Glyoxalase I reduces glycative and oxidative stress and prevents age-related endothelial dysfunction through modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in elderly people. Studies have demonstrated the role of glycation in endothelial dysfunction in nonphysiological models, but the physiological role of glycation in age-related endothelial dysfunction has been poorly addressed. Here, to investigate how vascular glycation affects age-related endothelial function, we employed rats systemically overexpressing glyoxalase I (GLO1), which detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), a representative precursor of glycation. Four groups of rats were examined, namely young (13 weeks old), mid-age (53 weeks old) wild-type, and GLO1 transgenic (WT/GLO1 Tg) rats. Age-related acceleration in glycation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, together with lower aortic carboxymethyllysine (CML) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Age-related impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was attenuated in GLO1 Tg rats, whereas endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was not different between WT and GLO1 Tg rats. Nitric oxide (NO) production was decreased in mid-age WT rats, but not in mid-age GLO1 Tg rats. Age-related inactivation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) due to phosphorylation of eNOS on Thr495 and dephosphorylation on Ser1177 was ameliorated in GLO1 Tg rats. In vitro, MG increased phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and overexpression of GLO1 decreased glycative stress and phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495). Together, GLO1 reduced age-related endothelial glycative and oxidative stress, altered phohphorylation of eNOS, and attenuated endothelial dysfunction. As a molecular mechanism, GLO1 lessened inhibitory phosphorylation of eNOS (Thr495) by reducing glycative stress. Our study demonstrates that blunting glycative stress prevents the long-term impact of endothelial dysfunction on vascular aging.
Project description:Methylglyoxal (MG), an arginine-directed glycating agent, is implicated in diabetic late complications. MG is detoxified by glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) of the cytosolic glyoxalase system. The aim was to investigate the effects of MG accumulation by GLO1-knockdown under hyperglycaemic conditions in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) hypothesizing that the accumulation of MG accounts for the deleterious effects on vascular function. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of GLO1 was performed and MG concentrations were determined. The impact of MG on the cell proteome and targets of MG glycation was analysed, and confirmed by Western blotting. Markers of endothelial function and apoptosis were assessed. Collagen content was assayed in cell culture supernatant. GLO1-knockdown increased MG concentration in cells and culture medium. This was associated with a differential abundance of cytoskeleton stabilisation proteins, intermediate filaments and proteins involved in posttranslational modification of collagen. An increase in fibrillar collagens 1 and 5 was detected. The extracellular concentration of endothelin-1 was increased following GLO1-knockdown, whereas the phosphorylation and amount of eNOS was not influenced by GLO1-knockdown. The expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and of MCP-1 was elevated and apoptosis was increased. MG accumulation by GLO1-knockdown provoked collagen expression, endothelial inflammation and dysfunction and apoptosis which might contribute to vascular damage.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One key mechanism for endothelial dysfunction is endothelial NOS (eNOS) uncoupling, whereby eNOS generates superoxide (O(2) (•-) ) rather than NO. We explored the effect of pyridoxine on eNOS uncoupling induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential molecular mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HUVECs were incubated with ox-LDL with/without pyridoxine, N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), chelerythrine chloride (CHCI) or apocynin. Endothelial O(2) (•-) was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence, and O(2) (•-) -sensitive fluorescent dye dihydroethidium (DHE). NO levels were measured by chemiluminescence, PepTag Assay for non-radioactive detection of PKC activity, depletion of PKC? and p47phox by siRNA silencing and the states of phospho-eNOS Thr495, total-eNOS, phospho-PKC?/?II, total PKC, phospho-PKC?, total PKC? and p47phox were measured by Western blot. KEY RESULTS: Ox-LDL significantly increased O(2) (•-) production and reduced NO levels released from HUVECs; an effect reversed by eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME. Pyridoxine pretreatment significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced O(2) (•-) generation and preserved NO levels. Pyridoxine also prevented the ox-LDL-induced reduction in phospho-eNOS Thr495 and PKC activity. These protective effects of pyridoxine were abolished by the PKC inhibitor, CHCI, or siRNA silencing of PKC?. However, depletion of p47phox or treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, had no influence on these effects. Also, cytosol p47phox expression was unchanged by the different treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Pyridoxine mitigated eNOS uncoupling induced by ox-LDL. This protectant effect was related to phosphorylation of eNOS Thr495 stimulated by PKC?, not via NADPH oxidase. These results provide support for the use of pyridoxine in ox-LDL-related vascular endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is frequently reported to phosphorylate Ser1177 of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), and therefore, is linked with a relaxing effect. However, previous studies failed to consistently demonstrate a major role for AMPK on eNOS-dependent relaxation. As AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS on the inhibitory Thr495 site, this study aimed to determine the role of AMPK?1 and ?2 subunits in the regulation of NO-mediated vascular relaxation. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and acetylcholine was assessed in aortic and carotid artery segments from mice with global (AMPK?-/-) or endothelial-specific deletion (AMPK??EC) of the AMPK? subunits. In control and AMPK?1-depleted human umbilical vein endothelial cells, eNOS phosphorylation on Ser1177 and Thr495 was assessed after AMPK activation with thiopental or ionomycin. Global deletion of the AMPK?1 or ?2 subunit in mice did not affect vascular reactivity. The endothelial-specific deletion of the AMPK?1 subunit attenuated phenylephrine-mediated contraction in an eNOS- and endothelium-dependent manner. In in vitro studies, activation of AMPK did not alter the phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177, but increased its phosphorylation on Thr495. Depletion of AMPK?1 in cultured human endothelial cells decreased Thr495 phosphorylation without affecting Ser1177 phosphorylation. The results of this study indicate that AMPK?1 targets the inhibitory phosphorylation Thr495 site in the calmodulin-binding domain of eNOS to attenuate basal NO production and phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction.
Project description:Metabolic dysfunction of endothelial cells in hyperglycemia contributes to the development of vascular complications of diabetes where increased reactive glycating agent, methylglyoxal (MG), is involved. We assessed if increased MG glycation induced proteotoxic stress, identifying related metabolic drivers and protein targets. Human aortal endothelial cells (HAECs) were incubated in high glucose concentration (20 mM versus 5 mM control) in vitro for 3-6 days. Flux of glucose metabolism, MG formation and glycation and changes in cytosolic protein abundances, MG modification and proteotoxic responses were assessed. Similar studies were performed with human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells where similar outcomes were observed. HAECs exposed to high glucose concentration showed increased cellular concentration of MG (2.27 ± 0.21 versus 1.28 ± 0.03 pmol/106 cells, P < 0.01) and formation of MG-modified proteins (24.0 ± 3.7 versus 14.1 ± 3.2 pmol/106 cells/day; P < 0.001). In proteomics analysis, high glucose concentration increased proteins of the heat shock response - indicating activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) with downstream inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses. Proteins susceptible to MG modification were enriched in protein folding, protein synthesis, serine/threonine kinase signalling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. MG was increased in high glucose by increased flux of MG formation linked to increased glucose metabolism mediated by proteolytic stabilisation and increase of hexokinase-2 (HK-2); later potentiated by proteolytic down regulation of glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) - the major enzyme of MG metabolism. Silencing of Glo1, selectively increasing MG, activated the UPR similarly. Silencing of HK-2 prevented increased glucose metabolism and MG formation. trans-Resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP) corrected increased MG and glucose metabolism by increasing expression of Glo1 and decreasing expression of HK-2. Increased MG glycation activates the UPR in endothelial cells and thereby may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetic vascular disease where tRES-HESP may provide effective therapy.
Project description:NO production catalysed by eNOS (endothelial nitric-oxide synthase) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased ·NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the AIE (autoinhibitory element) in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS activation with a basal level of calcium, implying that the AIE might regulate eNOS activation through modulating phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177. Here we generated stable clones in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells with a series of deletion mutants in both the AIE (?594-604, ?605-612 and ?626-634) and the C-terminal tail (?14; deletion of 1164-1177). The expression of ?594-604 and ?605-612 mutants in non-stimulated HEK-293 cells substantially increased nitrate/nitrite release into the culture medium; the other two mutants, ?626-634 and ?1164-1177, displayed no significant difference when compared with WTeNOS (wild-type eNOS). Intriguingly, mutant ?594-604 showed close correlation between Ser1177 phosphorylation and Thr495 dephosphorylation, and NO production. Our results have indicated that N-terminal portion of AIE (residues 594-604) regulates eNOS activity through coordinated phosphorylation on Ser1177 and Thr495.
Project description:Ivabradine not only reduces heart rate but has other cardiac and vascular protective effects including anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial enzyme in maintaining endothelial activity, we aimed to investigate the impact of ivabradine in low shear stress (LSS) induced inflammation and endothelial injury and the role of eNOS played in it. Endothelial cells (ECs) were subjected to LSS at 2dyne/cm2, with 1 hour of ivabradine (0.04?M) or LY294002 (10?M) pre-treatment. The mRNA expression of IL-6, VCAM-1 along with eNOS were measured by QPCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) and DCF, and protein phosphorylation was detected by western blot. It demonstrated that ivabradine decreased LSS induced inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Western blot showed reduced rictor and Akt-Ser473 as well as increased eNOS-Thr495 phosphorylation. However, mTORC1 pathway was only increased when LSS applied within 30 minutes. These effects were reversed by ivabradine. It would appear that ivabradine diminish ROS generation by provoking mTORC2/Akt phosphorylation and repressing mTORC1 induced eNOS-Thr495 activation. These results together suggest that LSS induced endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress are suppressed by ivabradine via mTORC2/Akt activation and mTORC1/eNOS reduction.
Project description:Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are elevated under diabetic conditions and associated with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation in humans. It has been demonstrated that AGEs evoke oxidative and inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Here, we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms by which AGEs exacerbate the endothelial dysfunction in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs).30 type 2 diabetic patients with or without coronary artery atherosclerosis were recruited for this study. Plasma levels of AGE peptides (AGE-p) were analyzed using flow injection assay. Endothelial function was tested by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). Further investigations were performed to determine the effects and mechanisms of AGEs on endothelial dysfunction in HCAECs.AGE-p was inversely associated with FMD in diabetic patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis in our study. After treated with AGEs, HCAECs showed significant reductions of eNOS mRNA and protein levels including eNOS and phospho-eNOS Ser1177, eNOS mRNA stability, eNOS enzyme activity, and cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, whereas superoxide anion production was significantly increased. In addition, AGEs significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP content and catalase and superoxyde dismutase (SOD) activities, whereas it increased NADPH oxidase activity. Treatment of the cells with antioxidants SeMet, SOD mimetic MnTBAP and mitochondrial inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) effectively blocked these effects induced by AGEs. AGEs also increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and ERK1/2, whereas the specific inhibitors of p38, ERK1/2, and TTFA effectively blocked AGEs-induced reactive oxygen species production and eNOS downregulation.AGEs cause endothelial dysfunction by a mechanism associated with decreased eNOS expression and increased oxidative stress in HCAECs through activation of p38 and ERK1/2.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:High glucose (HG)-mediated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) dysfunction plays a key role in impaired bone formation induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Morroniside is an iridoid glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Cornus officinalis, and it has abundant biological activities associated with cell metabolism and tissue regeneration. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of morroniside on HG-induced BMSC dysfunction remain poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining were performed to assess the osteogenesis of BMSCs. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot (WB) were used to investigate the osteo-specific markers, receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) signalling and glyoxalase-1 (Glo1). Additionally, a T1DM rat model was used to assess the protective effect of morroniside in vivo. RESULTS:Morroniside treatment reverses the HG-impaired osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. Morroniside suppressed advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation and RAGE expression by triggering Glo1. Moreover, the enhanced osteogenesis due to morroniside treatment was partially blocked by the Glo1 inhibitor, BBGCP2. Furthermore, in vivo, morroniside attenuated bone loss and improved bone microarchitecture accompanied by Glo1 upregulation and RAGE downregulation. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that morroniside attenuates HG-mediated BMSC dysfunction partly through the inhibition of AGE-RAGE signalling and activation of Glo1 and may be a potential treatment for diabetic osteoporosis.
Project description:Background Arginase II activity contributes to reciprocal regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS ). We tested the hypotheses that arginase II activity participates in the regulation of Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II / eNOS activation, and this process is dependent on mitochondrial p32. Methods and Results Downregulation of arginase II increased the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) in microscopic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses, resulting in augmented eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and decreased eNOS Thr495 phosphorylation through Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II . These changes were observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with small interfering RNA against p32 (sip32). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fluorescence immunoassay, and ion chromatography, inhibition of arginase II reduced the amount of spermine, a binding molecule, and the release of Ca2+ from p32. In addition, arginase II gene knockdown using small interfering RNA and knockout arginase II -null mice resulted in reduced p32 protein level. In the aortas of wild-type mice, small interfering RNA against p32 induced eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and enhanced NO -dependent vasorelaxation. Arginase activity, p32 protein expression, spermine amount, and [Ca2+]m were increased in the aortas from apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, and intravenous administration of small interfering RNA against p32 restored Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II -dependent eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and improved endothelial dysfunction. The effects of arginase II downregulation were not associated with elevated NO production when tested in aortic endothelia from eNOS knockout mice. Conclusions These data demonstrate a novel function of arginase II in regulation of Ca2+-dependent eNOS phosphorylation. This novel mechanism drives arginase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and atherogenesis.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic of many vascular related diseases such as hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) is a unique stress sensor that largely acts to promote adaptive responses. Therefore, we sought to define the role of endothelial PGC-1? in vascular function using mice with endothelial specific loss of function (PGC-1? EC KO) and endothelial specific gain of function (PGC-1? EC TG). Here we report that endothelial PGC-1? is suppressed in angiotensin-II (ATII)-induced hypertension. Deletion of endothelial PGC-1? sensitized mice to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in response to ATII, whereas PGC-1? EC TG mice were protected. Mechanistically, PGC-1? promotes eNOS expression and activity, which is necessary for protection from ATII-induced dysfunction as mice either treated with an eNOS inhibitor (LNAME) or lacking eNOS were no longer responsive to transgenic endothelial PGC-1? expression. Finally, we determined that the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen related receptor ? (ERR?) is required to coordinate the PGC-1? -induced eNOS expression. In conclusion, endothelial PGC-1? expression protects from vascular dysfunction by promoting NO• bioactivity through ERR? induced expression of eNOS.