Ionizing irradiation induces acute haematopoietic syndrome and gastrointestinal syndrome independently in mice.
ABSTRACT: The role of bone marrow (BM) and BM-derived cells in radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome is controversial. Here we use bone marrow transplantation (BMT), total body irradiation (TBI) and abdominal irradiation (ABI) models to demonstrate a very limited, if any, role of BM-derived cells in acute GI injury and recovery. Compared with WT BM recipients, mice receiving BM from radiation-resistant PUMA KO mice show no protection from crypt and villus injury or recovery after 15 or 12?Gy TBI, but have a significant survival benefit at 12?Gy TBI. PUMA KO BM significantly protects donor-derived pan-intestinal haematopoietic (CD45+) and endothelial (CD105+) cells after IR. We further show that PUMA KO BM fails to enhance animal survival or crypt regeneration in radiosensitive p21 KO-recipient mice. These findings clearly separate the effects of radiation on the intestinal epithelium from those on the BM and endothelial cells in dose-dependent acute radiation toxicity.
Project description:The role of p53 in tissue protection is not well understood. Loss of p53 blocks apoptosis in the intestinal crypts following irradiation but paradoxically accelerates gastrointestinal (GI) damage and death. PUMA and p21 are the major mediators of p53-dependent apoptosis and cell-cycle checkpoints, respectively. To better understand these two arms of p53 response in radiation-induced GI damage, we compared animal survival, as well as apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle progression, DNA damage, and regeneration in the crypts of WT, p53 knockout (KO), PUMA KO, p21 KO, and p21/PUMA double KO (DKO) mice in a whole body irradiation model. Deficiency in p53 or p21 led to shortened survival but accelerated crypt regeneration associated with massive nonapoptotic cell death. Nonapoptotic cell death is characterized by aberrant cell-cycle progression, persistent DNA damage, rampant replication stress, and genome instability. PUMA deficiency alone enhanced survival and crypt regeneration by blocking apoptosis but failed to rescue delayed nonapoptotic crypt death or shortened survival in p21 KO mice. These studies help to better understand p53 functions in tissue injury and regeneration and to potentially improve strategies to protect or mitigate intestinal damage induced by radiation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Exposure to lethal doses of radiation has severe effects on normal tissues. Exposed individuals experience a plethora of symptoms in different organ systems including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, summarized as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). There are currently no approved drugs for mitigating GI-ARS. A recent high-throughput screen performed at the UCLA Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation identified compounds containing sulfonylpiperazine groups with radiation mitigation properties to the hematopoietic system and the gut. Among these 1-[(4-Nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (Compound #5) efficiently mitigated gastrointestinal ARS. However, the mechanism of action and target cells of this drug is still unknown. In this study we examined if Compound #5 affects gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) with its subepithelial domes called Peyer's patches. METHODS:C3H mice were irradiated with 0 or 12?Gy total body irradiation (TBI). A single dose of Compound #5 or solvent was administered subcutaneously 24?h later. 48?h after irradiation the mice were sacrificed, and the guts examined for changes in the number of visible Peyer's patches. In some experiments the mice received 4 daily injections of treatment and were sacrificed 96?h after TBI. For immune histochemistry gut tissues were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections were stained with H&E, anti-Ki67 or a TUNEL assay to assess the number of regenerating crypts, mitotic and apoptotic indices. Cells isolated from Peyer's patches were subjected to immune profiling using flow cytometry. RESULTS:Compound #5 significantly increased the number of visible Peyer's patches when compared to its control in non-irradiated and irradiated mice. Additionally, assessment of total cells per Peyer's patch isolated from these mice demonstrated an overall increase in the total number of Peyer's patch cells per mouse in Compound #5-treated mice. In non-irradiated animals the number of CD11bhigh in Peyer's patches increased significantly. These Compound #5-driven increases did not coincide with a decrease in apoptosis or an increase in proliferation in the germinal centers inside Peyer's patches 24?h after drug treatment. A single dose of Compound #5 significantly increased the number of CD45+ cells after 12?Gy TBI. Importantly, 96?h after 12?Gy TBI Compound #5 induced a significant rise in the number of visible Peyer's patches and the number of Peyer's patch-associated regenerating crypts. CONCLUSION:In summary, our study provides evidence that Compound #5 leads to an influx of immune cells into GALT, thereby supporting crypt regeneration preferentially in the proximity of Peyer's patches.
Project description:Total body irradiation (TBI) leads to dose- and tissue-specific lethality. In the current study, we demonstrate that a mitochondrion-targeted nitroxide JP4-039 given once 24?hours after 9-10?Gy TBI significantly improves mouse survival, and the recovery of intestinal barrier, differentiation and stem cell functions. The GI-protective effects are associated with rapid and selective induction of tight junction proteins and cytokines including TGF-?, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-22 and Notch signaling long before bone marrow depletion. However, no change was observed in crypt death or the expression of prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6 or IL-1?. Surprisingly, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) performed 24?hours after TBI improves intestinal barrier and stem cell recovery with induction of IL-10, IL-17a, IL-22, and Notch signaling. Further, BMT-rescued TBI survivors display increased intestinal permeability, impaired ISC function and proliferation, but not obvious intestinal inflammation or increased epithelial death. These findings identify intestinal epithelium as a novel target of radiation mitigation, and potential strategies to enhance ISC recovery and regeneration after accidental or medical exposures.
Project description:Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by ? ray ionizing radiation (IR). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI). Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg) significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs) and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM) cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.
Project description:Radiation is one of the most effective cancer treatments. However, gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome is a major limiting factor in abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy. The loss of crypt stem cells or villus endothelial cells has been suggested to be responsible for radiation-induced intestinal damage. We report here a critical role of the BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) in the radiosensitivity of intestinal epithelium and pathogenesis of GI syndrome. PUMA was induced in a p53-dependent manner and mediated radiation-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in the intestinal mucosa. PUMA-deficient mice exhibited blocked apoptosis in the intestinal progenitor and stem cells, enhanced crypt proliferation and regeneration, and prolonged survival following lethal doses of radiation. Unexpectedly, PUMA deficiency had little effect on radiation-induced intestinal endothelial apoptosis. Suppressing PUMA expression by antisense oligonucleotides provided significant intestinal radioprotection. Therefore, PUMA-mediated apoptosis in the progenitor and stem cell compartments is crucial for radiation-induced intestinal damage.
Project description:Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.
Project description:The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome via exposure to total-body irradiation in a murine model was investigated. The radiation exposure covered lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. Plasma citrulline profiles were generated over the first 6 d following total-body irradiation exposure of 6-15 Gy. In addition, plasma citrulline was comprehensively evaluated in the context of matching small intestine citrulline and histopathology. Higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with lower irradiation doses over the first 6 d following the irradiation insult. Furthermore, higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with higher crypt survival. The correlation of the plasma citrulline to crypt survival was more robust for higher irradiation doses and for later time points. The data suggested plasma citrulline was most informative for reflecting gastrointestinal injury resulting from exposure to 9-15 Gy total-body irradiation covering time-points 2-5 d post the irradiation insult.
Project description:Background:Radiation-induced intestinal injury is one of the side effects in patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of XH-103 on radiation-induced small intestinal injury and to explore its mechanism. Methods:C57BL/6N mice were irradiated and treated with XH-103. Firstly, the survival rate of mice exposed to 9.0?Gy and 11.0?Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was examined. Subsequently, at 3.5?d after IR, the small intestinal morphological changes were examined by HE. The numbers of crypt cells, the villus height, the expression of Ki67 and Lgr5, and the apoptotic cells in the intestinal crypts were examined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the expression of p53 and Bax was analyzed by WB. Results:Compared to the irradiation group, XH-103 improved the mice survival rate, protected the intestinal morphology of mice, decreased the apoptotic rate of intestinal crypt cells, maintained cell regeneration, and promoted crypt proliferation and differentiation. XH-103 also reduced the expression of p53 and Bax in the small intestine compared to the IR group. Conclusion:These data demonstrate that XH-103 can prevent radiation-induced intestinal injury, which is beneficial for the protection of radiation injuries.
Project description:Gastrointestinal toxicity is the primary limiting factor in abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy, but has no effective treatment currently. We recently showed a critical role of the BH3-only protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) in acute radiation-induced GI damage and GI syndrome in mice. Growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been shown to protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. We report here the suppression of PUMA through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/p53 axis in the intestinal stem cells as a novel molecular mechanism of growth factor-mediated intestinal radioprotection. IGF-1 or bFGF impaired radiation-induced apoptosis and the expression of PUMA and p53 in the crypt cells and intestinal stem cells. Using colonic epithelial cells that undergo PUMA-dependent and radiation-induced apoptosis, we found that a PI3K inhibitor, dominant-negative PI3K or Mdm2 antagonist restored the induction of PUMA, p53 and apoptosis in the presence of growth factors. In contrast, overexpression of AKT suppressed the induction of PUMA and p53 by radiation. Furthermore, inhibiting PI3K or activating p53 abrogated growth factor-mediated suppression of apoptosis and PUMA expression in the intestinal crypts and stem cells after radiation.
Project description:Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBP? is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBP? in radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury using a Cebpd knockout mouse model. Cebpd-/- mice showed increased lethality at 7.4 and 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), compared to Cebpd+/+ mice. Two weeks after a 6 Gy dose of TBI, Cebpd-/- mice showed decreased recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, platelets, myeloid cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells, decreased colony-forming ability of bone marrow progenitor cells, and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells compared to Cebpd+/+ controls. Cebpd-/- mice exhibited a significant dose-dependent decrease in intestinal crypt survival and in plasma citrulline levels compared to Cebpd+/+ mice after exposure to radiation. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of ?-H2AX in Cebpd-/- intestinal crypts and villi at 1 h post-TBI, increased mitotic index at 24 h post-TBI, and increase in apoptosis in intestinal crypts and stromal cells of Cebpd-/- compared to Cebpd+/+ mice at 4 h post-irradiation. This study uncovers a novel biological function for C/EBP? in promoting the response to radiation-induced DNA-damage and in protecting hematopoietic and intestinal tissues from radiation-induced injury.