Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis.
ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the gynecological malignancy with the poorest prognosis, in part due to its high incidence of recurrence. Platinum agents are widely used as a first-line treatment against ovarian cancer. Recurrent tumors, however, frequently demonstrate acquired chemo-resistance to platinum agent toxicity. To improve chemo-sensitivity, combination chemotherapy regimens have been investigated. This study examined anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity of Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) extracts on ovarian cancer cells, in particular, cells resistant to cisplatin. Six ovarian cancer cells including A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780 (A2780cis) as representative cell models were used. OD was extracted with water (WOD) or 50% methanol (MOD). MOD significantly induced cell death in both cisplatin-sensitive cells and cisplatin-resistant cells. The combination treatment of MOD with cisplatin reduced viability in A2780cis cells more effectively than treatment with cisplatin alone. MOD in A2780cis cells resulted in downregulation of the epigenetic modulator KDM1B and the DNA repair gene DCLRE1B. Transcriptional suppression of KDM1B and DCLRE1B induced cisplatin sensitivity. Knockdown of KDM1B led to downregulation of DCLRE1B expression, suggesting that DCLRE1B was a KDM1B downstream target. Taken together, OD extract effectively promoted cell death in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells under cisplatin treatment through modulating KDM1B and DCLRE1B.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The standard treatment of ovarian cancer is surgery followed by a chemotherapeutic combination consisting of a platinum agent, such as cisplatin and a taxane-like paclitaxel. We previously observed that patients with ovarian cancer wild-type for p53 had a poorer survival rate than did those with p53 mutations. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular changes of epithelial ovarian cancer cells with wild-type p53 in response to treatment with cisplatin could reveal novel mechanisms of chemoresistance. METHODS:Gene expression profiling was performed on an ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with wild-type p53 treated with cisplatin. A gene encoding a secretory protein growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified to be highly induced by cisplatin treatment in vitro. This was further validated in a panel of wild-type and mutant p53 ovarian cancer cell lines, as well as in mouse orthotopic models. The mouse tumor tissues were further analyzed by histology and RNA-seq. RESULTS:GDF15 was identified as one of the highly induced genes by cisplatin or carboplatin in ovarian cancer cell lines with wild-type p53. The wild-type p53-induced expression of GDF15 and GDF15-confered chemotherapy resistance was further demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study also discovered that GDF15-knockdown (GDF15-KD) tumors had less stromal component and had different repertoires of activated and inhibited canonical pathways in the stromal cell and cancer cell components from that of the control tumors after cisplatin treatment. CONCLUSIONS:GDF15 expression from the wild-type p53 cancer cells can modulate the canonical pathways in the tumor microenvironment in response to cisplatin, which is a possible mechanism of chemoresistance.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing identification of factors that are regulated during initial treatment and of acquired resistance-related genes. In this study, we used whole genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant variant A2780cis, before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo.
Project description:Cisplatin is a platinum-based drug that is used for the treatment of human gynecological cancers. However, molecular mechanisms of chemo-resistance in ovarian cancer are poorly understood. The aim of the study is to examine the role of coiled coil domain containing protein 69 (CCDC69) in the underlying mechanism of chemoresistance. Heavy CpG methylation (73.1% and 74.3%) was found in A2780 and A2780cis cells assessing by bisulfite sequencing. Restoration in the expression of CCDC69 was found in A2780 and A2780cis cells after 5-Aza-dC treatment. In fact, the expression levels of CCDC69 were about 3-4 fold higher in cisplatin-resistant A2780cis cells than its parental cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. When knockout CCDC69 in cisplatin-resistant A2780cis and SKOV3 cells by CRISPR/Cas9, the CCDC69 knockout cisplatin-resistant A2780cis and CCDC69 knockout SKOV3 cells were also shown increased sensitive to cisplatin treatment. Moreover, treating CCDC69 knockout A2780cis cells with cisplatin, abrogated G1 and G2/M arrest, increased of cleaved caspase 3&8, greater ??m loss and higher levels of Bax were observed. When restoring CCDC69 expression in CCDC69 knockout A2780cis cells by transient transfection, it attenuated sensitivity to cisplatin. By immunoblotting, we found that depletion of CCDC69 increased p53 acetylation at K382 site and Bax mitochondrial redistribution. Additionally, inhibition of c-Myc enhanced cisplatin sensitivities in CCDC69 knockout A2780cis cells, overexpression of c-Myc reduced apoptosis in CCDC69 knockout SKOV3 cells. Our results showed that CCDC69 inhibition might interfere with the effectiveness of combination therapy with platinum drugs.
Project description:Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is a clinical challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) and limits survival. Therefore, innovative drugs against platinum-resistance are urgently needed. Our therapeutic concept is based on the conjugation of two chemotherapeutic compounds to a monotherapeutic pro-drug, which is taken up by cancer cells and cleaved into active cytostatic metabolites. Here, we explore the activity of the duplex-prodrug 5-FdU-ECyd, covalently linking 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5-FdU) and 3'-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd), on platinum-resistant OC cells. RNA-Sequencing was used for characterization of 5-FdU-ECyd treated platinum-sensitive A2780 and isogenic platinum-resistant A2780cis. Overall design: Platinum-sensitive A2780 and platinum resistant-cells A2780cis were treated with 5−FdU−Ecyd for 6h and 12h, there are also 6h and 12h untreated controls, all groups are in triplicates
Project description:Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls. This coincided with increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). DNA sequencing of EOC cell lines revealed previously unreported somatic mutations in the Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (SMAD4) within platinum-resistant cells. A2780 cells engineered to exogenously express these SMAD4 mutations demonstrate up-regulation of EMT markers following carboplatin treatment, are more resistant to carboplatin, and release exosomes which impart a ~1.7-fold increase in resistance in naive A2780 recipient cells as compared to controls. These studies provide the first evidence that acquired SMAD4 mutations enhance the chemo-resistance profile of EOC and present a novel mechanism in which exchange of tumor-derived exosomes perpetuates an EMT phenotype, leading to the development of subpopulations of platinum-refractory cells.
Project description:Cisplatin and carboplatin are the primary first-line therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, resistance to these platinum-based drugs occurs in the large majority of initially responsive tumors, subsequently resulting in a poor long-term prognosis. To model the onset of drug resistance, we measured gene expression alterations associated with cisplatin resistance. Overall design: We treated clonally derived, drug-sensitive A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells with increasing concentrations of cisplatin. After 5 cycles of drug selection, the isogenic drug-sensitive (parental A2780) and -resistant (Round5 A2780) cell lines were subjected to mRNA expression microarray analyses.
Project description:Cisplatin and carboplatin are the primary first-line therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, resistance to these platinum-based drugs occurs in the large majority of initially responsive tumors, subsequently resulting in a poor long-term prognosis. To model the onset of drug resistance, we measured gene expression alterations associated with cisplatin resistance. We treated clonally derived, drug-sensitive A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells with increasing concentrations of cisplatin. After 5 cycles of drug selection, the isogenic drug-sensitive (parental A2780) and -resistant (Round5 A2780) cell lines were subjected to mRNA expression microarray analyses.
Project description:Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity.Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT-PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays.Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers.Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.
Project description:Due to the ability of ovarian cancer (OCa) to acquire drug resistance, it has been difficult to develop efficient and safe chemotherapy for OCa. Here, we examined the therapeutic use of a new self-assembled core-shell nanoscale coordination polymer nanoparticle (NCP-Carbo/GMP) that delivers high loadings of carboplatin (28.0 ± 2.6 wt %) and gemcitabine monophosphate (8.6 ± 1.5 wt %). A strong synergistic effect was observed between carboplatin and gemcitabine against platinum-resistant OCa cells, SKOV-3 and A2780/CDPP, in vitro. The coadministration of carboplatin and gemcitabine in the NCP led to prolonged blood circulation half-life (11.8 ± 4.8 h) and improved tumor uptake of the drugs (10.2 ± 4.4% ID/g at 24 h), resulting in 71% regression and 80% growth inhibition of SKOV-3 and A2780/CDDP tumors, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that NCP particles provide great potential for the codelivery of multiple chemotherapeutics for treating drug-resistant cancer.