MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Approaches for the synthesis of biomaterials to facilitate the delivery of "biologics" is a major area of research in cancer therapy. Here we designed and characterized a hyaluronic acid (HA) based self-assembling nanoparticles that can target CD44 receptors overexpressed on multidrug resistance (MDR) ovarian cancer. The nanoparticle system is composed of HA-poly(ethyleneimine)/HA-poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEI/HA-PEG) designed to deliver MDR1 siRNA for the treatment of MDR in an ovarian cancer model.HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized, then the cellular uptake and knockdown efficiency of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles was further determined. A human xenograft MDR ovarian cancer model was established to evaluate the effects of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles and paclitaxel on MDR tumor growth.Our results demonstrated that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles successfully targeted CD44 and delivered MDR1 siRNA into OVCAR8TR (established paclitaxel resistant) tumors. Additionally, HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with MDR1 siRNA efficiently down-regulated the expression of MDR1 and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), inhibited the functional activity of Pgp, and subsequently increased cell sensitivity to paclitaxel. HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticle therapy followed by paclitaxel treatment inhibited tumor growth in MDR ovarian cancer mouse models.These findings suggest that this CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticle platform may be a clinicaly relevant gene delivery system for systemic siRNA-based anticancer therapeutics for the treatment of MDR cancers.
Project description:This paper focuses on the ability of a folate-decorated triblock copolymer to deliver a targeted dose of siRNA in order to overcome chemotherapy resistance which can commonly cause complications in ovarian cancer patients. The micelleplexes that are formed upon electrostatic interaction with siRNA are used to deliver siRNA in a targeted manner to SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells that overexpress folate receptor-? (FR?). The triblock copolymer consists of polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol). In this work, polymers of different molecular weights of PEG, as well as different grafting degrees of the (g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol) chains to PEI, were analyzed to optimize targeted siRNA delivery. The polymers, their micelleplexes, and the in vitro performance of the latter were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytrometry, western blot, confocal microscopy, and in luciferase assays. The different PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol conjugates showed suitable sizes below 260 nm, especially at N/P 5, which also allowed for full siRNA condensation. Furthermore, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that our best polymer was able to effectively deliver siRNA and that siRNA delivery resulted in efficient protein knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consequently, TLR4 knock down within SKOV-3 cells resensitized them toward paclitaxel (PTX) treatment, and apoptotic events increased. This study demonstrates that PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol conjugates are a reliable delivery system for siRNA and are able to mediate therapeutic protein knockdown within ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, this study provides further evidence to link TLR4 levels to chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:We used a multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNP) carrier to overcome doxorubicin (Dox) resistance in a multidrug resistant (MDR) human breast cancer xenograft by codelivering Dox and siRNA that targets the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) drug exporter. The Pgp siRNA selection from among a series of drug resistance targets was achieved by performing high throughput screening in a MDR breast cancer cell line, MCF-7/MDR. Following the establishment of a MCF-7/MDR xenograft model in nude mice, we demonstrated that a 50 nm MSNP, functionalized by a polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG) copolymer, provides protected delivery of stably bound Dox and Pgp siRNA to the tumor site. The effective biodistribution and reduced reticuloendothelial uptake, as a result of our nanocarrier design, allowed us to achieve an 8% enhanced permeability and retention effect at the tumor site. Compared to free Dox or the carrier loaded with either drug or siRNA alone, the dual delivery system resulted in synergistic inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Analysis of multiple xenograft biopsies demonstrated significant Pgp knockdown at heterogeneous tumor sites that correspond to the regions where Dox was released intracellularly and induced apoptosis. We emphasize that the heterogeneity originates in the tumor microenvironment, which influences the vascular access, rather than heterogeneous Pgp expression in the MDR cells. Taken together, these data provide proof-of-principle testing of the use of a dual drug/siRNA nanocarrier to overcome Dox resistance in a xenograft. The study also provides the first detailed analysis of the impact of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment on the efficacy of siRNA delivery in vivo.
Project description:Inhalation offers a means of rapid, local delivery of siRNA to treat a range of autoimmune or inflammatory respiratory conditions. This work investigated the potential of a linear 10 kDa Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) (PEI-LPEG) to effectively deliver siRNA to airway epithelial cells. Following optimization with anti- glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) siRNA, PEI and PEI-LPEG anti-IL8 siRNA nanoparticles were assessed for efficacy using polarised Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells and a twin stage impinger (TSI) in vitro lung model. Studies were then advanced to an in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rodent model of inflammation. In parallel, the suitability of the siRNA-loaded nanoparticles for nebulization using a vibrating mesh nebuliser was assessed. The siRNA nanoparticles were nebulised using an Aerogen® Pro vibrating mesh nebuliser and characterised for aerosol output, droplet size and fine particle fraction. Only PEI anti-IL8 siRNA nanoparticles were capable of significant levels of IL-8 knockdown in vitro in non-nebulised samples. However, on nebulization through a TSI, only PEI-PEG siRNA nanoparticles demonstrated significant decreases in gene and protein expression in polarised Calu-3 cells. In vivo, both anti-CXCL-1 (rat IL-8 homologue) nanoparticles demonstrated a decreased CXCL-1 gene expression in lung tissue, but this was non-significant. However, PEI anti-CXCL-1 siRNA-treated rats were found to have significantly less infiltrating macrophages in their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Overall, the in vivo gene and protein inhibition findings indicated a result more reminiscent of the in vitro bolus delivery rather than the in vitro nebulization data. This work demonstrates the potential of nebulised PEI-PEG siRNA nanoparticles in modulating pulmonary inflammation and highlights the need to move towards more relevant in vitro and in vivo models for respiratory drug development.
Project description:Combination therapy based on nano-sized drug delivery system has been developed as a promising strategy by combining two or more anti-tumor mechanisms. Here, we prepared liver-targeted nanoparticles (GH-DPP) composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-polyetherimide (DSPE-PEG-PEI) with Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified hyaluronic acid (GA-HA) for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and Bcl-2 siRNA. Particles size, zeta potential and morphology were determined for the drug-loaded GH-DPP nanoparticles (siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP). Cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity were analyzed against HepG2 cells. In vivo bio-distribution and anti-tumor therapeutic effects of siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP were evaluated in H22-bearing mice. The results showed that siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP nanoparticles were nearly spherical and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Compared to Glycyrrhetinic acid-free co-delivery system (siRNA/DOX/DPP) and GH-DPP nanoparticles for delivery of DOX or Bcl-2 siRNA alone, siRNA/DOX/GH-DPP nanoparticles could induce more cellular apoptosis, and showed higher anti-tumor effect. Herein GH-DPP nanoparticles could simultaneously deliver both chemotherapy drugs and siRNA into the tumor region, exhibiting great potential in anti-tumor therapy.
Project description:Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) protein is one of the major mechanisms for multiple drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. A new approach to overcome MDR is to use a co-delivery strategy that utilizes a siRNA to silence the expression of efflux transporter together with an appropriate anticancer drug for drug resistant cells. In this paper, we report that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) can be functionalized to effectively deliver a chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox) as well as Pgp siRNA to a drug-resistant cancer cell line (KB-V1 cells) to accomplish cell killing in an additive or synergistic fashion. The functionalization of the particle surface with a phosphonate group allows electrostatic binding of Dox to the porous interior, from where the drug could be released by acidification of the medium under abiotic and biotic conditions. In addition, phosphonate modification also allows exterior coating with the cationic polymer, polyethylenimine, which endows the MSNP to contemporaneously deliver Pgp siRNA. The dual delivery of Dox and siRNA in KB-V1 cells was capable of increasing the intracellular as well as intranuclear drug concentration to levels exceeding that of free Dox or the drug being delivered by MSNP in the absence of siRNA codelivery. These results demonstrate that it is possible to use the MSNP platform to effectively deliver a siRNA that knocks down gene expression of a drug exporter that can be used to improve drug sensitivity to a chemotherapeutic agent.
Project description:Gene therapy is emerging as a valid method for the treatment of ovarian cancer, including small interfering RNA (siRNA). Although it is so powerful, few targeting efficient gene delivery systems seriously hindered the development of gene therapy. In this study, we synthesized a novel gene vector PEG-GO-PEI-FA by functionalized graphene oxide (GO), in which folic acid (FA) can specifically bind to the folate receptor (FR), which is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Characterizations of the nanocomplexes were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The siRNA condensation ability and stability were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cellular uptake efficiency and lysosomal escape ability in ovarian cancer cells were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, cellular biosafety of the system and inhibitory of the siRNA tolerability were evaluated by CCK-8 assay. The size of the PEG-GO-PEI-FA nanocomplexes was 216.1 ± 2.457?nm, exhibiting mild cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells. With high uptake efficiency, PEG-GO-PEI-FA can escape from the lysosome rapidly and release the gene. Moreover, PEG-GO-PEI-FA/siRNA can effectively inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer cells. By and large, the PEG-GO-PEI-FA/siRNA may offer a promising strategy for siRNA delivery in the treatment of FR-positive ovarian carcinoma or similar tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Raltegravir (Isentress®)(RALT) has demonstrated excellent efficacy in both treatment-experienced and naïve patients with HIV-1 infection, and is the first strand transfer integrase inhibitor to be approved for use in HIV infected adults worldwide. Since the in vivo efficacy of this class of antiviral drugs depends on their access to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we analyzed the biological effects induced by RALT on human MDR cell systems expressing multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1-Pgp).<h4>Methods</h4>Our study about RALT was performed by using a set of consolidated methodologies suitable for evaluating the MDR1-Pgp substrate nature of chemical and biological agents, namely: i) assay of drug efflux function; ii) analysis of MDR reversing capability by using cell proliferation assays; iii) monoclonal antibody UIC2 (mAb) shift test, as a sensitive assay to analyze conformational transition associated with MDR1-Pgp function; and iv) induction of MDR1-Pgp expression in MDR cell variant subjected to RALT exposure.<h4>Results</h4>Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of RALT does not remarkably interfere with the efflux mechanism of CEM-VBL100 and HL60 MDR cells. Accordingly, cell proliferation assays clearly indicated that RALT does not revert MDR phenotype in human MDR1-Pgp expressing cells. Furthermore, exposure of CEM-VBL10 cells to RALT does not induce MDR1-Pgp functional conformation intercepted by monoclonal antibody (mAb) UIC2 binding; nor does exposure to RALT increase the expression of this drug transporter in MDR1-Pgp expressing cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>No evidence of RALT interaction with human MDR1-Pgp was observed in the in vitro MDR cell systems used in the present investigation, this incorporating all sets of studies recommended by the FDA guidelines. Taken in aggregate, these data suggest that RALT may express its curative potential in all sites were HIV-1 penetrates, including the MDR1-Pgp protected blood/tissue barrier. Moreover RALT, evading MDR1-Pgp drug efflux function, would not interfere with pharmacokinetic profiles of co-administered MDR1-Pgp substrate antiretroviral drugs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in treating osteosarcoma has improved patients' average 5 year survival rate from 20% to 70% in the past 30 years. However, for patients who progress after chemotherapy, its effectiveness diminishes due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) after prolonged therapy.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure resulting from MDR, we designed and evaluated a novel drug delivery system for MDR1 siRNA delivery. Novel biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles were used as the platform for MDR1 siRNA delivery; and the efficacy of combination therapy with this system was evaluated. In this study, multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS(R2) and U-2OS(R2)) were treated with the MDR1 siRNA nanocarriers and MDR1 protein (P-gp) expression, drug retention, and immunofluoresence were analyzed. Combination therapy of the MDR1 siRNA loaded nanocarriers with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin was also analyzed. We observed that MDR1 siRNA loaded dextran nanoparticles efficiently suppresses P-gp expression in the drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. The results also demonstrated that this approach may be capable of reversing drug resistance by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in MDR cell lines.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles are a promising platform for siRNA delivery. Nanocarriers loaded with MDR1 siRNA are a potential treatment strategy for reversing MDR in osteosarcoma.
Project description:Given the maturation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) techniques with nanotechnology, and because overexpression of human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is crucial for T cell inactivation and immunosuppression of the tumor microenvironment, application of siRNA-PD-L1 has demonstrated positive progress in preclinical studies; however, the limited penetration of this compound into solid tumors remains a challenge. To decrease PD-L1 expression and increase the penetration efficacy of solid tumors, we synthesized a novel tumor-microenvironment-sensitive delivery polymer by conjugating hyaluronic acid (HA) to polyethyleneimine (PEI), with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-sensitive peptide acting as the linker (HA-P-PEI), for use in delivery of PD-L1-siRNA. Concurrent synthesis of a linker-less HA-PEI compound allowed confirmation that negatively charged siRNA can be complexed onto the positively charged HA-PEI and HA-P-PEI compounds to form nanoparticles with the same particle size and uniform distribution with serum stability. We found that the size of the HA-P-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles decreased to <10 nm upon addition of MMP-2, and that H1975 cells overexpressing CD44, PD-L1, and MMP-2 aided confirmation of the delivery efficacy of the HA-P-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes. Additionally, the use of HA-P-PEI caused less cytotoxicity than PEI alone, demonstrating its high cellular uptake. Moreover, pretreatment with MMP-2 increased nanocomplex tumor permeability, and western blot showed that HA-P-PEI/PD-L1-siRNA efficiently downregulated the PD-L1 expression in H1975 cells. These results demonstrated a novel approach for siRNA delivery and tumor penetration for future clinical applications in cancer treatment.