also highlight the unusual ability of these molecules to access two distinct modes of action.
Project description:Inositol phosphates (InsPs) are signaling molecules with multiple roles in cells. In particular (InsP(6)) is involved in mRNA export and editing or chromatin remodeling among other events. InsP(6) accumulates as mixed salts (phytate) in storage tissues of plants and plays a key role in their physiology. Human diets that are exclusively grain-based provide an excess of InsP(6) that, through chelation of metal ions, may have a detrimental effect on human health. Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinase (InsP(5) 2-kinase or Ipk1) catalyses the synthesis of InsP(6) from InsP(5) and ATP, and is the only enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to the axial 2-OH of the myo-inositide. We present the first structure for an InsP(5) 2-kinase in complex with both substrates and products. This enzyme presents a singular structural region for inositide binding that encompasses almost half of the protein. The key residues in substrate binding are identified, with Asp368 being responsible for recognition of the axial 2-OH. This study sheds light on the unique molecular mechanism for the synthesis of the precursor of inositol pyrophosphates.
Project description:Inositol phosphates are a large and diverse family of signalling molecules. While genetic studies have discovered important functions for them, the biochemistry behind these roles is often not fully characterized. A key obstacle in inositol phosphate research in mammalian cells has been the lack of straightforward techniques for their purification and analysis. Here we describe the ability of titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads to bind inositol phosphates. This discovery allowed the development of a new purification protocol that, coupled with gel analysis, permitted easy identification and quantification of InsP6 (phytate), its pyrophosphate derivatives InsP7 and InsP8, and the nucleotides ATP and GTP from cell or tissue extracts. Using this approach, InsP6, InsP7 and InsP8 were visualized in Dictyostelium extracts and a variety of mammalian cell lines and tissues, and the effects of metabolic perturbation on these were explored. TiO2 bead purification also enabled us to quantify InsP6 in human plasma and urine, which led to two distinct but related observations. Firstly, there is an active InsP6 phosphatase in human plasma, and secondly, InsP6 is undetectable in either fluid. These observations seriously question reports that InsP6 is present in human biofluids and the advisability of using InsP6 as a dietary supplement.
Project description:Most Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria inject type III effector (T3E) proteins into plant cells to manipulate signaling pathways to the pathogen's benefit. In resistant plants, specialized immune receptors recognize single T3Es or their biochemical activities, thus halting pathogen ingress. However, molecular function and mode of recognition for most T3Es remains elusive. Here, we show that the Xanthomonas T3E XopH possesses phytase activity, i.e., dephosphorylates phytate (myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate, InsP6), the major phosphate storage compound in plants, which is also involved in pathogen defense. A combination of biochemical approaches, including a new NMR-based method to discriminate inositol polyphosphate enantiomers, identifies XopH as a naturally occurring 1-phytase that dephosphorylates InsP6 at C1. Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana and pepper by Xanthomonas results in a XopH-dependent conversion of InsP6 to InsP5. 1-phytase activity is required for XopH-mediated immunity of plants carrying the Bs7 resistance gene, and for induction of jasmonate- and ethylene-responsive genes in N. benthamiana.
Project description:myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells, yet it remains the most enigmatic of this class of signaling molecule. InsP6 plays a role in the processes by which the drought stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure, conserving water and ensuring plant survival. Previous work has shown that InsP6 levels in guard cells are elevated in response to ABA, and InsP6 inactivates the plasma membrane inward K+ conductance (IK,in) in a cytosolic calcium-dependent manner. The use of laser-scanning confocal microscopy in dye-loaded patch-clamped guard cell protoplasts shows that release of InsP6 from a caged precursor mobilizes calcium. Measurement of calcium (barium) currents ICa in patch-clamped protoplasts in whole cell mode shows that InsP6 has no effect on the calcium-permeable channels in the plasma membrane activated by ABA. The InsP6-mediated inhibition of IK,in can also be observed in the absence of external calcium. Thus the InsP6-induced increase in cytoplasmic calcium does not result from calcium influx but must arise from InsP6-triggered release of calcium from endomembrane stores. Measurements of vacuolar currents in patch-clamped isolated vacuoles in whole-vacuole mode showed that InsP6 activates both the fast and slow conductances of the guard cell vacuole. These data define InsP6 as an endomembrane-acting calcium-release signal in guard cells; the vacuole may contribute to InsP6-triggered Ca2+ release, but other endomembranes may also be involved.
Project description:The analysis of myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs) and myo-inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) is a daunting challenge due to the large number of possible isomers, the absence of a chromophore, the high charge density, the low abundance, and the instability of the esters and anhydrides. Given their importance in biology, an analytical approach to follow and understand this complex signaling hub is desirable. Here, capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is implemented to analyze complex mixtures of InsPs and PP-InsPs with high sensitivity. Stable isotope labeled (SIL) internal standards allow for matrix-independent quantitative assignment. The method is validated in wild-type and knockout mammalian cell lines and in model organisms. SIL-CE-ESI-MS enables the accurate monitoring of InsPs and PP-InsPs arising from compartmentalized cellular synthesis pathways, by feeding cells with either [13C6]-myo-inositol or [13C6]-D-glucose. In doing so, we provide evidence for the existence of unknown inositol synthesis pathways in mammals, highlighting the potential of this method to dissect inositol phosphate metabolism and signalling.
Project description:Inositol phosphates (IPs) comprise a network of phosphorylated molecules that play multiple signaling roles in eukaryotes. IPs synthesis is believed to originate with IP3 generated from PIP2 by phospholipase C (PLC). Here, we report that in mammalian cells PLC-generated IPs are rapidly recycled to inositol, and uncover the enzymology behind an alternative "soluble" route to synthesis of IPs. Inositol tetrakisphosphate 1-kinase 1 (ITPK1)-found in Asgard archaea, social amoeba, plants, and animals-phosphorylates I(3)P1 originating from glucose-6-phosphate, and I(1)P1 generated from sphingolipids, to enable synthesis of IP6 We also found using PAGE mass assay that metabolic blockage by phosphate starvation surprisingly increased IP6 levels in a ITPK1-dependent manner, establishing a route to IP6 controlled by cellular metabolic status, that is not detectable by traditional [3H]-inositol labeling. The presence of ITPK1 in archaeal clades thought to define eukaryogenesis indicates that IPs had functional roles before the appearance of the eukaryote.
Project description:We have undertaken an analysis of the inositol phosphates of Spirodela polyrhiza at a developmental stage when massive accumulation of InsP6 indicates that a large net synthesis is occurring. We have identified Ins3P, Ins(1,4)P2, Ins(3,4)P2 and possibly Ins(4,6)P2, Ins(3,4,6)P3, Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, Ins (1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 and revealed the likely presence of a second InsP3 with chromatographic properties similar to Ins(1,4,5)P3. The higher inositol phosphates identified show no obvious direct link to pathways of metabolism of second messengers purported to operate in higher plants, nor do they resemble the immediate products of plant phytase action on InsP6.