Implementation of the third universal definition of myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting: a survey study in Western Europe.
ABSTRACT: Diagnosing a postoperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is challenging, as the normally used criteria are more difficult to interpret. The rate of implementation of the consensus-based new diagnostic criteria for postoperative myocardial infarction proposed by the third universal definition of myocardial infarction is unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to address the implementation of the third universal definition of postoperative myocardial infarction following coronary artery bypass grafting.We conducted a web-based survey by sending 4 waves of invitations via e-mail to cardiothoracic surgeons in 12 Western European countries. Of the 302 participating cardiothoracic specialists, from 182 different centers, 213 (71%) were aware that troponin is the preferred biomarker and 112 (37%) knew that using a cut-off level of >10 times the 99th percentile is recommended. Overall, 90 (30%) participants (strongly) agreed with implementation of this cut-off level in their clinical practice. Troponin was used in clinical practice by 149 (49%) of the participants. In total, 117 (89%) of the 131 participants with a local guideline confirmed ECG changes as a diagnostic criterion in that guideline. ST segmental changes (75, 64%) were used more often for diagnosing postoperative myocardial infarction than Q waves (64, 55%) or new left bundle branch blocks (34, 29%).Cardiac biomarkers and ECG changes were not used in concordance with the third universal definition, and only a minority had a positive attitude toward implementation of the proposed cut-off level for troponin in their clinical practice.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a key endpoint in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but heterogeneous definitions limit comparisons across RCTs or meta-analyses. The 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology MI redefinition and the 2007 universal MI definition consensus documents made recommendations to address this issue. In cardiovascular randomized trials, we evaluated the impact of implementation of three key recommendations from these reports-troponin use to define MI; separate reporting of spontaneous and procedure-related MI; and infarct size reporting. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and MEDLINE databases for cardiovascular RCTs with more than 500 patients in which enrolment began between September 2000 and July 2012 and that listed MI in the primary endpoint. We searched English-language publications with primary results or design papers. Of 3222 studies screened, 96 (3.0%) met our criteria. We extracted enrolment start date, number of patients and MI events, follow-up duration, and coronary revascularization rate. Data extraction quality was assessed by duplicated extractions. Of 96 RCTs, 80 had a primary results publication, comprising 608 091 patients and 43 621 endpoint MIs. Myocardial infarction represented 45.3% (95% confidence interval, 40.2-50.4) of events in the primary composite endpoint. Troponin defined MI in 57% (53/93) of trials with an MI definition available. Of these RCTs, three used troponin only if creatine kinase-MB was unavailable, six used troponin to define peri-procedural MI, seven specified the 99th percentile as the MI decision limit, and three reported spontaneous and procedure-related MI separately. None reported biomarker-based infarct size, but five reported MI as multiples of the assay upper limit of normal. Although MI is a major component of cardiovascular RCT primary endpoints, standardized MI reporting and implementation of consensus document recommendations for MI definition are limited. Developing appropriate strategies for uniform implementation is required.
Project description:Asymptomatic myocardial injury following noncardiac surgery (MINS) is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality and may go unrecognized based on standard diagnostic definition for myocardial infarction (MI). Given lack of published research on MINS in India, our study aims to determine incidence of MINS in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery at our tertiary care hospital, and evaluate the clinical characteristics including 30-day outcome.The prospective observational study included patients >65 years or >45 years with either hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or peripheral arterial disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. MINS was peak troponin level of ?0.03 ng/dL at 12-hour or 24-hour postoperative. All patients were followed for 30 days postoperatively. Predictors of MINS and mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients categorized based on peak troponin cut-off values determined by receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed by Kaplan-Meir test to compare the survival of patients between the groups.Among 1075 patients screened during 34-month period, the incidence of MINS was 17.5% (188/1075). Patients with DM, CAD, or who underwent peripheral nerve block anaesthesia were 1.5 (P?<?.01), 2 (P?<?.001), and 12 (P?<?.001) times, respectively, more likely to develop MINS than others. Patients with heart rates ?96 bpm before induction of anesthesia were significantly associated with MINS (P?=?.005) and mortality (P?=?.02). The 30-day mortality in MINS cohort was 11.7% (22/188, 95% CI 7.5%-17.2%) vs 2.5% (23/887, 95% CI 1.7%-3.9%) in patients without MINS (P?<?.001). ECG changes (P?=?.002), peak troponin values >1 ng/mL (P?=?.01) were significantly associated with mortality. A peak troponin cut-off of >0.152 ng/mL predicted mortality among MINS patients at 72% sensitivity and 58% specificity. Lack of antithrombotic therapy following MINS was independent predictor of mortality (P?<?.001), with decreased mortality in patients who took post-op ASA (Aspirin) or Clopidogrel. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op ASA intake is 6.7% vs 12.1% among MINS patients without post-op ASA intake. Mortality among MINS patients with post-op Clopidogrel intake is 10.5% vs 11.8% among MINS patients without post-op Clopidogrel intake.A higher (17.5%, 95% CI 15-19%) incidence of MINS was observed in our patient cohort with significant association with 30-day mortality. Serial postoperative monitoring of troponin following noncardiac surgery as standard of care, would identify "at risk" patients translating to improved outcomes.
Project description:End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) is dismal. Although cardiac troponin is a key diagnostic test, troponin levels are often elevated in ESRD patients without evidence of MI. Thus, this study attempted to determine the optimal diagnostic value of high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) by dialysis modality in ESRD patients.Medical records of adult dialysis patients who visited tertiary emergency department (ED) were collected retrospectively. Diagnosis of MI was made according to the fourth universal definition of MI. The cut-off values were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.Medical records of 1144 patients were analyzed and MI was diagnosed in 82 patients (75 on hemodialysis and 7 on peritoneal dialysis). The optimal cut-off value of hsTnI in hemodialysis patients was 75 ng/L, with 93.33% sensitivity and 60.76% specificity. Area under the curve (AUC) was .870 (95% confidence interval (CI) .833-.906). The optimal cut-off value of hsTnI in peritoneal dialysis patients was 144 ng/L, with 100.00% sensitivity and 83.10% specificity. AUC was .943 (95% CI .893-.992).The dialysis modality should also be considered when diagnosing MI using hsTnI in ESRD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction requires an increase or decrease in cardiac troponin for the classification of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether the characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients admitted with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction differ by the initial biomarker pattern. METHODS:We identified patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance Study admitted with chest pain and an initially elevated cardiac troponin I, who presented within 12 hours of symptom onset and were classified with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A change in cardiac troponin I required an absolute difference of at least 0.02 ng/mL on the first day of hospitalization, prior to invasive cardiac procedures. RESULTS:A total of 1926 hospitalizations met the inclusion criteria, with increasing cardiac troponin I more commonly observed (78%). Patients with decreasing cardiac troponin I were more often black (45% vs. 35%) and women (54% vs. 40%), and were less likely to receive non-aspirin antiplatelets (44% vs. 63%), lipid-lowering agents (62% vs. 80%), and invasive angiography (38% vs. 64%). Inhospital mortality was 3%, irrespective of the cardiac troponin I pattern. However, patients with decreasing cardiac troponin I had twice the 28-day mortality (12% vs. 5%; P=0.01). Fatalities within 28 days were more often attributable to non-cardiovascular causes in those with decreasing versus increasing cardiac troponin I (75% vs. 38%; P=0.01). CONCLUSION:Patients presenting with chest pain and an initially elevated cardiac troponin I which subsequently decreases are less often managed by evidence-based therapies and have greater mortality, primarily driven by non-cardiovascular causes. Whether associations are attributable to type 2 myocardial infarction or a subacute presentation merits further investigation.
Project description:Introduction Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can lead to severe disease or death and is characterized by a wide range of mild to severe symptoms. In addition to the lungs, studies have reported the involvement of the stomach, intestine, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors in the heart. Case report We present a case of a patient with COVID-19 who died soon after developing multi-organ failure and myocardial injury due to COVID-19-associated pneumonia. A 71-year-old man who contracted COVID-19 was admitted to the hospital after presenting with fever for 7 days and developed dyspnea. Following treatment, his respiratory status worsened. Thus, he was transferred to our hospital for intensive care on day 11. Physical examination revealed fever, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and no chest pain. Invasive positive pressure ventilation was initiated for acute respiratory distress syndrome on day 14. On day 15, we observed renal, liver, and coagulation dysfunction, indicating multi-organ failure. Chest radiography did not show clear signs of an increased cardiothoracic ratio or pulmonary congestion. An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed signs of myocardial infarction, which was confirmed by elevated troponin I and creatine kinase levels. The patient's circulatory dynamics did not improve on medication, and he died on day 16. Conclusions We report the case of a patient with severe COVID-19 who died from an exacerbation of myocardial injury. Clinicians should not only evaluate respiration but also assess the heart by performing a 12-lead ECG, echocardiogram, and myocardial injury marker examination. Together, these tools can help predict which patients will develop severe COVID-19.
Project description:AIMS:The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the ability of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurements to rule out acute myocardial infarction and (b) the ability of a single high baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement to rule in acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain. METHODS AND RESULTS:Embase, Medline, Cochrane, Web of Science and Google scholar were searched for prospective cohort studies that evaluated parameters of diagnostic accuracy of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T to rule out acute myocardial infarction and a single baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l to rule in acute myocardial infarction. The search yielded 21 studies for the systematic review, of which 14 were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 11,929 patients and an overall prevalence of acute myocardial infarction of 13.0%. For rule-out, six studies presented the sensitivity of serial measurements <14 ng/l. This cut-off classified 60.1% of patients as rule-out and the summary sensitivity was 96.7% (95% confidence interval: 92.3-99.3). Three studies presented the sensitivity of a one-hour algorithm with a baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value<12 ng/l and delta 1 hour <3 ng/l. This algorithm classified 60.2% of patients as rule-out and the summary sensitivity was 98.9% (96.4-100). For rule-in, six studies reported the specificity of baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l. The summary specificity was 94.6% (91.5-97.1). CONCLUSION:Serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement strategies to rule out acute myocardial infarction perform well, and a single baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l to rule in acute myocardial infarction has a high specificity.
Project description:Importance:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I testing is widely used to evaluate patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. A cardiac troponin concentration of less than 5 ng/L identifies patients at presentation as low risk, but the optimal threshold is uncertain. Objective:To evaluate the performance of a cardiac troponin I threshold of 5 ng/L at presentation as a risk stratification tool in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Data Sources:Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases from January 1, 2006, to March 18, 2017. Study Selection:Prospective studies measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome in which the diagnosis was adjudicated according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Data Extraction and Synthesis:The systematic review identified 19 cohorts. Individual patient-level data were obtained from the corresponding authors of 17 cohorts, with aggregate data from 2 cohorts. Meta-estimates for primary and secondary outcomes were derived using a binomial-normal random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. Performance was evaluated in subgroups and across a range of troponin concentrations (2-16 ng/L) using individual patient data. Results:Of 11?845 articles identified, 104 underwent full-text review, and 19 cohorts from 9 countries were included. Among 22?457 patients included in the meta-analysis (mean age, 62 [SD, 15.5] years; n?=?9329 women [41.5%]), the primary outcome occurred in 2786 (12.4%). Cardiac troponin I concentrations were less than 5 ng/L at presentation in 11?012 patients (49%), in whom there were 60 missed index or 30-day events (59 index myocardial infarctions, 1 myocardial infarction at 30 days, and no cardiac deaths at 30 days). This resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% (95% CI, 99.3%-99.6%) for the primary outcome. There were no cardiac deaths at 30 days and 7 (0.1%) at 1 year, with a negative predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-99.9%) for cardiac death. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration of less than 5 ng/L identified those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. Further research is needed to understand the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this approach to risk stratification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myocardial infarction is most commonly caused by thrombosis occurring on a background of coronary atherosclerosis, resulting in reduced coronary flow. Less often, myocardial infarction can occur in the absence of coronary disease. The pathomechanism of myocardial infarction in such patients is heterogeneous and more challenging to diagnose and treat. European Society of Cardiology published a position paper on myocardial infarction in patients with non-obstructive coronary disease, with definitions and recommendations for investigations, in what has hitherto been an under-recognized and under-investigated Cinderella-like condition. However, the importance of obtaining a diagnosis is all the more important, since one treatment approach with revascularization and antithrombotic treatment does not 'fit all'. CASE SUMMARY:A 70-year-old male patient presented with chest pain at rest, associated with rise in troponin and without ECG changes. A diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was made. Coronary angiography showed a smooth stenosis which resolved with administration of intracoronary nitrate. A diagnosis of coronary artery spasm was made, and treatment initiated. After 18 months, the patient had recurrent chest pains at rest, unresponsive to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Cardiac magnetic resonance revealed extension of subendocardial infarction, without inducible ischaemia. CT coronary angiogram (CTCA) showed non-obstructive coronaries. Blood tests showed significant eosinophilia, raised troponin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) that fluctuated without correlation with symptoms or any ECG changes. A diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made, and immunosuppression commenced. DISCUSSION:Churg-Strauss syndrome is an autoimmune vasculitis in patients with history of atopy or late-onset asthma which when involving coronary arteries can lead to myocardial injury mimicking acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Identification is important to allow initiation of immunosuppression which can prevent development or progression.
Project description:The diagnosis of a postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is important in the orthopedic population because these events can be associated with significant cardiac morbidity. Plasma troponin I (cTnI) analysis has markedly increased our ability to detect myocardial damage. Using cTnI analysis for evidence of a PMI, we prospectively assessed all of our patients for (1) the 1-year incidence of PMI, (2) the clinical consequences of a PMI in relation to the level of the cTnI release, and (3) 6-month follow-up for cardiac complications. During a 12-month period, patients at risk for perioperative myocardial ischemia were assessed for a PMI by serum cTnI levels and daily serial ECGs. Patients with cTnI levels above the reference level (> or = 0.4 ng/ml) were also assessed for new cardiac regional wall motion abnormalities with an echocardiogram and 6-month postdischarge adverse cardiac events. Of the 758 patients who were assessed for a PMI, 49 patients had detectable cTnI levels (> or = 0.4 ng/ml); the incidence of a PMI was 0.6% of all surgical cases and 6.5% of those patients were at risk for a cardiac event. A PMI was more common after hip arthroplasty than other orthopedic procedures. Twenty-three patients had a cTnI level >3.0 ng/ml, and 74% these patients (17/23) had anginal symptoms and/or ischemic ECG changes. Nine of these patients (9/23) had new postoperative echocardiographic changes, five (5/23) required emergency transfer to a cardiac care unit, and 10 (10/23) had postoperative cardiac complications. In contrast, 15 patients with levels of cTnI <3.0 ng/ml and without ischemic ECG changes and/or anginal symptoms had no postoperative cardiac complications. Fourteen patients (14/47) had cardiac complications 6 months after discharge, including four cardiac deaths, one fatal stroke, and four patients with unstable anginal episodes that required a change in medical management, and six patients required coronary revascularization. Orthopedic surgical patients with cTnI level <3 ng/ml and without symptoms or ECG changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia (15/49) may have different risks than those with higher-level cTn1.
Project description:To obtain summary estimates of the accuracy of a single baseline measurement of the Elecsys Troponin T high-sensitive assay (Roche Diagnostics) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to the emergency department.Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies.Medline, Embase, and other relevant electronic databases were searched for papers published between January 2006 and December 2013.Studies were included if they evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a single baseline measurement of Elecsys Troponin T high-sensitive assay for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome.The first author screened all titles and abstracts identified through the searches and selected all potentially relevant papers. The screening of the full texts, the data extraction, and the methodological quality assessment, using the adapted QUADAS-2 tool, were conducted independently by two reviewers with disagreements being resolved through discussion or arbitration. If appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using the hierarchical bivariate model.Twenty three studies reported the performance of the evaluated assay at presentation. The results for 14 ng/L and 3-5 ng/L cut-off values were pooled separately. At 14 ng/L (20 papers), the summary sensitivity was 89.5% (95% confidence interval 86.3% to 92.1%) and the summary specificity was 77.1% (68.7% to 83.7%). At 3-5 ng/L (six papers), the summary sensitivity was 97.4% (94.9% to 98.7%) and the summary specificity was 42.4% (31.2% to 54.5%). This means that if 21 of 100 consecutive patients have the target condition (21%, the median prevalence across the studies), 2 (95% confidence interval 2 to 3) of 21 patients with acute myocardial infarction will be missed (false negatives) if 14 ng/L is used as a cut-off value and 18 (13 to 25) of 79 patients without acute myocardial infarction will test positive (false positives). If the 3-5 ng/L cut-off value is used, <1 (0 to 1) patient with acute myocardial infarction will be missed and 46 (36 to 54) patients without acute myocardial infarction will test positive.The results indicate that a single baseline measurement of the Elecsys Troponin T high-sensitive assay could be used to rule out acute myocardial infarction if lower cut-off values such as 3 ng/L or 5 ng/L are used. However, this method should be part of a comprehensive triage strategy and may not be appropriate for patients who present less than three hours after symptom onset. Care must also be exercised because of the higher imprecision of the evaluated assay and the greater effect of lot-to-lot reagent variation at low troponin concentrations.PROSPERO registration number CRD42013003926.