Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.
ABSTRACT: We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.) 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.
Project description:Silverleaf is an important fungal trunk disease of fruit crops, such as Japanese plum (<i>Prunus salicina</i>). It is known that infection by <i>Chondrostereum purpureum</i> results in discolored wood, "silvered" foliage, and tree decline. However, effects on fruit yield and quality have not been assessed. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine <i>C. purpureum</i> pathogenicity on <i>P. salicina</i> and the effects on physiology, fruit yield, and quality, in Chile, in 2019 and 2020. Wood samples from affected plum trees were collected in the Chilean plum productive area. Fungi were isolated by plating wood sections from the necrosis margin on culture media. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the isolates corresponded to <i>C. purpureum</i> (98%). Representative isolates were inoculated from healthy plum plants and after 65-d incubation, wood necrotic lesions and silver leaves were visible. Fungi were reisolated, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To determine Silverleaf effects, xylem water potential and fruit yield and quality were measured in healthy and Silverleaf-diseased plum trees 'Angeleno'. Water potential was altered in diseased trees, and fruit yield was reduced by 51% (2019) and by 41% (2020) compared to fruit from healthy trees. Moreover, cover-colour, equatorial-diameter, and weight were reduced, and fruit were softer, failing to meet the criteria to be properly commercialized and exported to demanding markets.
Project description:The basidiomycete Chondrostereum purpureum (Silverleaf fungus) is a saprotroph and plant pathogen commercially used for combatting forest "weed" trees in vegetation management. However, little is known about its lignocellulose-degrading capabilities and the enzymatic machinery that is responsible for the degradative potential, and it is not yet clear to which group of wood-rot fungi it actually belongs. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the draft genome of C. purpureum (41.2 Mbp) and performed a quantitative proteomic approach during growth in submerged and solid-state cultures based on soybean meal suspension or containing beech wood supplemented with phenol-rich olive mill residues, respectively. The fungus harbors characteristic lignocellulolytic hydrolases (GH6 and GH7) and oxidoreductases (e.g. laccase, heme peroxidases). High abundance of some of these genes (e.g. 45 laccases, nine GH7) can be explained by gene expansion, e.g. identified for the laccase orthogroup ORTHOMCL11 that exhibits a total of 18 lineage-specific duplications. Other expanded genes families encode for proteins more related to a pathogenic lifestyle (e.g. protease and cytochrome P450s). The fungus responds to the presence of complex growth substrates (lignocellulose, phenolic residues) by the secretion of most of these lignocellulolytic and lignin-modifying enzymes (e.g. alcohol and aryl alcohol oxidases, laccases, GH6, GH7). Based on the genetic and enzymatic constitution, we consider the 'marasmioid' fungus C. purpureum as a 'phytopathogenic' white-rot fungus (WRF) that possesses a complex extracellular enzyme machinery to accomplish efficient lignocellulose degradation during both saprotrophic and phytopathogenic life phases.
Project description:The morphology, ultrastructure, density and distribution of trichomes on leaves of Betula pendula, B. pubescens ssp. pubescens, B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii and B. nana were examined by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composition of flavonoids in ethanolic leaf surface extracts was analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography. All taxa examined contained both glandular and non-glandular trichomes (short and/or long hairs) but differed from each other in trichome ultrastructure, density and location on the leaf. Leaves of B. pubescens were more hairy than those of B. pendula, but the latter species had a higher density of glandular trichomes. Of the two subspecies of B. pubescens, leaves of ssp. pubescens had more short hairs on the leaf surface and four times the density of glandular trichomes of leaves of ssp. czerepanovii, whereas, in the latter subspecies, short hairs occurred largely on leaf veins, as in B. nana. The glandular trichomes were peltate glands, consisting of medullar and cortical cells, which differed structurally. Cortical cells possessed numerous small, poorly developed plastids and small vacuoles, whereas medullar cells had several large plastids with well-developed thylakoid systems and fewer vacuoles. In B. pubescens subspecies, vacuoles of the glandular cells contained osmiophilic deposits, which were probably phenolic, whereas in B. pendula, vacuoles of glandular trichomes were characterized by the presence of numerous myelin-like membranes. The composition of epicuticular flavonoids also differed among species. The two subspecies of B. pubescens and B. nana shared the same 12 compounds, but five of these occurred only in trace amounts in B. nana. Leaf surface extracts of B. pendula contained just six flavonoids, three of which occurred only in this species. In summary, the structure, density and distribution of leaf trichomes and the composition of epicuticular flavonoids represent good taxonomic markers for Finnish birch species.
Project description:Hybridization may lead to introgression of genes among species. Introgression may be bidirectional or unidirectional, depending on factors such as the demography of the hybridizing species, or the nature of reproductive barriers between them. Previous microsatellite studies suggested bidirectional introgression between diploid Betula nana (dwarf birch) and tetraploid B. pubescens (downy birch) and also between B. pubescens and diploid B. pendula (silver birch) in Britain. Here, we analyse introgression among these species using 51 237 variants in restriction site-associated (RAD) markers in 194 individuals, called with allele dosages in the tetraploids. In contrast to the microsatellite study, we found unidirectional introgression into B. pubescens from both of the diploid species. This pattern fits better with the expected nature of the reproductive barrier between diploids and tetraploids. As in the microsatellite study, introgression into B. pubescens showed clear clines with increasing introgression from B. nana in the north and from B. pendula in the south. Unlike B. pendula alleles, introgression of B. nana alleles was found far from the current area of sympatry or allopatry between B. nana and B. pubescens. This pattern fits a shifting zone of hybridization due to Holocene reduction in the range of B. nana and expansion in the range of B. pubescens.
Project description:Past reproductive interactions among incompletely isolated species may leave behind a trail of introgressed alleles, shedding light on historical range movements. Betula pubescens is a widespread native tetraploid tree species in Britain, occupying habitats intermediate to those of its native diploid relatives, B. pendula and B. nana. Genotyping 1134 trees from the three species at 12 microsatellite loci, we found evidence of introgression from both diploid species into B. pubescens, despite the ploidy difference. Surprisingly, introgression from B. nana, a dwarf species whose present range is highly restricted in northern, high-altitude peat bogs, was greater than introgression from B. pendula, which is morphologically similar to B. pubescens and has a substantially overlapping range. A cline of introgression from B. nana was found extending into B. pubescens populations far to the south of the current B. nana range. We suggest that this genetic pattern is a footprint of a historical decline and/or northwards shift in the range of B. nana populations due to climate warming in the Holocene. This is consistent with pollen records that show a broader, more southerly distribution of B. nana in the past. Ecological niche modelling predicts that B. nana is adapted to a larger range than it currently occupies, suggesting additional factors such as grazing and hybridization may have exacerbated its decline. We found very little introgression between B. nana and B. pendula, despite both being diploid, perhaps because their distributions in the past have rarely overlapped. Future conservation of B. nana may partly depend on minimization of hybridization with B. pubescens, and avoidance of planting B. pendula near B. nana populations.
Project description:Latitudinal patterns in herbivory, i.e. variations in plant losses to animals with latitude, are generally explained by temperature gradients. However, earlier studies suggest that geographical variation in abundance and diversity of gall-makers may be driven by precipitation rather than by temperature. To test the above hypothesis, we examined communities of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on leaves of Betula pendula and B. pubescens in boreal forests in Northern Europe. We sampled ten sites for each of five latitudinal gradients from 2008-2011, counted galls of six morphological types and identified mites extracted from these galls. DNA analysis revealed cryptic species within two of six morphologically defined mite species, and these cryptic species induced different types of galls. When data from all types of galls and from two birch species were pooled, the percentage of galled leaves did not change with latitude. However, we discovered pronounced variation in latitudinal changes between birch species. Infestation by eriophyoid mites increased towards the north in B. pendula and decreased in B. pubescens, while diversity of galls decreased towards the north in B. pendula and did not change in B. pubescens. The percentage of galled leaves did not differ among geographical gradients and study years, but was 20% lower in late summer relative to early summer, indicating premature abscission of infested leaves. Our data suggest that precipitation has little effect on abundance and diversity of eriophyoid mites, and that climate warming may impose opposite effects on infestation of two birch species by galling mites, favouring B. pendula near the northern tree limit.
Project description:The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F-H (1, 4 and 5), together with three known compounds, incarnal (2), arthrosporone (3), and (2E)-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.
Project description:The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A-E (1-5), and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6), were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1) showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC(50) values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 ?M, respectively.
Project description:By the method of ¹H NMR prescreening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, three additional new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids-chondrosterins K-M (1-3) and the known sesquiterpenoid anhydroarthrosporone (4)-were isolated from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Chondrosterin K is a rare hirsutane sesquiterpenoid, in which a methyl group was migrated from C-2 to C-6 and has a double bond between C-2 and C-3. Compounds 1-3 showed significant cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines in vitro.