Localized delivery of mechano-growth factor E-domain peptide via polymeric microstructures improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT: The Insulin like growth factor-I isoform mechano-growth factor (MGF), is expressed in the heart following myocardial infarction and encodes a unique E-domain region. To examine E-domain function, we delivered a synthetic peptide corresponding to the unique E-domain region of the human MGF (IGF-1Ec) via peptide eluting polymeric microstructures to the heart. The microstructures were made of poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate hydrogel and bioengineered to be the same size as an adult cardiac myocyte (100 × 15 × 15 ?m) and with a stiffness of 20 kPa. Peptide eluting microrods and empty microrods were delivered via intramuscular injection following coronary artery ligation in mice. To examine the physiologic consequences, we assessed the impact of peptide delivery on cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics using pressure-volume loops and gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. A significant decline in both systolic and diastolic function accompanied by pathologic hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks which decompensated further by 10 weeks post-infarct in the untreated groups. Delivery of the E-domain peptide eluting microrods decreased mortality, ameliorated the decline in hemodynamics, and delayed decompensation. This was associated with the inhibition of pathologic hypertrophy despite increasing vascular impedance. Delivery of the empty microrods had limited effects on hemodynamics and while pathologic hypertrophy persisted there was a decrease in ventricular stiffness. Our data show that cardiac restricted administration of the MGF E-domain peptide using polymeric microstructures may be used to prevent adverse remodeling of the heart and improve function following myocardial infarction.
Project description:Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) isoforms differ structurally in their E-domain regions and their temporal expression profile in response to injury. We and others have reported that Mechano-growth factor (MGF), which is equivalent to human IGF-1c and rodent IGF-1Eb isoforms, is expressed acutely following myocardial infarction (MI) in the mouse heart. To examine the function of the E-domain region, we have used a stabilized synthetic peptide analog corresponding to the unique 24 amino acid region E-domain of MGF. Here we deliver the human MGF E-domain peptide to mice during the acute phase (within 12 hours) and the chronic phase (8 weeks) post-MI. We assessed the impact of peptide delivery on cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics by pressure-volume (P-V) loop analysis and gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. A significant decline in both systolic and diastolic hemodynamics accompanied by pathologic hypertrophy occurred by 10 weeks post-MI in the untreated group. Delivery of the E-domain peptide during the acute phase post-MI ameliorated the decline in hemodynamics, delayed decompensation but did not prevent pathologic hypertrophy. Delivery during the chronic phase post-MI significantly improved systolic function, predominantly due to the effects on vascular resistance and prevented decompensation. While pathologic hypertrophy persisted there was a significant decline in atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression in the E-domain peptide treated hearts. Taken together our data suggest that administration of the MGF E-domain peptide derived from the propeptide form of IGF-1Ec may be used to facilitate the actions of IGF-I produced by the tissue during the progression of heart failure to improve cardiovascular function.
Project description:Local release of drugs may have many advantages for tissue repair but also presents major challenges. Bioengineering approaches allow microstructures to be fabricated that contain bioactive peptides for sustained local delivery. Heart tissue damage is associated with local increases in mechano growth factor (MGF), a member of the IGF-1 family. The E domain of MGF peptide is anti-apoptotic and a stem cell homing factor. The objectives of this study were to fabricate a microrod delivery device of poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogel loaded with MGF peptide and to determine the elution profile and bioactivity of MGF. The injectable microrods are 30 kPa stiffness and 15 ?m widths by 100 ?m lengths, chosen to match heart stiffness and myocyte size. Successful encapsulation of native MGF peptide within microrods was achieved with delivery of MGF for 2 weeks, as measured by HPLC. Migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) increased with MGF microrod treatment (1.72?±?0.23, p?<?0.05). Inhibition of the apoptotic pathway in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes was induced by 8 h of hypoxia (1 % O2). Protection from apoptosis by MGF microrod treatment was shown by the TUNEL assay and increased Bcl-2 expression (2?±?0.19, p?<?0.05). Microrods without MGF regulated the cytoskeleton, adhesion, and proliferation of hMSCs, and MGF had no effect on these properties. Therefore, the combination microdevice provided both the mechanical cues and 2-week MGF bioactivity to reduce apoptosis and recruit stem cells, suggesting potential use of MGF microrods for cardiac regeneration therapy in vivo.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) isoforms are expressed via alternative splicing. Expression of the minor isoform IGF-1Eb [also known as mechano-growth factor (MGF)] is responsive to cell stress. Since IGF-1 isoforms differ in their E-domain regions, we are interested in determining the biological function of the MGF E-domain. To do so, a synthetic peptide analog was used to gain mechanistic insight into the actions of the E-domain. Treatment of H9c2 cells indicated a rapid cellular uptake mechanism that did not involve IGF-1 receptor activation but resulted in a nuclear localization. Peptide treatment inhibited the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H9c2 cells subjected to cell stress with sorbitol by preventing the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Therefore, we administered the peptide at the time of myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. At 2 weeks post-MI cardiac function, gene expression and cell death were assayed. A significant decline in both systolic and diastolic function was evident in untreated mice based on PV loop analysis. Delivery of the E-peptide ameliorated the decline in function and resulted in significant preservation of cardiac contractility. Associated with these changes were an inhibition of pathologic hypertrophy and significantly fewer apoptotic nuclei in the viable myocardium of E-peptide-treated mice post-MI. We conclude that administration of the MGF E-domain peptide may provide a means of modulating local tissue IGF-1 autocrine/paracrine actions to preserve cardiac function, prevent cell death, and pathologic remodeling in the heart.
Project description:Human insulin-like growth factor 1 Ec (IGF-1Ec), also called mechano growth factor (MGF), is a splice variant of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been shown in vitro as well as in vivo to induce growth and hypertrophy in mechanically stimulated or damaged muscle. Growth, hypertrophy and responses to mechanical stimulation are important reactions of cartilaginous tissues, especially those in growth plates. Therefore, we wanted to ascertain if MGF is expressed in growth plate cartilage and if it influences proliferation of chondrocytes, as it does in musculoskeletal tissues. MGF expression was analyzed in growth plate and control tissue samples from piglets aged 3 to 6 weeks. Furthermore, growth plate chondrocyte cell culture was used to evaluate the effects of the MGF peptide on proliferation. We showed that MGF is expressed in considerable amounts in the tissues evaluated. We found the MGF peptide to be primarily located in the cytoplasm, and in some instances, it was also found in the nucleus of the cells. Addition of MGF peptides was not associated with growth plate chondrocyte proliferation.
Project description:The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-?1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-?1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, ?-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-?1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation.
Project description:We report flexible and monolithically integrated multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) arrays using morphology-controlled growth of GaN microstructures on chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene films. As the morphology-controlled growth template of GaN microstructures, we used position-controlled ZnO nanostructure arrays with different spacings grown on graphene substrates. In particular, we investigated the effect of the growth parameters, including micropattern spacings and growth time and temperature, on the morphology of the GaN microstructures when they were coated on ZnO nanostructures on graphene substrates. By optimizing the growth parameters, both GaN microrods and micropyramids formed simultaneously on the graphene substrates. Subsequent depositions of InGaN/GaN quantum well and p-GaN layers and n- and p-type metallization yielded monolithic integration of microstructural LED arrays on the same substrate, which enabled multicolor emission depending on the shape of the microstructures. Furthermore, the CVD graphene substrates beneath the microstructure LEDs facilitated transfer of the LED arrays onto any foreign substrate. In this study, Cu foil was used for flexible LEDs. The flexible devices exhibited stable electroluminescence, even under severe bending conditions. Cyclic bending tests demonstrated the excellent mechanical stability and reliability of the devices.
Project description:Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is the main compensatory response to chronic stress on the heart. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family members are effectors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases that induce myocyte growth. Although increased RSK activity has been observed in stressed myocytes, the functions of individual RSK family members have remained poorly defined, despite being potential therapeutic targets for cardiac disease.To demonstrate that type 3 RSK (RSK3) is required for cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.RSK3 contains a unique N-terminal domain that is not conserved in other RSK family members. We show that this domain mediates the regulated binding of RSK3 to the muscle A-kinase anchoring protein scaffold, defining a novel kinase anchoring event. Disruption of both RSK3 expression using RNA interference and RSK3 anchoring using a competing muscle A-kinase anchoring protein peptide inhibited the hypertrophy of cultured myocytes. In vivo, RSK3 gene deletion in the mouse attenuated the concentric myocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and catecholamine infusion.Taken together, these data demonstrate that anchored RSK3 transduces signals that modulate pathologic myocyte growth. Targeting of signaling complexes that contain select kinase isoforms should provide an approach for the specific inhibition of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and for the development of novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of heart failure.
Project description:Proteins are macromolecules with characteristic structures and biological functions. It is extremely challenging to obtain protein microtube structures through self-assembly as proteins are very complex and flexible. Here we present a strategy showing how a specific protein, ADP-ribosyl cyclase, helically self-assembles from monomers into hexagonal nanochains and further to highly ordered crystalline microtubes. The structures of protein nanochains and consequently self-assembled superlattice were determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.5 A resolution and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The protein initially forms into dimers that have a fixed size of 5.6 nm, and then, helically self-assembles into 35.6 nm long hexagonal nanochains. One such nanochain consists of six dimers (12 monomers) that stack in order by a pseudo P6(1) screw axis. Seven nanochains produce a series of large-scale assemblies, nanorods, forming the building blocks for microrods. A proposed aging process of microrods results in the formation of hollow microstructures. Synthesis and characterization of large scale self-assembled protein microtubes may pave a new pathway, capable of not only understanding the self-assembly dynamics of biological materials, but also directing design and fabrication of multifunctional nanobuilding blocks with particular applications in biomedical engineering.
Project description:We have previously reported that a synthetic mechano-growth factor (MGF) C-terminal E-domain with 25 amino acids (MGF-C25E) promotes rat tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. However, the role of the nucleus in MGF-C25E-promoted tenocyte migration and the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that MGF-C25E increases the Young's modulus of tenocytes through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This increase is not accompanied by an obvious change in the expression of Lamin A/C but is accompanied by significant chromatin condensation, indicating that MGF-C25E-induced chromatin condensation may contribute to the increased nuclear stiffness. Moreover, DNA methylation is observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. Inhibition of DNA methylation suppresses the elevation in chromatin condensation, in nuclear stiffness, and in tenocyte migration induced by MGF-C25E. The inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) or extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signals represses MGF-C25E-promoted DNA methylation. It also abolishes chromatin condensation, nuclear stiffness, and cell migration. Taken together, our results suggest that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration by increasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in tenocyte migration and new insight into the molecular mechanisms of MGF-promoted tenocyte migration.
Project description:Major histocompatibility complex class I proteins play a key role in the recognition and presentation of peptide antigens to the host immune system. The structure of various major histocompatibility complex class I proteins has been determined experimentally in complex with several antigenic peptides. However, the structure in the unbound (empty) form is not known. To study the conformational dynamics of the empty major histocompatibility complex class I molecule comparative molecular dynamics simulations have been performed starting from the crystal structure of a peptide bound class I peptide-binding domain in the presence and absence of a peptide ligand. Simulations including the bound peptide stayed close to the experimental start structure at both simulation temperatures (300 and 355 K) during the entire simulation of 26 ns. Several independent simulations in the absence of peptide indicate that the empty domain may not adopt a single defined conformation but is conformationally significantly more heterogeneous in particular within the alpha-helices that flank the peptide binding cleft. The calculated conformational dynamics along the protein chain correlate well with available spectroscopic data and with the observed site-specific sensitivity of the empty class I protein to proteolytic digestion. During the simulations at 300 K the binding region for the peptide N-terminus stayed close to the conformation in the bound state, whereas the anchor region for the C-terminus showed significantly larger conformational fluctuations. This included a segment at the beginning of the second alpha-helix in the domain that is likely to be involved in the interaction with the chaperone protein tapasin during the peptide-loading process. The simulation studies further indicate that peptide binding at the C- and N-terminus may follow different mechanisms that involve different degrees of induced conformational changes in the peptide-binding domain. In particular binding of the peptide C-terminus may require conformational stabilization by chaperone proteins during peptide loading.