Adaptive responses to dasatinib-treated lung squamous cell cancer cells harboring DDR2 mutations.
ABSTRACT: DDR2 mutations occur in approximately 4% of lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) where the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib has emerged as a new therapeutic option. We found that ERK and AKT phosphorylation was weakly inhibited by dasatinib in DDR2-mutant lung SCC cells, suggesting that dasatinib inhibits survival signals distinct from other oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and/or compensatory signals exist that dampen dasatinib activity. To gain better insight into dasatinib's action in these cells, we assessed altered global tyrosine phosphorylation (pY) after dasatinib exposure using a mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics approach. Overlaying protein-protein interaction relationships upon this dasatinib-regulated pY network revealed decreased phosphorylation of Src family kinases and their targets. Conversely, dasatinib enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation in a panel of RTK and their signaling adaptor complexes, including EGFR, MET/GAB1, and IGF1R/IRS2, implicating a RTK-driven adaptive response associated with dasatinib. To address the significance of this observation, these results were further integrated with results from a small-molecule chemical library screen. We found that dasatinib combined with MET and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) inhibitors had a synergistic effect, and ligand stimulation of EGFR and MET rescued DDR2-mutant lung SCC cells from dasatinib-induced loss of cell viability. Importantly, we observed high levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR and MET in a panel of human lung SCC tissues harboring DDR2 mutations. Our results highlight potential RTK-driven adaptive-resistant mechanisms upon DDR2 targeting, and they suggest new, rationale cotargeting strategies for DDR2-mutant lung SCC.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The discoidin domain-containing receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2) is known to contain mutations in a small subset of patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the lung. Studying the DDR2 mutations in patients with SCC of the lung would advance our understanding and guide the development of therapeutic strategies against lung cancer.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We selected 100 samples through a preliminary genetic screen, including specimens from biopsies and surgical resection, and confirmed SCC by histologic examination. DDR2 mutations on exons 6, 15, 16, and 18 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The functional effects of novel DDR2 mutants were confirmed by in vitro assays.<h4>Results</h4>We identified novel somatic mutations of DDR2 in two of the 100 SCC samples studied. One mutation was c.1745T>A (p.V582E) and the other was c.1784T>C (p.L595P), and both were on exon 15. Both patients were smokers and EGFR/KRAS/ALK-triple negative. The expression of the mutant DDR2 induced activation of DDR2 by the collagen ligand and caused enhanced cell growth and tumor progression. Moreover, dasatinib, a DDR2 inhibitor, showed potential efficacy against DDR2 L595P mutant-bearing cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that a mutation in DDR2 occurs naturally with a frequency of about 2% in Korean lung SCC patients. In addition, we showed that each of the novel DDR2 mutations were located in a kinase domain and induced an increase in cell proliferation rate.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osimertinib (AZD9291) is a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that selectively inhibits the activating EGFR mutation and T790M mutation, and is currently used globally to treat EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance to osimertinib is inevitable.<h4>Methods</h4>We established osimertinib-resistant cells (PC9/T790M/AZDR and H1975/AZDR) derived from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells harboring T790M mutation, and investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to osimertinib by whole-exome sequencing and multiple phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array. A tumor specimen from an EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired resistance to osimertinib was also subjected to immunohistochemical analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Whole-exome sequencing analysis demonstrated that genetic alterations, such as acquisition of EGFR C797S, loss of T790M mutation, MET amplification, or mutated KRAS, MEK, BRAF, PIK3CA, were not detected. Analysis of phospho-RTK array revealed that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was activated in PC9/T790M/AZDR and H1975/AZDR cells. Knockdown of IGF1R by siRNA as well as inhibition of IGF1R activation by linstinib (IGF1R inhibitor) significantly restored the sensitivity to osimertinib. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression level of phosphorylated IGF1R was higher in the tumor specimen from the EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired resistance to osimertinib than in the specimen collected prior to the treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IGF1R activation could occur following treatment with osimertinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with T790M mutation, and might be one of the mechanisms underlying osimertinib resistance. Combined treatment of osimertinib and IGF1R inhibitor might be effective in overcoming the acquired resistance to osimertinib induced by IGF1R activation.<h4>Key points</h4>Significant findings of the study: Using osimertinib-resistant cells, we found that IGF1R activation induced by osimertinib treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with T790M mutation is involved in resistance. Increased phosphorylation of IGF1R was observed in the tumor specimen from an EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired osimertinib resistance.<h4>What this study adds</h4>IGF1R activation might be one of the mechanisms of osimertinib resistance. A combination therapy with osimertinib and an IGF1R inhibitor might be an optimal approach for overcoming the acquired resistance to osimertinib induced by IGF1R activation.
Project description:Collagen is an important extracellular matrix component that directs many fundamental cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation and motility. The signalling networks driving these processes are propagated by collagen receptors such as the β1 integrins and the DDRs (discoidin domain receptors). To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of collagen receptor signalling, we have performed a quantitative analysis of the phosphorylation networks downstream of collagen activation of integrins and DDR2. Temporal analysis over seven time points identified 424 phosphorylated proteins. Distinct DDR2 tyrosine phosphorylation sites displayed unique temporal activation profiles in agreement with in vitro kinase data. Multiple clustering analysis of the phosphoproteomic data revealed several DDR2 candidate downstream signalling nodes, including SHP-2 (